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Java example source code file (FractionTest.java)

This example Java source code file (FractionTest.java) is included in the alvinalexander.com "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM.

Learn more about this Java project at its project page.

Java - Java tags/keywords

convergenceexception, fraction, fractionconversionexception, fractiontest, matharithmeticexception, mathillegalargumentexception, suppresswarnings, test

The FractionTest.java Java example source code

/*
 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
 * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */
package org.apache.commons.math3.fraction;

import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.ConvergenceException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.MathIllegalArgumentException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.MathArithmeticException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.TestUtils;
import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
import org.junit.Assert;
import org.junit.Test;


/**
 */
public class FractionTest {

    private void assertFraction(int expectedNumerator, int expectedDenominator, Fraction actual) {
        Assert.assertEquals(expectedNumerator, actual.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(expectedDenominator, actual.getDenominator());
    }

    @Test
    public void testConstructor() {
        assertFraction(0, 1, new Fraction(0, 1));
        assertFraction(0, 1, new Fraction(0, 2));
        assertFraction(0, 1, new Fraction(0, -1));
        assertFraction(1, 2, new Fraction(1, 2));
        assertFraction(1, 2, new Fraction(2, 4));
        assertFraction(-1, 2, new Fraction(-1, 2));
        assertFraction(-1, 2, new Fraction(1, -2));
        assertFraction(-1, 2, new Fraction(-2, 4));
        assertFraction(-1, 2, new Fraction(2, -4));

        // overflow
        try {
            new Fraction(Integer.MIN_VALUE, -1);
            Assert.fail();
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {
            // success
        }
        try {
            new Fraction(1, Integer.MIN_VALUE);
            Assert.fail();
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {
            // success
        }

        assertFraction(0, 1, new Fraction(0.00000000000001));
        assertFraction(2, 5, new Fraction(0.40000000000001));
        assertFraction(15, 1, new Fraction(15.0000000000001));
    }

    @Test(expected=ConvergenceException.class)
    public void testGoldenRatio() {
        // the golden ratio is notoriously a difficult number for continuous fraction
        new Fraction((1 + FastMath.sqrt(5)) / 2, 1.0e-12, 25);
    }

    // MATH-179
    @Test
    public void testDoubleConstructor() throws ConvergenceException  {
        assertFraction(1, 2, new Fraction((double)1 / (double)2));
        assertFraction(1, 3, new Fraction((double)1 / (double)3));
        assertFraction(2, 3, new Fraction((double)2 / (double)3));
        assertFraction(1, 4, new Fraction((double)1 / (double)4));
        assertFraction(3, 4, new Fraction((double)3 / (double)4));
        assertFraction(1, 5, new Fraction((double)1 / (double)5));
        assertFraction(2, 5, new Fraction((double)2 / (double)5));
        assertFraction(3, 5, new Fraction((double)3 / (double)5));
        assertFraction(4, 5, new Fraction((double)4 / (double)5));
        assertFraction(1, 6, new Fraction((double)1 / (double)6));
        assertFraction(5, 6, new Fraction((double)5 / (double)6));
        assertFraction(1, 7, new Fraction((double)1 / (double)7));
        assertFraction(2, 7, new Fraction((double)2 / (double)7));
        assertFraction(3, 7, new Fraction((double)3 / (double)7));
        assertFraction(4, 7, new Fraction((double)4 / (double)7));
        assertFraction(5, 7, new Fraction((double)5 / (double)7));
        assertFraction(6, 7, new Fraction((double)6 / (double)7));
        assertFraction(1, 8, new Fraction((double)1 / (double)8));
        assertFraction(3, 8, new Fraction((double)3 / (double)8));
        assertFraction(5, 8, new Fraction((double)5 / (double)8));
        assertFraction(7, 8, new Fraction((double)7 / (double)8));
        assertFraction(1, 9, new Fraction((double)1 / (double)9));
        assertFraction(2, 9, new Fraction((double)2 / (double)9));
        assertFraction(4, 9, new Fraction((double)4 / (double)9));
        assertFraction(5, 9, new Fraction((double)5 / (double)9));
        assertFraction(7, 9, new Fraction((double)7 / (double)9));
        assertFraction(8, 9, new Fraction((double)8 / (double)9));
        assertFraction(1, 10, new Fraction((double)1 / (double)10));
        assertFraction(3, 10, new Fraction((double)3 / (double)10));
        assertFraction(7, 10, new Fraction((double)7 / (double)10));
        assertFraction(9, 10, new Fraction((double)9 / (double)10));
        assertFraction(1, 11, new Fraction((double)1 / (double)11));
        assertFraction(2, 11, new Fraction((double)2 / (double)11));
        assertFraction(3, 11, new Fraction((double)3 / (double)11));
        assertFraction(4, 11, new Fraction((double)4 / (double)11));
        assertFraction(5, 11, new Fraction((double)5 / (double)11));
        assertFraction(6, 11, new Fraction((double)6 / (double)11));
        assertFraction(7, 11, new Fraction((double)7 / (double)11));
        assertFraction(8, 11, new Fraction((double)8 / (double)11));
        assertFraction(9, 11, new Fraction((double)9 / (double)11));
        assertFraction(10, 11, new Fraction((double)10 / (double)11));
    }

