home | career | drupal | java | mac | mysql | perl | scala | uml | unix

Groovy example source code file (AntlrParserPlugin.java)

This example Groovy source code file (AntlrParserPlugin.java) is included in the DevDaily.com "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM.

Java - Groovy tags/keywords

arraylist, ast, ast, astruntimeexception, classnode, classnode, constantexpression, expression, expression, io, list, list, security, statement, string, util, variableexpression

The Groovy AntlrParserPlugin.java source code

/*
 * Copyright 2003-2011 the original author or authors.
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */
package org.codehaus.groovy.antlr;

import antlr.RecognitionException;
import antlr.TokenStreamException;
import antlr.TokenStreamRecognitionException;
import antlr.collections.AST;
import com.thoughtworks.xstream.XStream;
import org.codehaus.groovy.GroovyBugError;
import org.codehaus.groovy.antlr.parser.GroovyLexer;
import org.codehaus.groovy.antlr.parser.GroovyRecognizer;
import org.codehaus.groovy.antlr.parser.GroovyTokenTypes;
import org.codehaus.groovy.antlr.treewalker.*;
import org.codehaus.groovy.ast.*;
import org.codehaus.groovy.ast.expr.*;
import org.codehaus.groovy.ast.stmt.*;
import org.codehaus.groovy.control.CompilationFailedException;
import org.codehaus.groovy.control.ParserPlugin;
import org.codehaus.groovy.control.SourceUnit;
import org.codehaus.groovy.syntax.*;
import org.objectweb.asm.Opcodes;

import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.FileWriter;
import java.io.PrintStream;
import java.io.Reader;
import java.security.AccessController;
import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Set;

/**
 * A parser plugin which adapts the JSR Antlr Parser to the Groovy runtime
 *
 * @author <a href="mailto:jstrachan@protique.com">James Strachan
 */
public class AntlrParserPlugin extends ASTHelper implements ParserPlugin, GroovyTokenTypes {

    private static class AnonymousInnerClassCarrier extends Expression {
        ClassNode innerClass;

        public Expression transformExpression(ExpressionTransformer transformer) {
            return null;
        }

        @Override
        public void setSourcePosition(final ASTNode node) {
            super.setSourcePosition(node);
            innerClass.setSourcePosition(node);
        }

        @Override
        public void setColumnNumber(final int columnNumber) {
            super.setColumnNumber(columnNumber);
            innerClass.setColumnNumber(columnNumber);
        }

        @Override
        public void setLineNumber(final int lineNumber) {
            super.setLineNumber(lineNumber);
            innerClass.setLineNumber(lineNumber);
        }

        @Override
        public void setLastColumnNumber(final int columnNumber) {
            super.setLastColumnNumber(columnNumber);
            innerClass.setLastColumnNumber(columnNumber);
        }

        @Override
        public void setLastLineNumber(final int lineNumber) {
            super.setLastLineNumber(lineNumber);
            innerClass.setLastLineNumber(lineNumber);
        }
    }

    protected AST ast;
    private ClassNode classNode;
    private String[] tokenNames;
    private int innerClassCounter = 1;
    private boolean enumConstantBeingDef = false;
    private boolean forStatementBeingDef = false;
    private boolean firstParamIsVarArg = false;
    private boolean firstParam = false;

    public /*final*/ Reduction parseCST(final SourceUnit sourceUnit, Reader reader) throws CompilationFailedException {
        final SourceBuffer sourceBuffer = new SourceBuffer();
        transformCSTIntoAST(sourceUnit, reader, sourceBuffer);
        processAST();
        return outputAST(sourceUnit, sourceBuffer);
    }

    protected void transformCSTIntoAST(SourceUnit sourceUnit, Reader reader, SourceBuffer sourceBuffer) throws CompilationFailedException {
        ast = null;

        setController(sourceUnit);

        // TODO find a way to inject any GroovyLexer/GroovyRecognizer

        UnicodeEscapingReader unicodeReader = new UnicodeEscapingReader(reader, sourceBuffer);
        UnicodeLexerSharedInputState inputState = new UnicodeLexerSharedInputState(unicodeReader);
        GroovyLexer lexer = new GroovyLexer(inputState);
        unicodeReader.setLexer(lexer);
        GroovyRecognizer parser = GroovyRecognizer.make(lexer);
        parser.setSourceBuffer(sourceBuffer);
        tokenNames = parser.getTokenNames();
        parser.setFilename(sourceUnit.getName());

        // start parsing at the compilationUnit rule
        try {
            parser.compilationUnit();
        }
        catch (TokenStreamRecognitionException tsre) {
            RecognitionException e = tsre.recog;
            SyntaxException se = new SyntaxException(e.getMessage(), e, e.getLine(), e.getColumn());
            se.setFatal(true);
            sourceUnit.addError(se);
        }
        catch (RecognitionException e) {
            SyntaxException se = new SyntaxException(e.getMessage(), e, e.getLine(), e.getColumn());
            se.setFatal(true);
            sourceUnit.addError(se);
        }
        catch (TokenStreamException e) {
            sourceUnit.addException(e);
        }

        ast = parser.getAST();
    }

    protected void processAST() {
        AntlrASTProcessor snippets = new AntlrASTProcessSnippets();
        ast = snippets.process(ast);
    }

    public Reduction outputAST(final SourceUnit sourceUnit, final SourceBuffer sourceBuffer) {
        AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction() {
            public Object run() {
                outputASTInVariousFormsIfNeeded(sourceUnit, sourceBuffer);
                return null;
            }
        });

        return null; //new Reduction(Tpken.EOF);
    }

    private void outputASTInVariousFormsIfNeeded(SourceUnit sourceUnit, SourceBuffer sourceBuffer) {
        // straight xstream output of AST
        if ("xml".equals(System.getProperty("antlr.ast"))) {
            saveAsXML(sourceUnit.getName(), ast);
        }

        // 'pretty printer' output of AST
        if ("groovy".equals(System.getProperty("antlr.ast"))) {
            try {
                PrintStream out = new PrintStream(new FileOutputStream(sourceUnit.getName() + ".pretty.groovy"));
                Visitor visitor = new SourcePrinter(out, tokenNames);
                AntlrASTProcessor treewalker = new SourceCodeTraversal(visitor);
                treewalker.process(ast);
            } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
                System.out.println("Cannot create " + sourceUnit.getName() + ".pretty.groovy");
            }
        }

        // output AST in format suitable for opening in http://freemind.sourceforge.net
        // which is a really nice way of seeing the AST, folding nodes etc
        if ("mindmap".equals(System.getProperty("antlr.ast"))) {
            try {
                PrintStream out = new PrintStream(new FileOutputStream(sourceUnit.getName() + ".mm"));
                Visitor visitor = new MindMapPrinter(out, tokenNames);
                AntlrASTProcessor treewalker = new PreOrderTraversal(visitor);
                treewalker.process(ast);
            } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
                System.out.println("Cannot create " + sourceUnit.getName() + ".mm");
            }
        }

