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Java example source code file (BlockRealMatrixTest.java)

This example Java source code file (BlockRealMatrixTest.java) is included in the alvinalexander.com "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM.

Learn more about this Java project at its project page.

Java - Java tags/keywords

arrayrealvector, blockrealmatrix, expecting, getvisitor, mathillegalargumentexception, matrixdimensionmismatchexception, nodataexception, numberistoosmallexception, outofrangeexception, random, realmatrix, realvector, setvisitor, test, util

The BlockRealMatrixTest.java Java example source code

/*
 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
 * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */
package org.apache.commons.math3.linear;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Random;

import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.Assert;

import org.apache.commons.math3.TestUtils;
import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.NullArgumentException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.OutOfRangeException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.NoDataException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.NumberIsTooSmallException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.MathIllegalArgumentException;

/**
 * Test cases for the {@link BlockRealMatrix} class.
 *
 */

public final class BlockRealMatrixTest {

    // 3 x 3 identity matrix
    protected double[][] id = { {1d,0d,0d}, {0d,1d,0d}, {0d,0d,1d} };

    // Test data for group operations
    protected double[][] testData = { {1d,2d,3d}, {2d,5d,3d}, {1d,0d,8d} };
    protected double[][] testDataLU = {{2d, 5d, 3d}, {.5d, -2.5d, 6.5d}, {0.5d, 0.2d, .2d}};
    protected double[][] testDataPlus2 = { {3d,4d,5d}, {4d,7d,5d}, {3d,2d,10d} };
    protected double[][] testDataMinus = { {-1d,-2d,-3d}, {-2d,-5d,-3d},
       {-1d,0d,-8d} };
    protected double[] testDataRow1 = {1d,2d,3d};
    protected double[] testDataCol3 = {3d,3d,8d};
    protected double[][] testDataInv =
        { {-40d,16d,9d}, {13d,-5d,-3d}, {5d,-2d,-1d} };
    protected double[] preMultTest = {8,12,33};
    protected double[][] testData2 ={ {1d,2d,3d}, {2d,5d,3d}};
    protected double[][] testData2T = { {1d,2d}, {2d,5d}, {3d,3d}};
    protected double[][] testDataPlusInv =
        { {-39d,18d,12d}, {15d,0d,0d}, {6d,-2d,7d} };

    // lu decomposition tests
    protected double[][] luData = { {2d,3d,3d}, {0d,5d,7d}, {6d,9d,8d} };
    protected double[][] luDataLUDecomposition = { {6d,9d,8d}, {0d,5d,7d},
            {0.33333333333333,0d,0.33333333333333} };

    // singular matrices
    protected double[][] singular = { {2d,3d}, {2d,3d} };
    protected double[][] bigSingular = {{1d,2d,3d,4d}, {2d,5d,3d,4d},
        {7d,3d,256d,1930d}, {3d,7d,6d,8d}}; // 4th row = 1st + 2nd
    protected double[][] detData = { {1d,2d,3d}, {4d,5d,6d}, {7d,8d,10d} };
    protected double[][] detData2 = { {1d, 3d}, {2d, 4d}};

    // vectors
    protected double[] testVector = {1,2,3};
    protected double[] testVector2 = {1,2,3,4};

    // submatrix accessor tests
    protected double[][] subTestData = {{1, 2, 3, 4}, {1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5},
            {2, 4, 6, 8}, {4, 5, 6, 7}};
    // array selections
    protected double[][] subRows02Cols13 = { {2, 4}, {4, 8}};
    protected double[][] subRows03Cols12 = { {2, 3}, {5, 6}};
    protected double[][] subRows03Cols123 = { {2, 3, 4} , {5, 6, 7}};
    // effective permutations
    protected double[][] subRows20Cols123 = { {4, 6, 8} , {2, 3, 4}};
    protected double[][] subRows31Cols31 = {{7, 5}, {4.5, 2.5}};
    // contiguous ranges
    protected double[][] subRows01Cols23 = {{3,4} , {3.5, 4.5}};
    protected double[][] subRows23Cols00 = {{2} , {4}};
    protected double[][] subRows00Cols33 = {{4}};
    // row matrices
    protected double[][] subRow0 = {{1,2,3,4}};
    protected double[][] subRow3 = {{4,5,6,7}};
    // column matrices
    protected double[][] subColumn1 = {{2}, {2.5}, {4}, {5}};
    protected double[][] subColumn3 = {{4}, {4.5}, {8}, {7}};

    // tolerances
    protected double entryTolerance = 10E-16;
    protected double normTolerance = 10E-14;

    /** test dimensions */
    @Test
    public void testDimensions() {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        BlockRealMatrix m2 = new BlockRealMatrix(testData2);
        Assert.assertEquals("testData row dimension",3,m.getRowDimension());
        Assert.assertEquals("testData column dimension",3,m.getColumnDimension());
        Assert.assertTrue("testData is square",m.isSquare());
        Assert.assertEquals("testData2 row dimension",m2.getRowDimension(),2);
        Assert.assertEquals("testData2 column dimension",m2.getColumnDimension(),3);
        Assert.assertTrue("testData2 is not square",!m2.isSquare());
    }