    // MATH-181
    @Test
    public void testDigitLimitConstructor() throws ConvergenceException  {
        assertFraction(2, 5, new Fraction(0.4,   9));
        assertFraction(2, 5, new Fraction(0.4,  99));
        assertFraction(2, 5, new Fraction(0.4, 999));

        assertFraction(3, 5,      new Fraction(0.6152,    9));
        assertFraction(8, 13,     new Fraction(0.6152,   99));
        assertFraction(510, 829,  new Fraction(0.6152,  999));
        assertFraction(769, 1250, new Fraction(0.6152, 9999));

        // MATH-996
        assertFraction(1, 2, new Fraction(0.5000000001, 10));
    }

    @Test
    public void testIntegerOverflow() {
        checkIntegerOverflow(0.75000000001455192);
        checkIntegerOverflow(1.0e10);
        checkIntegerOverflow(-1.0e10);
        checkIntegerOverflow(-43979.60679604749);
    }

    private void checkIntegerOverflow(double a) {
        try {
            @SuppressWarnings("unused")
            Fraction f = new Fraction(a, 1.0e-12, 1000);
            //System.out.println(f.getNumerator() + "/" + f.getDenominator());
            Assert.fail("an exception should have been thrown");
        } catch (ConvergenceException ce) {
            // expected behavior
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testEpsilonLimitConstructor() throws ConvergenceException  {
        assertFraction(2, 5, new Fraction(0.4, 1.0e-5, 100));

        assertFraction(3, 5,      new Fraction(0.6152, 0.02, 100));
        assertFraction(8, 13,     new Fraction(0.6152, 1.0e-3, 100));
        assertFraction(251, 408,  new Fraction(0.6152, 1.0e-4, 100));
        assertFraction(251, 408,  new Fraction(0.6152, 1.0e-5, 100));
        assertFraction(510, 829,  new Fraction(0.6152, 1.0e-6, 100));
        assertFraction(769, 1250, new Fraction(0.6152, 1.0e-7, 100));
    }

    @Test
    public void testCompareTo() {
        Fraction first = new Fraction(1, 2);
        Fraction second = new Fraction(1, 3);
        Fraction third = new Fraction(1, 2);

        Assert.assertEquals(0, first.compareTo(first));
        Assert.assertEquals(0, first.compareTo(third));
        Assert.assertEquals(1, first.compareTo(second));
        Assert.assertEquals(-1, second.compareTo(first));

        // these two values are different approximations of PI
        // the first  one is approximately PI - 3.07e-18
        // the second one is approximately PI + 1.936e-17
        Fraction pi1 = new Fraction(1068966896, 340262731);
        Fraction pi2 = new Fraction( 411557987, 131002976);
        Assert.assertEquals(-1, pi1.compareTo(pi2));
        Assert.assertEquals( 1, pi2.compareTo(pi1));
        Assert.assertEquals(0.0, pi1.doubleValue() - pi2.doubleValue(), 1.0e-20);
    }

    @Test
    public void testDoubleValue() {
        Fraction first = new Fraction(1, 2);
        Fraction second = new Fraction(1, 3);

        Assert.assertEquals(0.5, first.doubleValue(), 0.0);
        Assert.assertEquals(1.0 / 3.0, second.doubleValue(), 0.0);
    }

    @Test
    public void testFloatValue() {
        Fraction first = new Fraction(1, 2);
        Fraction second = new Fraction(1, 3);