        // include original line/col info and source code on the mindmap output
        if ("extendedMindmap".equals(System.getProperty("antlr.ast"))) {
            try {
                PrintStream out = new PrintStream(new FileOutputStream(sourceUnit.getName() + ".mm"));
                Visitor visitor = new MindMapPrinter(out, tokenNames, sourceBuffer);
                AntlrASTProcessor treewalker = new PreOrderTraversal(visitor);
                treewalker.process(ast);
            } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
                System.out.println("Cannot create " + sourceUnit.getName() + ".mm");
            }
        }

        // html output of AST
        if ("html".equals(System.getProperty("antlr.ast"))) {
            try {
                PrintStream out = new PrintStream(new FileOutputStream(sourceUnit.getName() + ".html"));
                List<VisitorAdapter> v = new ArrayList();
                v.add(new NodeAsHTMLPrinter(out, tokenNames));
                v.add(new SourcePrinter(out, tokenNames));
                Visitor visitors = new CompositeVisitor(v);
                AntlrASTProcessor treewalker = new SourceCodeTraversal(visitors);
                treewalker.process(ast);
            } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
                System.out.println("Cannot create " + sourceUnit.getName() + ".html");
            }
        }
    }

    private void saveAsXML(String name, AST ast) {
        XStream xstream = new XStream();
        try {
            xstream.toXML(ast, new FileWriter(name + ".antlr.xml"));
            System.out.println("Written AST to " + name + ".antlr.xml");
        }
        catch (Exception e) {
            System.out.println("Couldn't write to " + name + ".antlr.xml");
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    public ModuleNode buildAST(SourceUnit sourceUnit, ClassLoader classLoader, Reduction cst) throws ParserException {
        setClassLoader(classLoader);
        makeModule();
        try {
            convertGroovy(ast);
            if (output.getStatementBlock().isEmpty() && output.getMethods().isEmpty() && output.getClasses().isEmpty()) {
                output.addStatement(ReturnStatement.RETURN_NULL_OR_VOID);
            }

            // set the script source position

            ClassNode scriptClassNode = output.getScriptClassDummy();
            if (scriptClassNode != null) {
                List<Statement> statements = output.getStatementBlock().getStatements();
                if (statements.size() > 0) {
                    Statement firstStatement = statements.get(0);
                    Statement lastStatement = statements.get(statements.size() - 1);

                    scriptClassNode.setSourcePosition(firstStatement);
                    scriptClassNode.setLastColumnNumber(lastStatement.getLastColumnNumber());
                    scriptClassNode.setLastLineNumber(lastStatement.getLastLineNumber());
                }
            }
        }
        catch (ASTRuntimeException e) {
            throw new ASTParserException(e.getMessage() + ". File: " + sourceUnit.getName(), e);
        }
        return output;
    }

    /**
     * Converts the Antlr AST to the Groovy AST
     */
    protected void convertGroovy(AST node) {
        while (node != null) {
            int type = node.getType();
            switch (type) {
                case PACKAGE_DEF:
                    packageDef(node);
                    break;

                case STATIC_IMPORT:
                case IMPORT:
                    importDef(node);
                    break;

                case CLASS_DEF:
                    classDef(node);
                    break;

                case INTERFACE_DEF:
                    interfaceDef(node);
                    break;

                case METHOD_DEF:
                    methodDef(node);
                    break;

                case ENUM_DEF:
                    enumDef(node);
                    break;

                case ANNOTATION_DEF:
                    annotationDef(node);
                    break;

                default: {
                    Statement statement = statement(node);
                    output.addStatement(statement);
                }
            }
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }
    }

    // Top level control structures
    //-------------------------------------------------------------------------

    protected void packageDef(AST packageDef) {
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();
        AST node = packageDef.getFirstChild();
        if (isType(ANNOTATIONS, node)) {
            processAnnotations(annotations, node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }
        String name = qualifiedName(node);
        // TODO should we check package node doesn't already exist? conflict?
        PackageNode packageNode = setPackage(name, annotations);
        configureAST(packageNode, packageDef);
    }

    protected void importDef(AST importNode) {
        boolean isStatic = importNode.getType() == STATIC_IMPORT;
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();

        AST node = importNode.getFirstChild();
        if (isType(ANNOTATIONS, node)) {
            processAnnotations(annotations, node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        String alias = null;
        if (isType(LITERAL_as, node)) {
            //import is like "import Foo as Bar"
            node = node.getFirstChild();
            AST aliasNode = node.getNextSibling();
            alias = identifier(aliasNode);
        }

        if (node.getNumberOfChildren() == 0) {
            String name = identifier(node);
            // import is like  "import Foo"
            ClassNode type = ClassHelper.make(name);
            configureAST(type, importNode);
            addImport(type, name, alias, annotations);
            return;
        }

        AST packageNode = node.getFirstChild();
        String packageName = qualifiedName(packageNode);
        AST nameNode = packageNode.getNextSibling();
        if (isType(STAR, nameNode)) {
            if (isStatic) {
                // import is like "import static foo.Bar.*"
                // packageName is actually a className in this case
                ClassNode type = ClassHelper.make(packageName);
                configureAST(type, importNode);
                addStaticStarImport(type, packageName, annotations);
            } else {
                // import is like "import foo.*"
                addStarImport(packageName, annotations);
            }

            if (alias != null) throw new GroovyBugError(
                    "imports like 'import foo.* as Bar' are not " +
                            "supported and should be caught by the grammar");
        } else {
            String name = identifier(nameNode);
            if (isStatic) {
                // import is like "import static foo.Bar.method"
                // packageName is really class name in this case
                ClassNode type = ClassHelper.make(packageName);
                configureAST(type, importNode);
                addStaticImport(type, name, alias, annotations);
            } else {
                // import is like "import foo.Bar"
                ClassNode type = ClassHelper.make(packageName + "." + name);
                configureAST(type, importNode);
                addImport(type, name, alias, annotations);
            }
        }
    }

    private void processAnnotations(List<AnnotationNode> annotations, AST node) {
        AST child = node.getFirstChild();
        while (child != null) {
            if (isType(ANNOTATION, child))
                annotations.add(annotation(child));
            child = child.getNextSibling();
        }
    }

    protected void annotationDef(AST classDef) {
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();
        AST node = classDef.getFirstChild();
        int modifiers = Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC;
        if (isType(MODIFIERS, node)) {
            modifiers = modifiers(node, annotations, modifiers);
            checkNoInvalidModifier(classDef, "Annotation Definition", modifiers, Opcodes.ACC_SYNCHRONIZED, "synchronized");
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }
        modifiers |= Opcodes.ACC_ABSTRACT | Opcodes.ACC_INTERFACE | Opcodes.ACC_ANNOTATION;

        String name = identifier(node);
        node = node.getNextSibling();
        ClassNode superClass = ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE;