    /** test copy functions */
    @Test
    public void testCopyFunctions() {
        Random r = new Random(66636328996002l);
        BlockRealMatrix m1 = createRandomMatrix(r, 47, 83);
        BlockRealMatrix m2 = new BlockRealMatrix(m1.getData());
        Assert.assertEquals(m1, m2);
        BlockRealMatrix m3 = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        BlockRealMatrix m4 = new BlockRealMatrix(m3.getData());
        Assert.assertEquals(m3, m4);
    }

    /** test add */
    @Test
    public void testAdd() {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        BlockRealMatrix mInv = new BlockRealMatrix(testDataInv);
        RealMatrix mPlusMInv = m.add(mInv);
        double[][] sumEntries = mPlusMInv.getData();
        for (int row = 0; row < m.getRowDimension(); row++) {
            for (int col = 0; col < m.getColumnDimension(); col++) {
                Assert.assertEquals("sum entry entry",
                    testDataPlusInv[row][col],sumEntries[row][col],
                        entryTolerance);
            }
        }
    }

    /** test add failure */
    @Test
    public void testAddFail() {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        BlockRealMatrix m2 = new BlockRealMatrix(testData2);
        try {
            m.add(m2);
            Assert.fail("MathIllegalArgumentException expected");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException ex) {
            // ignored
        }
    }

    /** test norm */
    @Test
    public void testNorm() {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        BlockRealMatrix m2 = new BlockRealMatrix(testData2);
        Assert.assertEquals("testData norm",14d,m.getNorm(),entryTolerance);
        Assert.assertEquals("testData2 norm",7d,m2.getNorm(),entryTolerance);
    }

    /** test Frobenius norm */
    @Test
    public void testFrobeniusNorm() {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        BlockRealMatrix m2 = new BlockRealMatrix(testData2);
        Assert.assertEquals("testData Frobenius norm", FastMath.sqrt(117.0), m.getFrobeniusNorm(), entryTolerance);
        Assert.assertEquals("testData2 Frobenius norm", FastMath.sqrt(52.0), m2.getFrobeniusNorm(), entryTolerance);
    }

    /** test m-n = m + -n */
    @Test
    public void testPlusMinus() {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        BlockRealMatrix m2 = new BlockRealMatrix(testDataInv);
        assertClose(m.subtract(m2), m2.scalarMultiply(-1d).add(m), entryTolerance);
        try {
            m.subtract(new BlockRealMatrix(testData2));
            Assert.fail("Expecting illegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException ex) {
            // ignored
        }
    }

    /** test multiply */
    @Test
    public void testMultiply() {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        BlockRealMatrix mInv = new BlockRealMatrix(testDataInv);
        BlockRealMatrix identity = new BlockRealMatrix(id);
        BlockRealMatrix m2 = new BlockRealMatrix(testData2);
        assertClose(m.multiply(mInv), identity, entryTolerance);
        assertClose(mInv.multiply(m), identity, entryTolerance);
        assertClose(m.multiply(identity), m, entryTolerance);
        assertClose(identity.multiply(mInv), mInv, entryTolerance);
        assertClose(m2.multiply(identity), m2, entryTolerance);
        try {
            m.multiply(new BlockRealMatrix(bigSingular));
            Assert.fail("Expecting illegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testSeveralBlocks() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(35, 71);
        for (int i = 0; i < m.getRowDimension(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < m.getColumnDimension(); ++j) {
                m.setEntry(i, j, i + j / 1024.0);
            }
        }

        RealMatrix mT = m.transpose();
        Assert.assertEquals(m.getRowDimension(), mT.getColumnDimension());
        Assert.assertEquals(m.getColumnDimension(), mT.getRowDimension());
        for (int i = 0; i < mT.getRowDimension(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < mT.getColumnDimension(); ++j) {
                Assert.assertEquals(m.getEntry(j, i), mT.getEntry(i, j), 0);
            }
        }

        RealMatrix mPm = m.add(m);
        for (int i = 0; i < mPm.getRowDimension(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < mPm.getColumnDimension(); ++j) {
                Assert.assertEquals(2 * m.getEntry(i, j), mPm.getEntry(i, j), 0);
            }
        }

        RealMatrix mPmMm = mPm.subtract(m);
        for (int i = 0; i < mPmMm.getRowDimension(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < mPmMm.getColumnDimension(); ++j) {
                Assert.assertEquals(m.getEntry(i, j), mPmMm.getEntry(i, j), 0);
            }
        }

        RealMatrix mTm = mT.multiply(m);
        for (int i = 0; i < mTm.getRowDimension(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < mTm.getColumnDimension(); ++j) {
                double sum = 0;
                for (int k = 0; k < mT.getColumnDimension(); ++k) {
                    sum += (k + i / 1024.0) * (k + j / 1024.0);
                }
                Assert.assertEquals(sum, mTm.getEntry(i, j), 0);
            }
        }

        RealMatrix mmT = m.multiply(mT);
        for (int i = 0; i < mmT.getRowDimension(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < mmT.getColumnDimension(); ++j) {
                double sum = 0;
                for (int k = 0; k < m.getColumnDimension(); ++k) {
                    sum += (i + k / 1024.0) * (j + k / 1024.0);
                }
                Assert.assertEquals(sum, mmT.getEntry(i, j), 0);
            }
        }