        Assert.assertEquals(0.5f, first.floatValue(), 0.0f);
        Assert.assertEquals((float)(1.0 / 3.0), second.floatValue(), 0.0f);
    }

    @Test
    public void testIntValue() {
        Fraction first = new Fraction(1, 2);
        Fraction second = new Fraction(3, 2);

        Assert.assertEquals(0, first.intValue());
        Assert.assertEquals(1, second.intValue());
    }

    @Test
    public void testLongValue() {
        Fraction first = new Fraction(1, 2);
        Fraction second = new Fraction(3, 2);

        Assert.assertEquals(0L, first.longValue());
        Assert.assertEquals(1L, second.longValue());
    }

    @Test
    public void testConstructorDouble() {
        assertFraction(1, 2, new Fraction(0.5));
        assertFraction(1, 3, new Fraction(1.0 / 3.0));
        assertFraction(17, 100, new Fraction(17.0 / 100.0));
        assertFraction(317, 100, new Fraction(317.0 / 100.0));
        assertFraction(-1, 2, new Fraction(-0.5));
        assertFraction(-1, 3, new Fraction(-1.0 / 3.0));
        assertFraction(-17, 100, new Fraction(17.0 / -100.0));
        assertFraction(-317, 100, new Fraction(-317.0 / 100.0));
    }

    @Test
    public void testAbs() {
        Fraction a = new Fraction(10, 21);
        Fraction b = new Fraction(-10, 21);
        Fraction c = new Fraction(10, -21);

        assertFraction(10, 21, a.abs());
        assertFraction(10, 21, b.abs());
        assertFraction(10, 21, c.abs());
    }

    @Test
    public void testPercentage() {
        Assert.assertEquals(50.0, new Fraction(1, 2).percentageValue(), 1.0e-15);
    }

    @Test
    public void testMath835() {
        final int numer = Integer.MAX_VALUE / 99;
        final int denom = 1;
        final double percentage = 100 * ((double) numer) / denom;
        final Fraction frac = new Fraction(numer, denom);
        // With the implementation that preceded the fix suggested in MATH-835,
        // this test was failing, due to overflow.
        Assert.assertEquals(percentage, frac.percentageValue(), Math.ulp(percentage));
    }

    @Test
    public void testMath1261() {
        final Fraction a = new Fraction(Integer.MAX_VALUE, 2);
        final Fraction b = a.multiply(2);
        Assert.assertTrue(b.equals(new Fraction(Integer.MAX_VALUE)));

        final Fraction c = new Fraction(2, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
        final Fraction d = c.divide(2);
        Assert.assertTrue(d.equals(new Fraction(1, Integer.MAX_VALUE)));
    }

    @Test
    public void testReciprocal() {
        Fraction f = null;

        f = new Fraction(50, 75);
        f = f.reciprocal();
        Assert.assertEquals(3, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(2, f.getDenominator());

        f = new Fraction(4, 3);
        f = f.reciprocal();
        Assert.assertEquals(3, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(4, f.getDenominator());

        f = new Fraction(-15, 47);
        f = f.reciprocal();
        Assert.assertEquals(-47, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(15, f.getDenominator());

        f = new Fraction(0, 3);
        try {
            f = f.reciprocal();
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        // large values
        f = new Fraction(Integer.MAX_VALUE, 1);
        f = f.reciprocal();
        Assert.assertEquals(1, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MAX_VALUE, f.getDenominator());
    }

    @Test
    public void testNegate() {
        Fraction f = null;

        f = new Fraction(50, 75);
        f = f.negate();
        Assert.assertEquals(-2, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(3, f.getDenominator());

        f = new Fraction(-50, 75);
        f = f.negate();
        Assert.assertEquals(2, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(3, f.getDenominator());

        // large values
        f = new Fraction(Integer.MAX_VALUE-1, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
        f = f.negate();
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MIN_VALUE+2, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MAX_VALUE, f.getDenominator());

        f = new Fraction(Integer.MIN_VALUE, 1);
        try {
            f = f.negate();
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}
    }

    @Test
    public void testAdd() {
        Fraction a = new Fraction(1, 2);
        Fraction b = new Fraction(2, 3);

        assertFraction(1, 1, a.add(a));
        assertFraction(7, 6, a.add(b));
        assertFraction(7, 6, b.add(a));
        assertFraction(4, 3, b.add(b));