        GenericsType[] genericsType = null;
        if (isType(TYPE_PARAMETERS, node)) {
            genericsType = makeGenericsType(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        ClassNode[] interfaces = ClassNode.EMPTY_ARRAY;
        if (isType(EXTENDS_CLAUSE, node)) {
            interfaces = interfaces(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        boolean syntheticPublic = ((modifiers & Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC) != 0);
        modifiers &= ~Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC;
        classNode = new ClassNode(dot(getPackageName(), name), modifiers, superClass, interfaces, null);
        classNode.setSyntheticPublic(syntheticPublic);
        classNode.addAnnotations(annotations);
        classNode.setGenericsTypes(genericsType);
        classNode.addInterface(ClassHelper.Annotation_TYPE);
        configureAST(classNode, classDef);

        assertNodeType(OBJBLOCK, node);
        objectBlock(node);
        output.addClass(classNode);
        classNode = null;
    }

    protected void interfaceDef(AST classDef) {
        int oldInnerClassCounter = innerClassCounter;
        innerInterfaceDef(classDef);
        classNode = null;
        innerClassCounter = oldInnerClassCounter;
    }

    protected void innerInterfaceDef(AST classDef) {
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();
        AST node = classDef.getFirstChild();
        int modifiers = Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC;
        if (isType(MODIFIERS, node)) {
            modifiers = modifiers(node, annotations, modifiers);
            checkNoInvalidModifier(classDef, "Interface", modifiers, Opcodes.ACC_SYNCHRONIZED, "synchronized");
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }
        modifiers |= Opcodes.ACC_ABSTRACT | Opcodes.ACC_INTERFACE;

        String name = identifier(node);
        node = node.getNextSibling();
        ClassNode superClass = ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE;

        GenericsType[] genericsType = null;
        if (isType(TYPE_PARAMETERS, node)) {
            genericsType = makeGenericsType(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        ClassNode[] interfaces = ClassNode.EMPTY_ARRAY;
        if (isType(EXTENDS_CLAUSE, node)) {
            interfaces = interfaces(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        ClassNode outerClass = classNode;
        boolean syntheticPublic = ((modifiers & Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC) != 0);
        modifiers &= ~Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC;
        if (classNode != null) {
            name = classNode.getNameWithoutPackage() + "$" + name;
            String fullName = dot(classNode.getPackageName(), name);
            classNode = new InnerClassNode(classNode, fullName, modifiers, superClass, interfaces, null);
        } else {
            classNode = new ClassNode(dot(getPackageName(), name), modifiers, superClass, interfaces, null);
        }
        classNode.setSyntheticPublic(syntheticPublic);
        classNode.addAnnotations(annotations);
        classNode.setGenericsTypes(genericsType);
        configureAST(classNode, classDef);

        int oldClassCount = innerClassCounter;

        assertNodeType(OBJBLOCK, node);
        objectBlock(node);
        output.addClass(classNode);

        classNode = outerClass;
        innerClassCounter = oldClassCount;
    }

    protected void classDef(AST classDef) {
        int oldInnerClassCounter = innerClassCounter;
        innerClassDef(classDef);
        classNode = null;
        innerClassCounter = oldInnerClassCounter;
    }

    private ClassNode getClassOrScript(ClassNode node) {
        if (node != null) return node;
        return output.getScriptClassDummy();
    }

    protected Expression anonymousInnerClassDef(AST node) {
        ClassNode oldNode = classNode;
        ClassNode outerClass = getClassOrScript(oldNode);
        String fullName = outerClass.getName() + '$' + innerClassCounter;
        innerClassCounter++;
        if (enumConstantBeingDef) {
            classNode = new EnumConstantClassNode(outerClass, fullName, Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC, ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE);
        } else {
            classNode = new InnerClassNode(outerClass, fullName, Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC, ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE);
        }
        ((InnerClassNode) classNode).setAnonymous(true);

        assertNodeType(OBJBLOCK, node);
        objectBlock(node);
        output.addClass(classNode);
        AnonymousInnerClassCarrier ret = new AnonymousInnerClassCarrier();
        ret.innerClass = classNode;
        classNode = oldNode;

        return ret;
    }

    protected void innerClassDef(AST classDef) {
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();
        AST node = classDef.getFirstChild();
        int modifiers = Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC;
        if (isType(MODIFIERS, node)) {
            modifiers = modifiers(node, annotations, modifiers);
            checkNoInvalidModifier(classDef, "Class", modifiers, Opcodes.ACC_SYNCHRONIZED, "synchronized");
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        String name = identifier(node);
        node = node.getNextSibling();

        GenericsType[] genericsType = null;
        if (isType(TYPE_PARAMETERS, node)) {
            genericsType = makeGenericsType(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        ClassNode superClass = null;
        if (isType(EXTENDS_CLAUSE, node)) {
            superClass = makeTypeWithArguments(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        ClassNode[] interfaces = ClassNode.EMPTY_ARRAY;
        if (isType(IMPLEMENTS_CLAUSE, node)) {
            interfaces = interfaces(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        // TODO read mixins
        MixinNode[] mixins = {};
        ClassNode outerClass = classNode;
        boolean syntheticPublic = ((modifiers & Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC) != 0);
        modifiers &= ~Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC;
        if (classNode != null) {
            name = classNode.getNameWithoutPackage() + "$" + name;
            String fullName = dot(classNode.getPackageName(), name);
            classNode = new InnerClassNode(classNode, fullName, modifiers, superClass, interfaces, mixins);
        } else {
            classNode = new ClassNode(dot(getPackageName(), name), modifiers, superClass, interfaces, mixins);
        }
        classNode.addAnnotations(annotations);
        classNode.setGenericsTypes(genericsType);
        classNode.setSyntheticPublic(syntheticPublic);
        configureAST(classNode, classDef);

        // we put the class already in output to avoid the most inner classes
        // will be used as first class later in the loader. The first class
        // there determines what GCL#parseClass for example will return, so we
        // have here to ensure it won't be the inner class
        output.addClass(classNode);

        int oldClassCount = innerClassCounter;

        assertNodeType(OBJBLOCK, node);
        objectBlock(node);

        classNode = outerClass;
        innerClassCounter = oldClassCount;
    }

    protected void objectBlock(AST objectBlock) {
        for (AST node = objectBlock.getFirstChild(); node != null; node = node.getNextSibling()) {
            int type = node.getType();
            switch (type) {
                case OBJBLOCK:
                    objectBlock(node);
                    break;

                case ANNOTATION_FIELD_DEF:
                case METHOD_DEF:
                    methodDef(node);
                    break;

                case CTOR_IDENT:
                    constructorDef(node);
                    break;

                case VARIABLE_DEF:
                    fieldDef(node);
                    break;

                case STATIC_INIT:
                    staticInit(node);
                    break;

                case INSTANCE_INIT:
                    objectInit(node);
                    break;

                case ENUM_DEF:
                    enumDef(node);
                    break;

                case ENUM_CONSTANT_DEF:
                    enumConstantDef(node);
                    break;

                case CLASS_DEF:
                    innerClassDef(node);
                    break;

                case INTERFACE_DEF:
                    innerInterfaceDef(node);
                    break;

                default:
                    unknownAST(node);
            }
        }
    }

    protected void enumDef(AST enumNode) {
        assertNodeType(ENUM_DEF, enumNode);
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();

