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Commons Codec example source code file (URLCodec.java)

This example Commons Codec source code file (URLCodec.java) is included in the DevDaily.com "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM.

Java - Commons Codec tags/keywords

bitset, bytearrayoutputstream, bytearrayoutputstream, decoderexception, decoderexception, encoderexception, io, radix, string, string, unsupportedencodingexception, unsupportedencodingexception, url, urlcodec, util, www_form_url

The Commons Codec URLCodec.java source code

/*
 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
 * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 * 
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 * 
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package org.apache.commons.codec.net;

import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
import java.util.BitSet;

import org.apache.commons.codec.BinaryDecoder;
import org.apache.commons.codec.BinaryEncoder;
import org.apache.commons.codec.DecoderException;
import org.apache.commons.codec.EncoderException;
import org.apache.commons.codec.CharEncoding;
import org.apache.commons.codec.StringDecoder;
import org.apache.commons.codec.StringEncoder;
import org.apache.commons.codec.binary.StringUtils;

/**
 * <p>Implements the 'www-form-urlencoded' encoding scheme, 
 * also misleadingly known as URL encoding.</p>
 *  
 * <p>For more detailed information please refer to 
 * <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#h-17.13.4.1">
 * Chapter 17.13.4 'Form content types'</a> of the 
 * <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/">HTML 4.01 Specification