        Fraction f1 = new Fraction(Integer.MAX_VALUE - 1, 1);
        Fraction f2 = Fraction.ONE;
        Fraction f = f1.add(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MAX_VALUE, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(1, f.getDenominator());
        f = f1.add(1);
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MAX_VALUE, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(1, f.getDenominator());

        f1 = new Fraction(-1, 13*13*2*2);
        f2 = new Fraction(-2, 13*17*2);
        f = f1.add(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(13*13*17*2*2, f.getDenominator());
        Assert.assertEquals(-17 - 2*13*2, f.getNumerator());

        try {
            f.add(null);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathIllegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException ex) {}

        // if this fraction is added naively, it will overflow.
        // check that it doesn't.
        f1 = new Fraction(1,32768*3);
        f2 = new Fraction(1,59049);
        f = f1.add(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(52451, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(1934917632, f.getDenominator());

        f1 = new Fraction(Integer.MIN_VALUE, 3);
        f2 = new Fraction(1,3);
        f = f1.add(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MIN_VALUE+1, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(3, f.getDenominator());

        f1 = new Fraction(Integer.MAX_VALUE - 1, 1);
        f2 = Fraction.ONE;
        f = f1.add(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MAX_VALUE, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(1, f.getDenominator());

        try {
            f = f.add(Fraction.ONE); // should overflow
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException but got: " + f.toString());
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        // denominator should not be a multiple of 2 or 3 to trigger overflow
        f1 = new Fraction(Integer.MIN_VALUE, 5);
        f2 = new Fraction(-1,5);
        try {
            f = f1.add(f2); // should overflow
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException but got: " + f.toString());
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        try {
            f= new Fraction(-Integer.MAX_VALUE, 1);
            f = f.add(f);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        try {
            f= new Fraction(-Integer.MAX_VALUE, 1);
            f = f.add(f);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        f1 = new Fraction(3,327680);
        f2 = new Fraction(2,59049);
        try {
            f = f1.add(f2); // should overflow
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException but got: " + f.toString());
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}
    }

    @Test
    public void testDivide() {
        Fraction a = new Fraction(1, 2);
        Fraction b = new Fraction(2, 3);

        assertFraction(1, 1, a.divide(a));
        assertFraction(3, 4, a.divide(b));
        assertFraction(4, 3, b.divide(a));
        assertFraction(1, 1, b.divide(b));

        Fraction f1 = new Fraction(3, 5);
        Fraction f2 = Fraction.ZERO;
        try {
            f1.divide(f2);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        f1 = new Fraction(0, 5);
        f2 = new Fraction(2, 7);
        Fraction f = f1.divide(f2);
        Assert.assertSame(Fraction.ZERO, f);

        f1 = new Fraction(2, 7);
        f2 = Fraction.ONE;
        f = f1.divide(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(2, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(7, f.getDenominator());

        f1 = new Fraction(1, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
        f = f1.divide(f1);
        Assert.assertEquals(1, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(1, f.getDenominator());

        f1 = new Fraction(Integer.MIN_VALUE, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
        f2 = new Fraction(1, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
        f = f1.divide(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MIN_VALUE, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(1, f.getDenominator());

        try {
            f.divide(null);
            Assert.fail("MathIllegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException ex) {}

        try {
            f1 = new Fraction(1, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
            f = f1.divide(f1.reciprocal());  // should overflow
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}
        try {
            f1 = new Fraction(1, -Integer.MAX_VALUE);
            f = f1.divide(f1.reciprocal());  // should overflow
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        f1 = new Fraction(6, 35);
        f  = f1.divide(15);
        Assert.assertEquals(2, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(175, f.getDenominator());

    }

    @Test
    public void testMultiply() {
        Fraction a = new Fraction(1, 2);
        Fraction b = new Fraction(2, 3);

        assertFraction(1, 4, a.multiply(a));
        assertFraction(1, 3, a.multiply(b));
        assertFraction(1, 3, b.multiply(a));
        assertFraction(4, 9, b.multiply(b));

        Fraction f1 = new Fraction(Integer.MAX_VALUE, 1);
        Fraction f2 = new Fraction(Integer.MIN_VALUE, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
        Fraction f = f1.multiply(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MIN_VALUE, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(1, f.getDenominator());

        try {
            f.multiply(null);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathIllegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException ex) {}

        f1 = new Fraction(6, 35);
        f  = f1.multiply(15);
        Assert.assertEquals(18, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(7, f.getDenominator());
    }