        AST node = enumNode.getFirstChild();
        int modifiers = Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC;
        if (isType(MODIFIERS, node)) {
            modifiers = modifiers(node, annotations, modifiers);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        String name = identifier(node);
        node = node.getNextSibling();

        ClassNode[] interfaces = interfaces(node);
        node = node.getNextSibling();

        boolean syntheticPublic = ((modifiers & Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC) != 0);
        modifiers &= ~Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC;
        String enumName = (classNode != null ? name : dot(getPackageName(), name));
        ClassNode enumClass = EnumHelper.makeEnumNode(enumName, modifiers, interfaces, classNode);
        enumClass.setSyntheticPublic(syntheticPublic);
        ClassNode oldNode = classNode;
        enumClass.addAnnotations(annotations);
        classNode = enumClass;
        assertNodeType(OBJBLOCK, node);
        objectBlock(node);
        classNode = oldNode;

        output.addClass(enumClass);
    }

    protected void enumConstantDef(AST node) {
        enumConstantBeingDef = true;
        assertNodeType(ENUM_CONSTANT_DEF, node);
        AST element = node.getFirstChild();
        if (isType(ANNOTATIONS, element)) {
            element = element.getNextSibling();
        }
        String identifier = identifier(element);
        Expression init = null;
        element = element.getNextSibling();

        if (element != null) {
            init = expression(element);
            ClassNode innerClass = getAnonymousInnerClassNode(init);

            if (innerClass != null) {
                // we have to handle an enum that defines a class for a constant
                // for example the constant having overwriting a method. we need 
                // to configure the inner class 
                innerClass.setSuperClass(classNode);
                innerClass.setModifiers(classNode.getModifiers() | Opcodes.ACC_FINAL);
                // we use a ClassExpression for transportation o EnumVisitor
                init = new ClassExpression(innerClass);
                // and remove the final modifier from classNode to allow the sub class
                classNode.setModifiers(classNode.getModifiers() & ~Opcodes.ACC_FINAL);
            } else if (isType(ELIST, element)) {
                if (init instanceof ListExpression && !((ListExpression) init).isWrapped()) {
                    ListExpression le = new ListExpression();
                    le.addExpression(init);
                    init = le;
                }
            }
        }
        EnumHelper.addEnumConstant(classNode, identifier, init);
        enumConstantBeingDef = false;
    }

    protected void throwsList(AST node, List<ClassNode> list) {
        String name;
        if (isType(DOT, node)) {
            name = qualifiedName(node);
        } else {
            name = identifier(node);
        }
        ClassNode exception = ClassHelper.make(name);
        configureAST(exception, node);
        list.add(exception);
        AST next = node.getNextSibling();
        if (next != null) throwsList(next, list);
    }

    protected void methodDef(AST methodDef) {
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();
        AST node = methodDef.getFirstChild();

        GenericsType[] generics = null;
        if (isType(TYPE_PARAMETERS, node)) {
            generics = makeGenericsType(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        int modifiers = Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC;
        if (isType(MODIFIERS, node)) {
            modifiers = modifiers(node, annotations, modifiers);
            checkNoInvalidModifier(methodDef, "Method", modifiers, Opcodes.ACC_VOLATILE, "volatile");
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        if (isAnInterface()) {
            modifiers |= Opcodes.ACC_ABSTRACT;
        }

        ClassNode returnType = null;
        if (isType(TYPE, node)) {
            returnType = makeTypeWithArguments(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        String name = identifier(node);
        if (classNode != null && !classNode.isAnnotationDefinition()) {
            if (classNode.getNameWithoutPackage().equals(name)) {
                if (isAnInterface()) {
                    throw new ASTRuntimeException(methodDef, "Constructor not permitted within an interface.");
                }
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(methodDef, "Invalid constructor format. Remove '" + returnType.getName() +
                        "' as the return type if you want a constructor, or use a different name if you want a method.");
            }
        }
        node = node.getNextSibling();

        Parameter[] parameters = Parameter.EMPTY_ARRAY;
        ClassNode[] exceptions = ClassNode.EMPTY_ARRAY;

        if (classNode == null || !classNode.isAnnotationDefinition()) {

            assertNodeType(PARAMETERS, node);
            parameters = parameters(node);
            if (parameters == null) parameters = Parameter.EMPTY_ARRAY;
            node = node.getNextSibling();

            if (isType(LITERAL_throws, node)) {
                AST throwsNode = node.getFirstChild();
                List<ClassNode> exceptionList = new ArrayList();
                throwsList(throwsNode, exceptionList);
                exceptions = exceptionList.toArray(exceptions);
                node = node.getNextSibling();
            }
        }

        boolean hasAnnotationDefault = false;
        Statement code = null;
        if ((modifiers & Opcodes.ACC_ABSTRACT) == 0) {
            if (node == null) {
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(methodDef, "You defined a method without body. Try adding a body, or declare it abstract.");
            }
            assertNodeType(SLIST, node);
            code = statementList(node);
        } else if (node != null && classNode.isAnnotationDefinition()) {
            code = statement(node);
            hasAnnotationDefault = true;
        } else if ((modifiers & Opcodes.ACC_ABSTRACT) > 0) {
            if (node != null) {
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(methodDef, "Abstract methods do not define a body.");
            }
        }

        boolean syntheticPublic = ((modifiers & Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC) != 0);
        modifiers &= ~Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC;
        MethodNode methodNode = new MethodNode(name, modifiers, returnType, parameters, exceptions, code);
        methodNode.addAnnotations(annotations);
        methodNode.setGenericsTypes(generics);
        methodNode.setAnnotationDefault(hasAnnotationDefault);
        methodNode.setSyntheticPublic(syntheticPublic);
        configureAST(methodNode, methodDef);

        if (classNode != null) {
            classNode.addMethod(methodNode);
        } else {
            output.addMethod(methodNode);
        }
    }

    private void checkNoInvalidModifier(AST node, String nodeType, int modifiers, int modifier, String modifierText) {
        if ((modifiers & modifier) != 0) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, nodeType + " has an incorrect modifier '" + modifierText + "'.");
        }
    }

    private boolean isAnInterface() {
        return classNode != null && (classNode.getModifiers() & Opcodes.ACC_INTERFACE) > 0;
    }

    protected void staticInit(AST staticInit) {
        BlockStatement code = (BlockStatement) statementList(staticInit);
        classNode.addStaticInitializerStatements(code.getStatements(), false);
    }

    protected void objectInit(AST init) {
        BlockStatement code = (BlockStatement) statementList(init);
        classNode.addObjectInitializerStatements(code);
    }

    protected void constructorDef(AST constructorDef) {
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();
        AST node = constructorDef.getFirstChild();
        int modifiers = Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC;
        if (isType(MODIFIERS, node)) {
            modifiers = modifiers(node, annotations, modifiers);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        assertNodeType(PARAMETERS, node);
        Parameter[] parameters = parameters(node);
        if (parameters == null) parameters = Parameter.EMPTY_ARRAY;
        node = node.getNextSibling();