        RealMatrix sub1 = m.getSubMatrix(2, 9, 5, 20);
        for (int i = 0; i < sub1.getRowDimension(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < sub1.getColumnDimension(); ++j) {
                Assert.assertEquals((i + 2) + (j + 5) / 1024.0, sub1.getEntry(i, j), 0);
            }
        }

        RealMatrix sub2 = m.getSubMatrix(10, 12, 3, 70);
        for (int i = 0; i < sub2.getRowDimension(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < sub2.getColumnDimension(); ++j) {
                Assert.assertEquals((i + 10) + (j + 3) / 1024.0, sub2.getEntry(i, j), 0);
            }
        }

        RealMatrix sub3 = m.getSubMatrix(30, 34, 0, 5);
        for (int i = 0; i < sub3.getRowDimension(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < sub3.getColumnDimension(); ++j) {
                Assert.assertEquals((i + 30) + (j + 0) / 1024.0, sub3.getEntry(i, j), 0);
            }
        }

        RealMatrix sub4 = m.getSubMatrix(30, 32, 62, 65);
        for (int i = 0; i < sub4.getRowDimension(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < sub4.getColumnDimension(); ++j) {
                Assert.assertEquals((i + 30) + (j + 62) / 1024.0, sub4.getEntry(i, j), 0);
            }
        }

    }

    //Additional Test for BlockRealMatrixTest.testMultiply

    private double[][] d3 = new double[][] {{1,2,3,4},{5,6,7,8}};
    private double[][] d4 = new double[][] {{1},{2},{3},{4}};
    private double[][] d5 = new double[][] {{30},{70}};

    @Test
    public void testMultiply2() {
        RealMatrix m3 = new BlockRealMatrix(d3);
        RealMatrix m4 = new BlockRealMatrix(d4);
        RealMatrix m5 = new BlockRealMatrix(d5);
        assertClose(m3.multiply(m4), m5, entryTolerance);
    }

    /** test trace */
    @Test
    public void testTrace() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(id);
        Assert.assertEquals("identity trace",3d,m.getTrace(),entryTolerance);
        m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData2);
        try {
            m.getTrace();
            Assert.fail("Expecting NonSquareMatrixException");
        } catch (NonSquareMatrixException ex) {
            // ignored
        }
    }

    /** test scalarAdd */
    @Test
    public void testScalarAdd() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        assertClose(new BlockRealMatrix(testDataPlus2), m.scalarAdd(2d), entryTolerance);
    }

    /** test operate */
    @Test
    public void testOperate() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(id);
        assertClose(testVector, m.operate(testVector), entryTolerance);
        assertClose(testVector, m.operate(new ArrayRealVector(testVector)).toArray(), entryTolerance);
        m = new BlockRealMatrix(bigSingular);
        try {
            m.operate(testVector);
            Assert.fail("Expecting illegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException ex) {
            // ignored
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testOperateLarge() {
        int p = (7 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE) / 2;
        int q = (5 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE) / 2;
        int r =  3 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE;
        Random random = new Random(111007463902334l);
        RealMatrix m1 = createRandomMatrix(random, p, q);
        RealMatrix m2 = createRandomMatrix(random, q, r);
        RealMatrix m1m2 = m1.multiply(m2);
        for (int i = 0; i < r; ++i) {
            checkArrays(m1m2.getColumn(i), m1.operate(m2.getColumn(i)));
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testOperatePremultiplyLarge() {
        int p = (7 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE) / 2;
        int q = (5 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE) / 2;
        int r =  3 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE;
        Random random = new Random(111007463902334l);
        RealMatrix m1 = createRandomMatrix(random, p, q);
        RealMatrix m2 = createRandomMatrix(random, q, r);
        RealMatrix m1m2 = m1.multiply(m2);
        for (int i = 0; i < p; ++i) {
            checkArrays(m1m2.getRow(i), m2.preMultiply(m1.getRow(i)));
        }
    }

    /** test issue MATH-209 */
    @Test
    public void testMath209() {
        RealMatrix a = new BlockRealMatrix(new double[][] {
                { 1, 2 }, { 3, 4 }, { 5, 6 }
        });
        double[] b = a.operate(new double[] { 1, 1 });
        Assert.assertEquals(a.getRowDimension(), b.length);
        Assert.assertEquals( 3.0, b[0], 1.0e-12);
        Assert.assertEquals( 7.0, b[1], 1.0e-12);
        Assert.assertEquals(11.0, b[2], 1.0e-12);
    }

    /** test transpose */
    @Test
    public void testTranspose() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        RealMatrix mIT = new LUDecomposition(m).getSolver().getInverse().transpose();
        RealMatrix mTI = new LUDecomposition(m.transpose()).getSolver().getInverse();
        assertClose(mIT, mTI, normTolerance);
        m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData2);
        RealMatrix mt = new BlockRealMatrix(testData2T);
        assertClose(mt, m.transpose(), normTolerance);
    }