    @Test
    public void testSubtract() {
        Fraction a = new Fraction(1, 2);
        Fraction b = new Fraction(2, 3);

        assertFraction(0, 1, a.subtract(a));
        assertFraction(-1, 6, a.subtract(b));
        assertFraction(1, 6, b.subtract(a));
        assertFraction(0, 1, b.subtract(b));

        Fraction f = new Fraction(1,1);
        try {
            f.subtract(null);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathIllegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException ex) {}

        // if this fraction is subtracted naively, it will overflow.
        // check that it doesn't.
        Fraction f1 = new Fraction(1,32768*3);
        Fraction f2 = new Fraction(1,59049);
        f = f1.subtract(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(-13085, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(1934917632, f.getDenominator());

        f1 = new Fraction(Integer.MIN_VALUE, 3);
        f2 = new Fraction(1,3).negate();
        f = f1.subtract(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MIN_VALUE+1, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(3, f.getDenominator());

        f1 = new Fraction(Integer.MAX_VALUE, 1);
        f2 = Fraction.ONE;
        f = f1.subtract(f2);
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MAX_VALUE-1, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(1, f.getDenominator());
        f = f1.subtract(1);
        Assert.assertEquals(Integer.MAX_VALUE-1, f.getNumerator());
        Assert.assertEquals(1, f.getDenominator());

        try {
            f1 = new Fraction(1, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
            f2 = new Fraction(1, Integer.MAX_VALUE - 1);
            f = f1.subtract(f2);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");  //should overflow
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        // denominator should not be a multiple of 2 or 3 to trigger overflow
        f1 = new Fraction(Integer.MIN_VALUE, 5);
        f2 = new Fraction(1,5);
        try {
            f = f1.subtract(f2); // should overflow
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException but got: " + f.toString());
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        try {
            f= new Fraction(Integer.MIN_VALUE, 1);
            f = f.subtract(Fraction.ONE);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        try {
            f= new Fraction(Integer.MAX_VALUE, 1);
            f = f.subtract(Fraction.ONE.negate());
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}

        f1 = new Fraction(3,327680);
        f2 = new Fraction(2,59049);
        try {
            f = f1.subtract(f2); // should overflow
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException but got: " + f.toString());
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {}
    }

    @Test
    public void testEqualsAndHashCode() {
        Fraction zero  = new Fraction(0,1);
        Fraction nullFraction = null;
        Assert.assertTrue( zero.equals(zero));
        Assert.assertFalse(zero.equals(nullFraction));
        Assert.assertFalse(zero.equals(Double.valueOf(0)));
        Fraction zero2 = new Fraction(0,2);
        Assert.assertTrue(zero.equals(zero2));
        Assert.assertEquals(zero.hashCode(), zero2.hashCode());
        Fraction one = new Fraction(1,1);
        Assert.assertFalse((one.equals(zero) ||zero.equals(one)));
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetReducedFraction() {
        Fraction threeFourths = new Fraction(3, 4);
        Assert.assertTrue(threeFourths.equals(Fraction.getReducedFraction(6, 8)));
        Assert.assertTrue(Fraction.ZERO.equals(Fraction.getReducedFraction(0, -1)));
        try {
            Fraction.getReducedFraction(1, 0);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathArithmeticException");
        } catch (MathArithmeticException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        Assert.assertEquals(Fraction.getReducedFraction
                (2, Integer.MIN_VALUE).getNumerator(),-1);
        Assert.assertEquals(Fraction.getReducedFraction
                (1, -1).getNumerator(), -1);
    }

    @Test
    public void testToString() {
        Assert.assertEquals("0", new Fraction(0, 3).toString());
        Assert.assertEquals("3", new Fraction(6, 2).toString());
        Assert.assertEquals("2 / 3", new Fraction(18, 27).toString());
    }

    @Test
    public void testSerial() throws FractionConversionException {
        Fraction[] fractions = {
            new Fraction(3, 4), Fraction.ONE, Fraction.ZERO,
            new Fraction(17), new Fraction(FastMath.PI, 1000),
            new Fraction(-5, 2)
        };
        for (Fraction fraction : fractions) {
            Assert.assertEquals(fraction, TestUtils.serializeAndRecover(fraction));
        }
    }

}

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