        ClassNode[] exceptions = ClassNode.EMPTY_ARRAY;
        if (isType(LITERAL_throws, node)) {
            AST throwsNode = node.getFirstChild();
            List<ClassNode> exceptionList = new ArrayList();
            throwsList(throwsNode, exceptionList);
            exceptions = exceptionList.toArray(exceptions);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        assertNodeType(SLIST, node);
        Statement code = statementList(node);

        boolean syntheticPublic = ((modifiers & Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC) != 0);
        modifiers &= ~Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC;
        ConstructorNode constructorNode = classNode.addConstructor(modifiers, parameters, exceptions, code);
        constructorNode.setSyntheticPublic(syntheticPublic);
        constructorNode.addAnnotations(annotations);
        configureAST(constructorNode, constructorDef);
    }

    protected void fieldDef(AST fieldDef) {
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();
        AST node = fieldDef.getFirstChild();

        int modifiers = 0;
        if (isType(MODIFIERS, node)) {
            modifiers = modifiers(node, annotations, modifiers);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        if (classNode.isInterface()) {
            modifiers |= Opcodes.ACC_STATIC | Opcodes.ACC_FINAL;
            if ((modifiers & (Opcodes.ACC_PRIVATE | Opcodes.ACC_PROTECTED)) == 0) {
                modifiers |= Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC;
            }
        }

        ClassNode type = null;
        if (isType(TYPE, node)) {
            type = makeTypeWithArguments(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        String name = identifier(node);
        node = node.getNextSibling();

        Expression initialValue = null;
        if (node != null) {
            assertNodeType(ASSIGN, node);
            initialValue = expression(node.getFirstChild());
        }

        if (classNode.isInterface() && initialValue == null && type != null) {
            if (type == ClassHelper.int_TYPE) {
                initialValue = new ConstantExpression(0);
            } else if (type == ClassHelper.long_TYPE) {
                initialValue = new ConstantExpression(0L);
            } else if (type == ClassHelper.double_TYPE) {
                initialValue = new ConstantExpression(0.0);
            } else if (type == ClassHelper.float_TYPE) {
                initialValue = new ConstantExpression(0.0F);
            } else if (type == ClassHelper.boolean_TYPE) {
                initialValue = ConstantExpression.FALSE;
            } else if (type == ClassHelper.short_TYPE) {
                initialValue = new ConstantExpression((short) 0);
            } else if (type == ClassHelper.byte_TYPE) {
                initialValue = new ConstantExpression((byte) 0);
            } else if (type == ClassHelper.char_TYPE) {
                initialValue = new ConstantExpression((char) 0);
            }
        }


        FieldNode fieldNode = new FieldNode(name, modifiers, type, classNode, initialValue);
        fieldNode.addAnnotations(annotations);
        configureAST(fieldNode, fieldDef);

        if (!hasVisibility(modifiers)) {
            // let's set the modifiers on the field
            int fieldModifiers = 0;
            int flags = Opcodes.ACC_STATIC | Opcodes.ACC_TRANSIENT | Opcodes.ACC_VOLATILE | Opcodes.ACC_FINAL;

            if (!hasVisibility(modifiers)) {
                modifiers |= Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC;
                fieldModifiers |= Opcodes.ACC_PRIVATE;
            }

            // let's pass along any other modifiers we need
            fieldModifiers |= (modifiers & flags);
            fieldNode.setModifiers(fieldModifiers);
            fieldNode.setSynthetic(true);

            // in the case that there is already a field, we would
            // like to use that field, instead of the default field
            // for the property
            FieldNode storedNode = classNode.getDeclaredField(fieldNode.getName());
            if (storedNode != null && !classNode.hasProperty(name)) {
                fieldNode = storedNode;
                // we remove it here, because addProperty will add it
                // again and we want to avoid it showing up multiple
                // times in the fields list.
                classNode.getFields().remove(storedNode);
            }

            PropertyNode propertyNode = new PropertyNode(fieldNode, modifiers, null, null);
            configureAST(propertyNode, fieldDef);
            classNode.addProperty(propertyNode);
        } else {
            fieldNode.setModifiers(modifiers);
            // if there is a property of that name, then a field of that
            // name already exists, which means this new field here should
            // be used instead of the field the property originally has.
            PropertyNode pn = classNode.getProperty(name);
            if (pn != null && pn.getField().isSynthetic()) {
                classNode.getFields().remove(pn.getField());
                pn.setField(fieldNode);
            }
            classNode.addField(fieldNode);
        }
    }

    protected ClassNode[] interfaces(AST node) {
        List<ClassNode> interfaceList = new ArrayList();
        for (AST implementNode = node.getFirstChild(); implementNode != null; implementNode = implementNode.getNextSibling()) {
            interfaceList.add(makeTypeWithArguments(implementNode));
        }
        ClassNode[] interfaces = ClassNode.EMPTY_ARRAY;
        if (!interfaceList.isEmpty()) {
            interfaces = new ClassNode[interfaceList.size()];
            interfaceList.toArray(interfaces);
        }
        return interfaces;
    }

    protected Parameter[] parameters(AST parametersNode) {
        AST node = parametersNode.getFirstChild();
        firstParam = false;
        firstParamIsVarArg = false;
        if (node == null) {
            if (isType(IMPLICIT_PARAMETERS, parametersNode)) return Parameter.EMPTY_ARRAY;
            return null;
        } else {
            List<Parameter> parameters = new ArrayList();
            AST firstParameterNode = null;
            do {
                firstParam = (firstParameterNode == null);
                if (firstParameterNode == null) firstParameterNode = node;
                parameters.add(parameter(node));
                node = node.getNextSibling();
            }
            while (node != null);

            verifyParameters(parameters, firstParameterNode);

            Parameter[] answer = new Parameter[parameters.size()];
            parameters.toArray(answer);
            return answer;
        }
    }

    private void verifyParameters(List<Parameter> parameters, AST firstParameterNode) {
        if (parameters.size() <= 1) return;

        Parameter first = parameters.get(0);
        if (firstParamIsVarArg) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(firstParameterNode, "The var-arg parameter " + first.getName() + " must be the last parameter.");
        }
    }

    protected Parameter parameter(AST paramNode) {
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();
        boolean variableParameterDef = isType(VARIABLE_PARAMETER_DEF, paramNode);
        AST node = paramNode.getFirstChild();

        int modifiers = 0;
        if (isType(MODIFIERS, node)) {
            modifiers = modifiers(node, annotations, modifiers);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        ClassNode type = ClassHelper.DYNAMIC_TYPE;
        if (isType(TYPE, node)) {
            type = makeTypeWithArguments(node);
            if (variableParameterDef) type = type.makeArray();
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        String name = identifier(node);
        node = node.getNextSibling();