    /** test preMultiply by vector */
    @Test
    public void testPremultiplyVector() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        assertClose(m.preMultiply(testVector), preMultTest, normTolerance);
        assertClose(m.preMultiply(new ArrayRealVector(testVector).toArray()),
                    preMultTest, normTolerance);
        m = new BlockRealMatrix(bigSingular);
        try {
            m.preMultiply(testVector);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathIllegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException ex) {
            // ignored
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testPremultiply() {
        RealMatrix m3 = new BlockRealMatrix(d3);
        RealMatrix m4 = new BlockRealMatrix(d4);
        RealMatrix m5 = new BlockRealMatrix(d5);
        assertClose(m4.preMultiply(m3), m5, entryTolerance);

        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        BlockRealMatrix mInv = new BlockRealMatrix(testDataInv);
        BlockRealMatrix identity = new BlockRealMatrix(id);
        assertClose(m.preMultiply(mInv), identity, entryTolerance);
        assertClose(mInv.preMultiply(m), identity, entryTolerance);
        assertClose(m.preMultiply(identity), m, entryTolerance);
        assertClose(identity.preMultiply(mInv), mInv, entryTolerance);
        try {
            m.preMultiply(new BlockRealMatrix(bigSingular));
            Assert.fail("Expecting illegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException ex) {
            // ignored
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetVectors() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        assertClose(m.getRow(0), testDataRow1, entryTolerance);
        assertClose(m.getColumn(2), testDataCol3, entryTolerance);
        try {
            m.getRow(10);
            Assert.fail("expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // ignored
        }
        try {
            m.getColumn(-1);
            Assert.fail("expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // ignored
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetEntry() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        Assert.assertEquals("get entry",m.getEntry(0,1),2d,entryTolerance);
        try {
            m.getEntry(10, 4);
            Assert.fail ("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    /** test examples in user guide */
    @Test
    public void testExamples() {
        // Create a real matrix with two rows and three columns
        double[][] matrixData = { {1d,2d,3d}, {2d,5d,3d}};
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(matrixData);
        // One more with three rows, two columns
        double[][] matrixData2 = { {1d,2d}, {2d,5d}, {1d, 7d}};
        RealMatrix n = new BlockRealMatrix(matrixData2);
        // Now multiply m by n
        RealMatrix p = m.multiply(n);
        Assert.assertEquals(2, p.getRowDimension());
        Assert.assertEquals(2, p.getColumnDimension());
        // Invert p
        RealMatrix pInverse = new LUDecomposition(p).getSolver().getInverse();
        Assert.assertEquals(2, pInverse.getRowDimension());
        Assert.assertEquals(2, pInverse.getColumnDimension());

        // Solve example
        double[][] coefficientsData = {{2, 3, -2}, {-1, 7, 6}, {4, -3, -5}};
        RealMatrix coefficients = new BlockRealMatrix(coefficientsData);
        RealVector constants = new ArrayRealVector(new double[]{1, -2, 1}, false);
        RealVector solution = new LUDecomposition(coefficients).getSolver().solve(constants);
        final double cst0 = constants.getEntry(0);
        final double cst1 = constants.getEntry(1);
        final double cst2 = constants.getEntry(2);
        final double sol0 = solution.getEntry(0);
        final double sol1 = solution.getEntry(1);
        final double sol2 = solution.getEntry(2);
        Assert.assertEquals(2 * sol0 + 3 * sol1 -2 * sol2, cst0, 1E-12);
        Assert.assertEquals(-1 * sol0 + 7 * sol1 + 6 * sol2, cst1, 1E-12);
        Assert.assertEquals(4 * sol0 - 3 * sol1 -5 * sol2, cst2, 1E-12);
    }

    // test submatrix accessors
    @Test
    public void testGetSubMatrix() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, subRows23Cols00,  2 , 3 , 0, 0);
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, subRows00Cols33,  0 , 0 , 3, 3);
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, subRows01Cols23,  0 , 1 , 2, 3);
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, subRows02Cols13,  new int[] { 0, 2 }, new int[] { 1, 3 });
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, subRows03Cols12,  new int[] { 0, 3 }, new int[] { 1, 2 });
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, subRows03Cols123, new int[] { 0, 3 }, new int[] { 1, 2, 3 });
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, subRows20Cols123, new int[] { 2, 0 }, new int[] { 1, 2, 3 });
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, subRows31Cols31,  new int[] { 3, 1 }, new int[] { 3, 1 });
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, subRows31Cols31,  new int[] { 3, 1 }, new int[] { 3, 1 });
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, null,  1, 0, 2, 4);
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, null, -1, 1, 2, 2);
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, null,  1, 0, 2, 2);
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, null,  1, 0, 2, 4);
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, null, new int[] {},    new int[] { 0 });
        checkGetSubMatrix(m, null, new int[] { 0 }, new int[] { 4 });
    }

    private void checkGetSubMatrix(RealMatrix m, double[][] reference,
                                   int startRow, int endRow, int startColumn, int endColumn) {
        try {
            RealMatrix sub = m.getSubMatrix(startRow, endRow, startColumn, endColumn);
            if (reference != null) {
                Assert.assertEquals(new BlockRealMatrix(reference), sub);
            } else {
                Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException or NumberIsTooSmallException or NoDataException");
            }
        } catch (OutOfRangeException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        } catch (NumberIsTooSmallException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        } catch (NoDataException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        }
    }