* * <p> * This codec is meant to be a replacement for standard Java classes * {@link java.net.URLEncoder} and {@link java.net.URLDecoder} * on older Java platforms, as these classes in Java versions below * 1.4 rely on the platform's default charset encoding. * </p> * * @author Apache Software Foundation * @since 1.2 * @version $Id: URLCodec.java 798416 2009-07-28 06:35:58Z ggregory $ */ public class URLCodec implements BinaryEncoder, BinaryDecoder, StringEncoder, StringDecoder { /** * Radix used in encoding and decoding. */ static final int RADIX = 16; /** * The default charset used for string decoding and encoding. Consider this field final. The next major release may * break compatibility and make this field be final. */ protected String charset; /** * Consider this field final. The next major release may break compatibility and make this field be final. */ protected static byte ESCAPE_CHAR = '%'; /** * BitSet of www-form-url safe characters. */ protected static final BitSet WWW_FORM_URL = new BitSet(256); // Static initializer for www_form_url static { // alpha characters for (int i = 'a'; i <= 'z'; i++) { WWW_FORM_URL.set(i); } for (int i = 'A'; i <= 'Z'; i++) { WWW_FORM_URL.set(i); } // numeric characters for (int i = '0'; i <= '9'; i++) { WWW_FORM_URL.set(i); } // special chars WWW_FORM_URL.set('-'); WWW_FORM_URL.set('_'); WWW_FORM_URL.set('.'); WWW_FORM_URL.set('*'); // blank to be replaced with + WWW_FORM_URL.set(' '); } /** * Default constructor. */ public URLCodec() { this(CharEncoding.UTF_8); } /** * Constructor which allows for the selection of a default charset * * @param charset the default string charset to use. */ public URLCodec(String charset) { super(); this.charset = charset; } /** * Encodes an array of bytes into an array of URL safe 7-bit characters. Unsafe characters are escaped. * * @param urlsafe * bitset of characters deemed URL safe * @param bytes * array of bytes to convert to URL safe characters * @return array of bytes containing URL safe characters */ public static final byte[] encodeUrl(BitSet urlsafe, byte[] bytes) { if (bytes == null) { return null; } if (urlsafe == null) { urlsafe = WWW_FORM_URL; } ByteArrayOutputStream buffer = new ByteArrayOutputStream(); for (int i = 0; i < bytes.length; i++) { int b = bytes[i]; if (b < 0) { b = 256 + b; } if (urlsafe.get(b)) { if (b == ' ') { b = '+'; } buffer.write(b); } else { buffer.write(ESCAPE_CHAR); char hex1 = Character.toUpperCase(Character.forDigit((b >> 4) & 0xF, RADIX)); char hex2 = Character.toUpperCase(Character.forDigit(b & 0xF, RADIX)); buffer.write(hex1); buffer.write(hex2); } } return buffer.toByteArray(); } /** * Decodes an array of URL safe 7-bit characters into an array of * original bytes. Escaped characters are converted back to their * original representation. * * @param bytes array of URL safe characters * @return array of original bytes * @throws DecoderException Thrown if URL decoding is unsuccessful */ public static final byte[] decodeUrl(byte[] bytes) throws DecoderException { if (bytes == null) { return null; } ByteArrayOutputStream buffer = new ByteArrayOutputStream(); for (int i = 0; i < bytes.length; i++) { int b = bytes[i]; if (b == '+') { buffer.write(' '); } else if (b == ESCAPE_CHAR) { try { int u = Utils.digit16(bytes[++i]); int l = Utils.digit16(bytes[++i]); buffer.write((char) ((u << 4) + l)); } catch (ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e) { throw new DecoderException("Invalid URL encoding: ", e); } } else { buffer.write(b); } } return buffer.toByteArray(); } /** * Encodes an array of bytes into an array of URL safe 7-bit * characters. Unsafe characters are escaped. * * @param bytes array of bytes to convert to URL safe characters * @return array of bytes containing URL safe characters */ public byte[] encode(byte[] bytes) { return encodeUrl(WWW_FORM_URL, bytes); } /** * Decodes an array of URL safe 7-bit characters into an array of * original bytes. Escaped characters are converted back to their * original representation. * * @param bytes array of URL safe characters * @return array of original bytes * @throws DecoderException Thrown if URL decoding is unsuccessful */ public byte[] decode(byte[] bytes) throws DecoderException { return decodeUrl(bytes); } /** * Encodes a string into its URL safe form using the specified string charset. Unsafe characters are escaped. * * @param pString * string to convert to a URL safe form * @param charset * the charset for pString * @return URL safe string * @throws UnsupportedEncodingException * Thrown if charset is not supported */ public String encode(String pString, String charset) throws UnsupportedEncodingException { if (pString == null) { return null; } return StringUtils.newStringUsAscii(encode(pString.getBytes(charset))); } /** * Encodes a string into its URL safe form using the default string * charset. Unsafe characters are escaped. * * @param pString string to convert to a URL safe form * @return URL safe string * @throws EncoderException Thrown if URL encoding is unsuccessful * * @see #getDefaultCharset() */ public String encode(String pString) throws EncoderException { if (pString == null) { return null; } try { return encode(pString, getDefaultCharset()); } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) { throw new EncoderException(e.getMessage(), e); } } /** * Decodes a URL safe string into its original form using the * specified encoding. Escaped characters are converted back * to their original representation. * * @param pString URL safe string to convert into its original form * @param charset the original string charset * @return original string * @throws DecoderException Thrown if URL decoding is unsuccessful * @throws UnsupportedEncodingException Thrown if charset is not * supported */ public String decode(String pString, String charset) throws DecoderException, UnsupportedEncodingException { if (pString == null) { return null; } return new String(decode(StringUtils.getBytesUsAscii(pString)), charset); } /** * Decodes a URL safe string into its original form using the default * string charset. Escaped characters are converted back to their * original representation. * * @param pString URL safe string to convert into its original form * @return original string * @throws DecoderException Thrown if URL decoding is unsuccessful * * @see #getDefaultCharset() */ public String decode(String pString) throws DecoderException { if (pString == null) { return null; } try { return decode(pString, getDefaultCharset()); } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) { throw new DecoderException(e.getMessage(), e); } } /** * Encodes an object into its URL safe form. Unsafe characters are * escaped. * * @param pObject string to convert to a URL safe form * @return URL safe object * @throws EncoderException Thrown if URL encoding is not * applicable to objects of this type or * if encoding is unsuccessful */ public Object encode(Object pObject) throws EncoderException { if (pObject == null) { return null; } else if (pObject instanceof byte[]) { return encode((byte[])pObject); } else if (pObject instanceof String) { return encode((String)pObject); } else { throw new EncoderException("Objects of type " + pObject.getClass().getName() + " cannot be URL encoded"); } } /** * Decodes a URL safe object into its original form. Escaped characters are converted back to their original * representation. * * @param pObject * URL safe object to convert into its original form * @return original object * @throws DecoderException * Thrown if the argument is not a <code>String or byte[]. Thrown if a failure condition is * encountered during the decode process. */ public Object decode(Object pObject) throws DecoderException { if (pObject == null) { return null; } else if (pObject instanceof byte[]) { return decode((byte[]) pObject); } else if (pObject instanceof String) { return decode((String) pObject); } else { throw new DecoderException("Objects of type " + pObject.getClass().getName() + " cannot be URL decoded"); } } /** * The <code>String encoding used for decoding and encoding. * * @return Returns the encoding. * * @deprecated use #getDefaultCharset() */ public String getEncoding() { return this.charset; } /** * The default charset used for string decoding and encoding. * * @return the default string charset. */ public String getDefaultCharset() { return this.charset; } }

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