        VariableExpression leftExpression = new VariableExpression(name, type);
        leftExpression.setModifiers(modifiers);
        configureAST(leftExpression, paramNode);

        Parameter parameter = null;
        if (node != null) {
            assertNodeType(ASSIGN, node);
            Expression rightExpression = expression(node.getFirstChild());
            if (isAnInterface()) {
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "Cannot specify default value for method parameter '" + name + " = " + rightExpression.getText() + "' inside an interface");
            }
            parameter = new Parameter(type, name, rightExpression);
        } else
            parameter = new Parameter(type, name);

        if (firstParam) firstParamIsVarArg = variableParameterDef;

        configureAST(parameter, paramNode);
        parameter.addAnnotations(annotations);
        parameter.setModifiers(modifiers);
        return parameter;
    }

    protected int modifiers(AST modifierNode, List<AnnotationNode> annotations, int defaultModifiers) {
        assertNodeType(MODIFIERS, modifierNode);

        boolean access = false;
        int answer = 0;

        for (AST node = modifierNode.getFirstChild(); node != null; node = node.getNextSibling()) {
            int type = node.getType();
            switch (type) {
                case STATIC_IMPORT:
                    // ignore
                    break;

                // annotations
                case ANNOTATION:
                    annotations.add(annotation(node));
                    break;

                // core access scope modifiers
                case LITERAL_private:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_PRIVATE);
                    access = setAccessTrue(node, access);
                    break;

                case LITERAL_protected:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_PROTECTED);
                    access = setAccessTrue(node, access);
                    break;

                case LITERAL_public:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC);
                    access = setAccessTrue(node, access);
                    break;

                // other modifiers
                case ABSTRACT:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_ABSTRACT);
                    break;

                case FINAL:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_FINAL);
                    break;

                case LITERAL_native:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_NATIVE);
                    break;

                case LITERAL_static:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_STATIC);
                    break;

                case STRICTFP:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_STRICT);
                    break;

                case LITERAL_synchronized:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_SYNCHRONIZED);
                    break;

                case LITERAL_transient:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_TRANSIENT);
                    break;

                case LITERAL_volatile:
                    answer = setModifierBit(node, answer, Opcodes.ACC_VOLATILE);
                    break;

                default:
                    unknownAST(node);
            }
        }
        if (!access) {
            answer |= defaultModifiers;
            // ACC_SYNTHETIC isn't used here, use it as a special flag
            if (defaultModifiers == Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC) answer |= Opcodes.ACC_SYNTHETIC;
        }
        return answer;
    }

    protected boolean setAccessTrue(AST node, boolean access) {
        if (!access) {
            return true;
        } else {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "Cannot specify modifier: " + node.getText() + " when access scope has already been defined");
        }
    }

    protected int setModifierBit(AST node, int answer, int bit) {
        if ((answer & bit) != 0) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "Cannot repeat modifier: " + node.getText());
        }
        return answer | bit;
    }

    protected AnnotationNode annotation(AST annotationNode) {
        AST node = annotationNode.getFirstChild();
        String name = qualifiedName(node);
        AnnotationNode annotatedNode = new AnnotationNode(ClassHelper.make(name));
        configureAST(annotatedNode, annotationNode);
        while (true) {
            node = node.getNextSibling();
            if (isType(ANNOTATION_MEMBER_VALUE_PAIR, node)) {
                AST memberNode = node.getFirstChild();
                String param = identifier(memberNode);
                Expression expression = expression(memberNode.getNextSibling());
                if (annotatedNode.getMember(param) != null) {
                    throw new ASTRuntimeException(memberNode, "Annotation member '" + param + "' has already been associated with a value");
                }
                annotatedNode.setMember(param, expression);
            } else {
                break;
            }
        }
        return annotatedNode;
    }


    // Statements
    //-------------------------------------------------------------------------

    protected Statement statement(AST node) {
        Statement statement = null;
        int type = node.getType();
        switch (type) {
            case SLIST:
            case LITERAL_finally:
                statement = statementList(node);
                break;

            case METHOD_CALL:
                statement = methodCall(node);
                break;

            case VARIABLE_DEF:
                statement = variableDef(node);
                break;


            case LABELED_STAT:
                statement = labelledStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_assert:
                statement = assertStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_break:
                statement = breakStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_continue:
                statement = continueStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_if:
                statement = ifStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_for:
                statement = forStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_return:
                statement = returnStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_synchronized:
                statement = synchronizedStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_switch:
                statement = switchStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_try:
                statement = tryStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_throw:
                statement = throwStatement(node);
                break;

            case LITERAL_while:
                statement = whileStatement(node);
                break;

            default:
                statement = new ExpressionStatement(expression(node));
        }
        if (statement != null) {
            configureAST(statement, node);
        }
        return statement;
    }

    protected Statement statementList(AST code) {
        return statementListNoChild(code.getFirstChild(), code);
    }

    protected Statement statementListNoChild(AST node, AST alternativeConfigureNode) {
        BlockStatement block = new BlockStatement();
        // alternativeConfigureNode is used only to set the source position
        if (node != null) {
            configureAST(block, node);
        } else {
            configureAST(block, alternativeConfigureNode);
        }
        for (; node != null; node = node.getNextSibling()) {
            block.addStatement(statement(node));
        }
        return block;
    }

    protected Statement assertStatement(AST assertNode) {
        AST node = assertNode.getFirstChild();
        BooleanExpression booleanExpression = booleanExpression(node);
        Expression messageExpression = null;

        node = node.getNextSibling();
        if (node != null) {
            messageExpression = expression(node);
        } else {
            messageExpression = ConstantExpression.NULL;
        }
        AssertStatement assertStatement = new AssertStatement(booleanExpression, messageExpression);
        configureAST(assertStatement, assertNode);
        return assertStatement;
    }

    protected Statement breakStatement(AST node) {
        BreakStatement breakStatement = new BreakStatement(label(node));
        configureAST(breakStatement, node);
        return breakStatement;
    }

    protected Statement continueStatement(AST node) {
        ContinueStatement continueStatement = new ContinueStatement(label(node));
        configureAST(continueStatement, node);
        return continueStatement;
    }

    protected Statement forStatement(AST forNode) {
        AST inNode = forNode.getFirstChild();
        Expression collectionExpression;
        Parameter forParameter;
        if (isType(CLOSURE_LIST, inNode)) {
            forStatementBeingDef = true;
            ClosureListExpression clist = closureListExpression(inNode);
            forStatementBeingDef = false;
            int size = clist.getExpressions().size();
            if (size != 3) {
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(inNode, "3 expressions are required for the classic for loop, you gave " + size);
            }
            collectionExpression = clist;
            forParameter = ForStatement.FOR_LOOP_DUMMY;
        } else {
            AST variableNode = inNode.getFirstChild();
            AST collectionNode = variableNode.getNextSibling();