    private void checkGetSubMatrix(RealMatrix m, double[][] reference,
                                   int[] selectedRows, int[] selectedColumns) {
        try {
            RealMatrix sub = m.getSubMatrix(selectedRows, selectedColumns);
            if (reference != null) {
                Assert.assertEquals(new BlockRealMatrix(reference), sub);
            } else {
                Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException or NumberIsTooSmallExceptiono r NoDataException");
            }
        } catch (OutOfRangeException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        } catch (NumberIsTooSmallException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        } catch (NoDataException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetSetMatrixLarge() {
        int n = 3 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE;
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(n, n);
        RealMatrix sub = new BlockRealMatrix(n - 4, n - 4).scalarAdd(1);

        m.setSubMatrix(sub.getData(), 2, 2);
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; ++j) {
                if ((i < 2) || (i > n - 3) || (j < 2) || (j > n - 3)) {
                    Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                } else {
                    Assert.assertEquals(1.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                }
            }
        }
        Assert.assertEquals(sub, m.getSubMatrix(2, n - 3, 2, n - 3));

    }

    @Test
    public void testCopySubMatrix() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        checkCopy(m, subRows23Cols00,  2 , 3 , 0, 0);
        checkCopy(m, subRows00Cols33,  0 , 0 , 3, 3);
        checkCopy(m, subRows01Cols23,  0 , 1 , 2, 3);
        checkCopy(m, subRows02Cols13,  new int[] { 0, 2 }, new int[] { 1, 3 });
        checkCopy(m, subRows03Cols12,  new int[] { 0, 3 }, new int[] { 1, 2 });
        checkCopy(m, subRows03Cols123, new int[] { 0, 3 }, new int[] { 1, 2, 3 });
        checkCopy(m, subRows20Cols123, new int[] { 2, 0 }, new int[] { 1, 2, 3 });
        checkCopy(m, subRows31Cols31,  new int[] { 3, 1 }, new int[] { 3, 1 });
        checkCopy(m, subRows31Cols31,  new int[] { 3, 1 }, new int[] { 3, 1 });

        checkCopy(m, null,  1, 0, 2, 4);
        checkCopy(m, null, -1, 1, 2, 2);
        checkCopy(m, null,  1, 0, 2, 2);
        checkCopy(m, null,  1, 0, 2, 4);
        checkCopy(m, null, new int[] {},    new int[] { 0 });
        checkCopy(m, null, new int[] { 0 }, new int[] { 4 });
    }

    private void checkCopy(RealMatrix m, double[][] reference,
                           int startRow, int endRow, int startColumn, int endColumn) {
        try {
            double[][] sub = (reference == null) ?
                             new double[1][1] :
                             new double[reference.length][reference[0].length];
            m.copySubMatrix(startRow, endRow, startColumn, endColumn, sub);
            if (reference != null) {
                Assert.assertEquals(new BlockRealMatrix(reference), new BlockRealMatrix(sub));
            } else {
                Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException or NumberIsTooSmallException or NoDataException");
            }
        } catch (OutOfRangeException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        } catch (NumberIsTooSmallException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        } catch (NoDataException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        }
    }

    private void checkCopy(RealMatrix m, double[][] reference,
                           int[] selectedRows, int[] selectedColumns) {
        try {
            double[][] sub = (reference == null) ?
                    new double[1][1] :
                    new double[reference.length][reference[0].length];
            m.copySubMatrix(selectedRows, selectedColumns, sub);
            if (reference != null) {
                Assert.assertEquals(new BlockRealMatrix(reference), new BlockRealMatrix(sub));
            } else {
                Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException or NumberIsTooSmallException or NoDataException");
            }
        } catch (OutOfRangeException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        } catch (NumberIsTooSmallException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        } catch (NoDataException e) {
            if (reference != null) {
                throw e;
            }
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetRowMatrix() {
        RealMatrix m     = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        RealMatrix mRow0 = new BlockRealMatrix(subRow0);
        RealMatrix mRow3 = new BlockRealMatrix(subRow3);
        Assert.assertEquals("Row0", mRow0, m.getRowMatrix(0));
        Assert.assertEquals("Row3", mRow3, m.getRowMatrix(3));
        try {
            m.getRowMatrix(-1);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.getRowMatrix(4);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testSetRowMatrix() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        RealMatrix mRow3 = new BlockRealMatrix(subRow3);
        Assert.assertNotSame(mRow3, m.getRowMatrix(0));
        m.setRowMatrix(0, mRow3);
        Assert.assertEquals(mRow3, m.getRowMatrix(0));
        try {
            m.setRowMatrix(-1, mRow3);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.setRowMatrix(0, m);
            Assert.fail("Expecting MatrixDimensionMismatchException");
        } catch (MatrixDimensionMismatchException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetSetRowMatrixLarge() {
        int n = 3 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE;
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(n, n);
        RealMatrix sub = new BlockRealMatrix(1, n).scalarAdd(1);

