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The overview.xml Java example source code<?xml version="1.0"?>
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<?xmlstylesheet type="text/xsl" href="./xdoc.xsl"?>
<document>
<properties>
<title>User Guide  Overview
</properties>
<body>
<section name="Overview">
<subsection name="0.1 About The User Guide" href="about">
<p>
This guide is intended to help programmers quickly find what they need to develop
solutions using Commons Math. It also provides a supplement to the javadoc API documentation,
providing a little more explanation of the mathematical objects and functions included
in the package.
</p>
</subsection>
<subsection name="0.2 What's in commonsmath" href="summary">
<p>
Commons Math is made up of a small set of math/stat utilities addressing
programming problems like the ones in the list below. This list is not exhaustive,
it's just meant to give a feel for the kinds of things that Commons Math provides.
<ul>
<li>Computing means, variances and other summary statistics for a list of numbers
<li>Fitting a line to a set of data points using linear regression
<li>Fitting a curve to a set of data points
<li>Finding a smooth curve that passes through a collection of points (interpolation)
<li>Fitting a parametric model to a set of measurements using leastsquares methods
<li>Solving equations involving realvalued functions (i.e. rootfinding)
<li>Solving systems of linear equations
<li>Solving Ordinary Differential Equations
<li>Minimizing multidimensional functions
<li>Generating random numbers with more restrictions (e.g distribution, range) than what
is possible using the JDK</li>
<li>Generating random samples and/or datasets that are "like" the data in an input file
<li>Performing statistical significance tests
<li>Miscellaneous mathematical functions such as factorials, binomial
coefficients and "special functions" (e.g. gamma, beta functions)</li>
</ul>
<p>
We are actively seeking ideas for additional components that fit into the
<a href="../index.html#summary">Commons Math vision of a set of lightweight,
selfcontained math/stat components useful for solving common programming problems.
Suggestions for new components or enhancements to existing functionality are always welcome!
All feedback/suggestions for improvement should be sent to the
<a href="http://commons.apache.org/maillists.html">commonsdev mailing list with
[math] at the beginning of the subject line.
</p>
</subsection>
<subsection name="0.3 How commonsmath is organized" href="organization">
<p>
Commons Math is divided into sixteen subpackages, based on functionality provided.
<ul>
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.stat  statistics, statistical tests
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.analysis  rootfinding, integration, interpolation, polynomials
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.random  random numbers, strings and data generation
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.special  special functions (Gamma, Beta)
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.linear  matrices, solving linear systems
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.util  common math/stat functions extending java.lang.Math
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.complex  complex numbers
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.distribution  probability distributions
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.fraction  rational numbers
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.transform  transform methods (Fast Fourier)
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.geometry  geometry (Euclidean spaces and Binary Space Partitioning)
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.optim  function maximization or minimization
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.ode  Ordinary Differential Equations integration
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.genetics  Genetic Algorithms
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.fitting  Curve Fitting
<li>org.apache.commons.math3.ml  Machine Learning
</ul>
Package javadocs are <a href="../apidocs/index.html">here
</p>
</subsection>
<subsection name="0.4 How interface contracts are specified in commonsmath javadoc" href="contracts">
<p>
You should always read the javadoc class and method comments carefully when using
Commons Math components in your programs. The javadoc provides references to the algorithms
that are used, usage notes about limitations, performance, etc. as well as interface contracts.
Interface contracts are specified in terms of preconditions (what has to be true in order
for the method to return valid results), special values returned (e.g. Double.NaN)
or exceptions that may be thrown if the preconditions are not met, and definitions for returned
values/objects or state changes.</p>
<p>
When the actual parameters provided to a method or the internal state of an object
make a computation meaningless, a
<a href="../apidocs/org/apache/commons/math3/exception/MathIllegalArgumentException.html">
MathIllegalArgumentException</a> or
<a href="../apidocs/org/apache/commons/math3/exception/MathIllegalStateException.html">
MathIllegalStateException</a> may be thrown. Exact conditions under which runtime
exceptions (and any other exceptions) are thrown are specified in the javadoc method
comments.
In some cases, to be consistent with the <a href="http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/754/">
IEEE 754 standard</a> for floating point arithmetic and with java.lang.Math, Commons Math
methods return <code>Double.NaN values. Conditions under which
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