            ClassNode type = ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE;
            if (isType(VARIABLE_DEF, variableNode)) {
                AST node = variableNode.getFirstChild();
                // skip the final modifier if it's present
                if (isType(MODIFIERS, node)) {
                    int modifiersMask = modifiers(node, new ArrayList<AnnotationNode>(), 0);
                    // only final modifier allowed
                    if ((modifiersMask & ~Opcodes.ACC_FINAL) != 0) {
                        throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "Only the 'final' modifier is allowed in front of the for loop variable.");
                    }
                    node = node.getNextSibling();
                }
                type = makeTypeWithArguments(node);

                variableNode = node.getNextSibling();
            }
            String variable = identifier(variableNode);

            collectionExpression = expression(collectionNode);
            forParameter = new Parameter(type, variable);
            configureAST(forParameter, variableNode);
        }

        final AST node = inNode.getNextSibling();
        Statement block;
        if (isType(SEMI, node)) {
            block = EmptyStatement.INSTANCE;
        } else {
            block = statement(node);
        }
        ForStatement forStatement = new ForStatement(forParameter, collectionExpression, block);
        configureAST(forStatement, forNode);
        return forStatement;
    }

    protected Statement ifStatement(AST ifNode) {
        AST node = ifNode.getFirstChild();
        assertNodeType(EXPR, node);
        BooleanExpression booleanExpression = booleanExpression(node);

        node = node.getNextSibling();
        Statement ifBlock = statement(node);

        Statement elseBlock = EmptyStatement.INSTANCE;
        node = node.getNextSibling();
        if (node != null) {
            elseBlock = statement(node);
        }
        IfStatement ifStatement = new IfStatement(booleanExpression, ifBlock, elseBlock);
        configureAST(ifStatement, ifNode);
        return ifStatement;
    }

    protected Statement labelledStatement(AST labelNode) {
        AST node = labelNode.getFirstChild();
        String label = identifier(node);
        Statement statement = statement(node.getNextSibling());
        if (statement.getStatementLabel() == null) // if statement has multiple labels, retain the last one
            statement.setStatementLabel(label);
        return statement;
    }

    protected Statement methodCall(AST code) {
        Expression expression = methodCallExpression(code);
        ExpressionStatement expressionStatement = new ExpressionStatement(expression);
        configureAST(expressionStatement, code);
        return expressionStatement;
    }

    protected Expression declarationExpression(AST variableDef) {
        AST node = variableDef.getFirstChild();
        ClassNode type = null;
        List<AnnotationNode> annotations = new ArrayList();
        int modifiers = 0;
        if (isType(MODIFIERS, node)) {
            // force check of modifier conflicts
            modifiers = modifiers(node, annotations, 0);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }
        if (isType(TYPE, node)) {
            type = makeTypeWithArguments(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        Expression leftExpression;
        Expression rightExpression = EmptyExpression.INSTANCE;
        AST right;

        if (isType(ASSIGN, node)) {
            node = node.getFirstChild();
            AST left = node.getFirstChild();
            ArgumentListExpression alist = new ArgumentListExpression();
            for (AST varDef = left; varDef != null; varDef = varDef.getNextSibling()) {
                assertNodeType(VARIABLE_DEF, varDef);
                DeclarationExpression de = (DeclarationExpression) declarationExpression(varDef);
                alist.addExpression(de.getVariableExpression());
            }
            leftExpression = alist;
            right = node.getNextSibling();
            if (right != null) rightExpression = expression(right);
        } else {
            String name = identifier(node);
            VariableExpression ve = new VariableExpression(name, type);
            ve.setModifiers(modifiers);
            leftExpression = ve;

            right = node.getNextSibling();
            if (right != null) {
                assertNodeType(ASSIGN, right);
                rightExpression = expression(right.getFirstChild());
            }
        }

        configureAST(leftExpression, node);

        Token token = makeToken(Types.ASSIGN, variableDef);
        DeclarationExpression expression = new DeclarationExpression(leftExpression, token, rightExpression);
        expression.addAnnotations(annotations);
        configureAST(expression, variableDef);
        ExpressionStatement expressionStatement = new ExpressionStatement(expression);
        configureAST(expressionStatement, variableDef);
        return expression;
    }

    protected Statement variableDef(AST variableDef) {
        ExpressionStatement expressionStatement = new ExpressionStatement(declarationExpression(variableDef));
        configureAST(expressionStatement, variableDef);
        return expressionStatement;
    }

    protected Statement returnStatement(AST node) {
        AST exprNode = node.getFirstChild();

        // This will pick up incorrect sibling node if 'node' is a plain 'return'
        //
        //if (exprNode == null) {
        //    exprNode = node.getNextSibling();
        //}
        Expression expression = exprNode == null ? ConstantExpression.NULL : expression(exprNode);
        ReturnStatement returnStatement = new ReturnStatement(expression);
        configureAST(returnStatement, node);
        return returnStatement;
    }

    protected Statement switchStatement(AST switchNode) {
        AST node = switchNode.getFirstChild();
        Expression expression = expression(node);
        Statement defaultStatement = EmptyStatement.INSTANCE;

        List list = new ArrayList();
        for (node = node.getNextSibling(); isType(CASE_GROUP, node); node = node.getNextSibling()) {
            Statement tmpDefaultStatement;
            AST child = node.getFirstChild();
            if (isType(LITERAL_case, child)) {
                List cases = new LinkedList();
                // default statement can be grouped with previous case
                tmpDefaultStatement = caseStatements(child, cases);
                list.addAll(cases);
            } else {
                tmpDefaultStatement = statement(child.getNextSibling());
            }
            if (tmpDefaultStatement != EmptyStatement.INSTANCE) {
                if (defaultStatement == EmptyStatement.INSTANCE) {
                    defaultStatement = tmpDefaultStatement;
                } else {
                    throw new ASTRuntimeException(switchNode, "The default case is already defined.");
                }
            }
        }
        if (node != null) {
            unknownAST(node);
        }
        SwitchStatement switchStatement = new SwitchStatement(expression, list, defaultStatement);
        configureAST(switchStatement, switchNode);
        return switchStatement;
    }

    protected Statement caseStatements(AST node, List cases) {
        List<Expression> expressions = new LinkedList();
        Statement statement = EmptyStatement.INSTANCE;
        Statement defaultStatement = EmptyStatement.INSTANCE;
        AST nextSibling = node;
        do {
            Expression expression = expression(nextSibling.getFirstChild());
            expressions.add(expression);
            nextSibling = nextSibling.getNextSibling();
        } while (isType(LITERAL_case, nextSibling));
        if (nextSibling != null) {
            if (isType(LITERAL_default, nextSibling)) {
                defaultStatement = statement(nextSibling.getNextSibling());
                statement = EmptyStatement.INSTANCE;
            } else {
                statement = statement(nextSibling);
            }
        }
        Iterator iterator = expressions.iterator();
        while (iterator.hasNext()) {
            Expression expr = (Expression) iterator.next();
            Statement stmt;
            if (iterator.hasNext()) {
                stmt = new CaseStatement(expr, EmptyStatement.INSTANCE);
            } else {
                stmt = new CaseStatement(expr, statement);
            }
            configureAST(stmt, node);
            cases.add(stmt);
        }
        return defaultStatement;
    }