        m.setRowMatrix(2, sub);
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; ++j) {
                if (i != 2) {
                    Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                } else {
                    Assert.assertEquals(1.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                }
            }
        }
        Assert.assertEquals(sub, m.getRowMatrix(2));
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetColumnMatrix() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        RealMatrix mColumn1 = new BlockRealMatrix(subColumn1);
        RealMatrix mColumn3 = new BlockRealMatrix(subColumn3);
        Assert.assertEquals(mColumn1, m.getColumnMatrix(1));
        Assert.assertEquals(mColumn3, m.getColumnMatrix(3));
        try {
            m.getColumnMatrix(-1);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.getColumnMatrix(4);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testSetColumnMatrix() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        RealMatrix mColumn3 = new BlockRealMatrix(subColumn3);
        Assert.assertNotSame(mColumn3, m.getColumnMatrix(1));
        m.setColumnMatrix(1, mColumn3);
        Assert.assertEquals(mColumn3, m.getColumnMatrix(1));
        try {
            m.setColumnMatrix(-1, mColumn3);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.setColumnMatrix(0, m);
            Assert.fail("Expecting MatrixDimensionMismatchException");
        } catch (MatrixDimensionMismatchException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetSetColumnMatrixLarge() {
        int n = 3 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE;
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(n, n);
        RealMatrix sub = new BlockRealMatrix(n, 1).scalarAdd(1);

        m.setColumnMatrix(2, sub);
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; ++j) {
                if (j != 2) {
                    Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                } else {
                    Assert.assertEquals(1.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                }
            }
        }
        Assert.assertEquals(sub, m.getColumnMatrix(2));

    }

    @Test
    public void testGetRowVector() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        RealVector mRow0 = new ArrayRealVector(subRow0[0]);
        RealVector mRow3 = new ArrayRealVector(subRow3[0]);
        Assert.assertEquals(mRow0, m.getRowVector(0));
        Assert.assertEquals(mRow3, m.getRowVector(3));
        try {
            m.getRowVector(-1);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.getRowVector(4);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testSetRowVector() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        RealVector mRow3 = new ArrayRealVector(subRow3[0]);
        Assert.assertNotSame(mRow3, m.getRowMatrix(0));
        m.setRowVector(0, mRow3);
        Assert.assertEquals(mRow3, m.getRowVector(0));
        try {
            m.setRowVector(-1, mRow3);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.setRowVector(0, new ArrayRealVector(5));
            Assert.fail("Expecting MatrixDimensionMismatchException");
        } catch (MatrixDimensionMismatchException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetSetRowVectorLarge() {
        int n = 3 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE;
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(n, n);
        RealVector sub = new ArrayRealVector(n, 1.0);

        m.setRowVector(2, sub);
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; ++j) {
                if (i != 2) {
                    Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                } else {
                    Assert.assertEquals(1.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                }
            }
        }
        Assert.assertEquals(sub, m.getRowVector(2));
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetColumnVector() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        RealVector mColumn1 = columnToVector(subColumn1);
        RealVector mColumn3 = columnToVector(subColumn3);
        Assert.assertEquals(mColumn1, m.getColumnVector(1));
        Assert.assertEquals(mColumn3, m.getColumnVector(3));
        try {
            m.getColumnVector(-1);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.getColumnVector(4);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testSetColumnVector() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        RealVector mColumn3 = columnToVector(subColumn3);
        Assert.assertNotSame(mColumn3, m.getColumnVector(1));
        m.setColumnVector(1, mColumn3);
        Assert.assertEquals(mColumn3, m.getColumnVector(1));
        try {
            m.setColumnVector(-1, mColumn3);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.setColumnVector(0, new ArrayRealVector(5));
            Assert.fail("Expecting MatrixDimensionMismatchException");
        } catch (MatrixDimensionMismatchException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetSetColumnVectorLarge() {
        int n = 3 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE;
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(n, n);
        RealVector sub = new ArrayRealVector(n, 1.0);

        m.setColumnVector(2, sub);
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; ++j) {
                if (j != 2) {
                    Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                } else {
                    Assert.assertEquals(1.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                }
            }
        }
        Assert.assertEquals(sub, m.getColumnVector(2));
    }

    private RealVector columnToVector(double[][] column) {
        double[] data = new double[column.length];
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
            data[i] = column[i][0];
        }
        return new ArrayRealVector(data, false);
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetRow() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        checkArrays(subRow0[0], m.getRow(0));
        checkArrays(subRow3[0], m.getRow(3));
        try {
            m.getRow(-1);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.getRow(4);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testSetRow() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        Assert.assertTrue(subRow3[0][0] != m.getRow(0)[0]);
        m.setRow(0, subRow3[0]);
        checkArrays(subRow3[0], m.getRow(0));
        try {
            m.setRow(-1, subRow3[0]);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.setRow(0, new double[5]);
            Assert.fail("Expecting MatrixDimensionMismatchException");
        } catch (MatrixDimensionMismatchException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetSetRowLarge() {
        int n = 3 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE;
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(n, n);
        double[] sub = new double[n];
        Arrays.fill(sub, 1.0);

        m.setRow(2, sub);
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; ++j) {
                if (i != 2) {
                    Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                } else {
                    Assert.assertEquals(1.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                }
            }
        }
        checkArrays(sub, m.getRow(2));
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetColumn() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        double[] mColumn1 = columnToArray(subColumn1);
        double[] mColumn3 = columnToArray(subColumn3);
        checkArrays(mColumn1, m.getColumn(1));
        checkArrays(mColumn3, m.getColumn(3));
        try {
            m.getColumn(-1);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.getColumn(4);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testSetColumn() {
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(subTestData);
        double[] mColumn3 = columnToArray(subColumn3);
        Assert.assertTrue(mColumn3[0] != m.getColumn(1)[0]);
        m.setColumn(1, mColumn3);
        checkArrays(mColumn3, m.getColumn(1));
        try {
            m.setColumn(-1, mColumn3);
            Assert.fail("Expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException ex) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.setColumn(0, new double[5]);
            Assert.fail("Expecting MatrixDimensionMismatchException");
        } catch (MatrixDimensionMismatchException ex) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testGetSetColumnLarge() {
        int n = 3 * BlockRealMatrix.BLOCK_SIZE;
        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(n, n);
        double[] sub = new double[n];
        Arrays.fill(sub, 1.0);

        m.setColumn(2, sub);
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; ++j) {
                if (j != 2) {
                    Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                } else {
                    Assert.assertEquals(1.0, m.getEntry(i, j), 0.0);
                }
            }
        }
        checkArrays(sub, m.getColumn(2));
    }

    private double[] columnToArray(double[][] column) {
        double[] data = new double[column.length];
        for (int i = 0; i < data.length; ++i) {
            data[i] = column[i][0];
        }
        return data;
    }

    private void checkArrays(double[] expected, double[] actual) {
        Assert.assertEquals(expected.length, actual.length);
        for (int i = 0; i < expected.length; ++i) {
            Assert.assertEquals(expected[i], actual[i], 0);
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testEqualsAndHashCode() {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        BlockRealMatrix m1 = m.copy();
        BlockRealMatrix mt = m.transpose();
        Assert.assertTrue(m.hashCode() != mt.hashCode());
        Assert.assertEquals(m.hashCode(), m1.hashCode());
        Assert.assertEquals(m, m);
        Assert.assertEquals(m, m1);
        Assert.assertFalse(m.equals(null));
        Assert.assertFalse(m.equals(mt));
        Assert.assertFalse(m.equals(new BlockRealMatrix(bigSingular)));
    }

    @Test
    public void testToString() {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        Assert.assertEquals("BlockRealMatrix{{1.0,2.0,3.0},{2.0,5.0,3.0},{1.0,0.0,8.0}}",
                m.toString());
    }

    @Test
    public void testSetSubMatrix() {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        m.setSubMatrix(detData2,1,1);
        RealMatrix expected = new BlockRealMatrix
            (new double[][] {{1.0,2.0,3.0},{2.0,1.0,3.0},{1.0,2.0,4.0}});
        Assert.assertEquals(expected, m);

        m.setSubMatrix(detData2,0,0);
        expected = new BlockRealMatrix
            (new double[][] {{1.0,3.0,3.0},{2.0,4.0,3.0},{1.0,2.0,4.0}});
        Assert.assertEquals(expected, m);

        m.setSubMatrix(testDataPlus2,0,0);
        expected = new BlockRealMatrix
            (new double[][] {{3.0,4.0,5.0},{4.0,7.0,5.0},{3.0,2.0,10.0}});
        Assert.assertEquals(expected, m);

        // javadoc example
        BlockRealMatrix matrix = new BlockRealMatrix
            (new double[][] {{1, 2, 3, 4}, {5, 6, 7, 8}, {9, 0, 1 , 2}});
        matrix.setSubMatrix(new double[][] {{3, 4}, {5, 6}}, 1, 1);
        expected = new BlockRealMatrix
            (new double[][] {{1, 2, 3, 4}, {5, 3, 4, 8}, {9, 5 ,6, 2}});
        Assert.assertEquals(expected, matrix);

        // dimension overflow
        try {
            m.setSubMatrix(testData,1,1);
            Assert.fail("expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException e) {
            // expected
        }
        // dimension underflow
        try {
            m.setSubMatrix(testData,-1,1);
            Assert.fail("expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException e) {
            // expected
        }
        try {
            m.setSubMatrix(testData,1,-1);
            Assert.fail("expecting OutOfRangeException");
        } catch (OutOfRangeException e) {
            // expected
        }

        // null
        try {
            m.setSubMatrix(null,1,1);
            Assert.fail("expecting NullArgumentException");
        } catch (NullArgumentException e) {
            // expected
        }

        // ragged
        try {
            m.setSubMatrix(new double[][] {{1}, {2, 3}}, 0, 0);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathIllegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException e) {
            // expected
        }

        // empty
        try {
            m.setSubMatrix(new double[][] {{}}, 0, 0);
            Assert.fail("expecting MathIllegalArgumentException");
        } catch (MathIllegalArgumentException e) {
            // expected
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void testWalk() {
        int rows    = 150;
        int columns = 75;

        RealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(rows, columns);
        m.walkInRowOrder(new SetVisitor());
        GetVisitor getVisitor = new GetVisitor();
        m.walkInOptimizedOrder(getVisitor);
        Assert.assertEquals(rows * columns, getVisitor.getCount());

        m = new BlockRealMatrix(rows, columns);
        m.walkInRowOrder(new SetVisitor(), 1, rows - 2, 1, columns - 2);
        getVisitor = new GetVisitor();
        m.walkInOptimizedOrder(getVisitor, 1, rows - 2, 1, columns - 2);
        Assert.assertEquals((rows - 2) * (columns - 2), getVisitor.getCount());
        for (int i = 0; i < rows; ++i) {
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, 0), 0);
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, columns - 1), 0);
        }
        for (int j = 0; j < columns; ++j) {
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(0, j), 0);
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(rows - 1, j), 0);
        }

        m = new BlockRealMatrix(rows, columns);
        m.walkInColumnOrder(new SetVisitor());
        getVisitor = new GetVisitor();
        m.walkInOptimizedOrder(getVisitor);
        Assert.assertEquals(rows * columns, getVisitor.getCount());

        m = new BlockRealMatrix(rows, columns);
        m.walkInColumnOrder(new SetVisitor(), 1, rows - 2, 1, columns - 2);
        getVisitor = new GetVisitor();
        m.walkInOptimizedOrder(getVisitor, 1, rows - 2, 1, columns - 2);
        Assert.assertEquals((rows - 2) * (columns - 2), getVisitor.getCount());
        for (int i = 0; i < rows; ++i) {
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, 0), 0);
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, columns - 1), 0);
        }
        for (int j = 0; j < columns; ++j) {
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(0, j), 0);
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(rows - 1, j), 0);
        }

        m = new BlockRealMatrix(rows, columns);
        m.walkInOptimizedOrder(new SetVisitor());
        getVisitor = new GetVisitor();
        m.walkInRowOrder(getVisitor);
        Assert.assertEquals(rows * columns, getVisitor.getCount());

        m = new BlockRealMatrix(rows, columns);
        m.walkInOptimizedOrder(new SetVisitor(), 1, rows - 2, 1, columns - 2);
        getVisitor = new GetVisitor();
        m.walkInRowOrder(getVisitor, 1, rows - 2, 1, columns - 2);
        Assert.assertEquals((rows - 2) * (columns - 2), getVisitor.getCount());
        for (int i = 0; i < rows; ++i) {
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, 0), 0);
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, columns - 1), 0);
        }
        for (int j = 0; j < columns; ++j) {
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(0, j), 0);
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(rows - 1, j), 0);
        }

        m = new BlockRealMatrix(rows, columns);
        m.walkInOptimizedOrder(new SetVisitor());
        getVisitor = new GetVisitor();
        m.walkInColumnOrder(getVisitor);
        Assert.assertEquals(rows * columns, getVisitor.getCount());

        m = new BlockRealMatrix(rows, columns);
        m.walkInOptimizedOrder(new SetVisitor(), 1, rows - 2, 1, columns - 2);
        getVisitor = new GetVisitor();
        m.walkInColumnOrder(getVisitor, 1, rows - 2, 1, columns - 2);
        Assert.assertEquals((rows - 2) * (columns - 2), getVisitor.getCount());
        for (int i = 0; i < rows; ++i) {
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, 0), 0);
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(i, columns - 1), 0);
        }
        for (int j = 0; j < columns; ++j) {
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(0, j), 0);
            Assert.assertEquals(0.0, m.getEntry(rows - 1, j), 0);
        }

    }

    @Test
    public void testSerial()  {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(testData);
        Assert.assertEquals(m,TestUtils.serializeAndRecover(m));
    }

    private static class SetVisitor extends DefaultRealMatrixChangingVisitor {
        @Override
        public double visit(int i, int j, double value) {
            return i + j / 1024.0;
        }
    }

    private static class GetVisitor extends DefaultRealMatrixPreservingVisitor {
        private int count = 0;
        @Override
        public void visit(int i, int j, double value) {
            ++count;
            Assert.assertEquals(i + j / 1024.0, value, 0.0);
        }
        public int getCount() {
            return count;
        }
    }

    //--------------- -----------------Protected methods

    /** verifies that two matrices are close (1-norm) */
    protected void assertClose(RealMatrix m, RealMatrix n, double tolerance) {
        Assert.assertTrue(m.subtract(n).getNorm() < tolerance);
    }

    /** verifies that two vectors are close (sup norm) */
    protected void assertClose(double[] m, double[] n, double tolerance) {
        if (m.length != n.length) {
            Assert.fail("vectors not same length");
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < m.length; i++) {
            Assert.assertEquals(m[i], n[i], tolerance);
        }
    }

    private BlockRealMatrix createRandomMatrix(Random r, int rows, int columns) {
        BlockRealMatrix m = new BlockRealMatrix(rows, columns);
        for (int i = 0; i < rows; ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < columns; ++j) {
                m.setEntry(i, j, 200 * r.nextDouble() - 100);
            }
        }
        return m;
    }
}

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