    protected Statement synchronizedStatement(AST syncNode) {
        AST node = syncNode.getFirstChild();
        Expression expression = expression(node);
        Statement code = statement(node.getNextSibling());
        SynchronizedStatement synchronizedStatement = new SynchronizedStatement(expression, code);
        configureAST(synchronizedStatement, syncNode);
        return synchronizedStatement;
    }

    protected Statement throwStatement(AST node) {
        AST expressionNode = node.getFirstChild();
        if (expressionNode == null) {
            expressionNode = node.getNextSibling();
        }
        if (expressionNode == null) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "No expression available");
        }
        ThrowStatement throwStatement = new ThrowStatement(expression(expressionNode));
        configureAST(throwStatement, node);
        return throwStatement;
    }

    protected Statement tryStatement(AST tryStatementNode) {
        AST tryNode = tryStatementNode.getFirstChild();
        Statement tryStatement = statement(tryNode);
        Statement finallyStatement = EmptyStatement.INSTANCE;
        AST node = tryNode.getNextSibling();

        // let's do the catch nodes
        List<CatchStatement> catches = new ArrayList();
        for (; node != null && isType(LITERAL_catch, node); node = node.getNextSibling()) {
            catches.add(catchStatement(node));
        }

        if (isType(LITERAL_finally, node)) {
            finallyStatement = statement(node);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }

        if (finallyStatement instanceof EmptyStatement && catches.size() == 0) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(tryStatementNode, "A try statement must have at least one catch or finally block.");
        }

        TryCatchStatement tryCatchStatement = new TryCatchStatement(tryStatement, finallyStatement);
        configureAST(tryCatchStatement, tryStatementNode);
        for (CatchStatement statement : catches) {
            tryCatchStatement.addCatch(statement);
        }
        return tryCatchStatement;
    }

    protected CatchStatement catchStatement(AST catchNode) {
        AST node = catchNode.getFirstChild();
        Parameter parameter = parameter(node);
        ClassNode exceptionType = parameter.getType();
        String variable = parameter.getName();
        node = node.getNextSibling();
        Statement code = statement(node);
        Parameter catchParameter = new Parameter(exceptionType, variable);
        CatchStatement answer = new CatchStatement(catchParameter, code);
        configureAST(answer, catchNode);
        return answer;
    }

    protected Statement whileStatement(AST whileNode) {
        AST node = whileNode.getFirstChild();
        assertNodeType(EXPR, node);
        // TODO remove this once we support declarations in the while condition
        if (isType(VARIABLE_DEF, node.getFirstChild())) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(whileNode,
                    "While loop condition contains a declaration; this is currently unsupported.");
        }
        BooleanExpression booleanExpression = booleanExpression(node);

        node = node.getNextSibling();
        Statement block;
        if (isType(SEMI, node)) {
            block = EmptyStatement.INSTANCE;
        } else {
            block = statement(node);
        }
        WhileStatement whileStatement = new WhileStatement(booleanExpression, block);
        configureAST(whileStatement, whileNode);
        return whileStatement;
    }


    // Expressions
    //-------------------------------------------------------------------------

    protected Expression expression(AST node) {
        return expression(node, false);
    }

    protected Expression expression(AST node, boolean convertToConstant) {
        Expression expression = expressionSwitch(node);
        if (convertToConstant && expression instanceof VariableExpression) {
            // a method name can never be a VariableExpression, so it must converted
            // to a ConstantExpression then. This is needed as the expression
            // method doesn't know we want a ConstantExpression instead of a
            // VariableExpression
            VariableExpression ve = (VariableExpression) expression;
            if (!ve.isThisExpression() && !ve.isSuperExpression()) {
                expression = new ConstantExpression(ve.getName());
            }
        }
        configureAST(expression, node);
        return expression;
    }

    protected Expression expressionSwitch(AST node) {
        int type = node.getType();
        switch (type) {
            case EXPR:
                return expression(node.getFirstChild());

            case ELIST:
                return expressionList(node);

            case SLIST:
                return blockExpression(node);

            case CLOSABLE_BLOCK:
                return closureExpression(node);

            case SUPER_CTOR_CALL:
                return specialConstructorCallExpression(node, ClassNode.SUPER);

            case METHOD_CALL:
                return methodCallExpression(node);

            case LITERAL_new:
                return constructorCallExpression(node);

            case CTOR_CALL:
                return specialConstructorCallExpression(node, ClassNode.THIS);

            case QUESTION:
            case ELVIS_OPERATOR:
                return ternaryExpression(node);

            case OPTIONAL_DOT:
            case SPREAD_DOT:
            case DOT:
                return dotExpression(node);

            case IDENT:
            case LITERAL_boolean:
            case LITERAL_byte:
            case LITERAL_char:
            case LITERAL_double:
            case LITERAL_float:
            case LITERAL_int:
            case LITERAL_long:
            case LITERAL_short:
            case LITERAL_void:
            case LITERAL_this:
            case LITERAL_super:
                return variableExpression(node);

            case LIST_CONSTRUCTOR:
                return listExpression(node);

            case MAP_CONSTRUCTOR:
                return mapExpression(node);

            case LABELED_ARG:
                return mapEntryExpression(node);

            case SPREAD_ARG:
                return spreadExpression(node);

            case SPREAD_MAP_ARG:
                return spreadMapExpression(node);

            // commented out of groovy.g due to non determinisms
            //case MEMBER_POINTER_DEFAULT:
            //    return defaultMethodPointerExpression(node);

            case MEMBER_POINTER:
                return methodPointerExpression(node);

            case INDEX_OP:
                return indexExpression(node);

            case LITERAL_instanceof:
                return instanceofExpression(node);

            case LITERAL_as:
                return asExpression(node);

            case TYPECAST:
                return castExpression(node);

            // literals

            case LITERAL_true:
                return literalExpression(node, Boolean.TRUE);
            case LITERAL_false:
                return literalExpression(node, Boolean.FALSE);
            case LITERAL_null:
                return literalExpression(node, null);
            case STRING_LITERAL:
                return literalExpression(node, node.getText());

            case STRING_CONSTRUCTOR:
                return gstring(node);

            case NUM_DOUBLE:
            case NUM_FLOAT:
            case NUM_BIG_DECIMAL:
                return decimalExpression(node);

            case NUM_BIG_INT:
            case NUM_INT:
            case NUM_LONG:
                return integerExpression(node);

            // Unary expressions
            case LNOT:
                NotExpression notExpression = new NotExpression(expression(node.getFirstChild()));
                configureAST(notExpression, node);
                return notExpression;

            case UNARY_MINUS:
                return unaryMinusExpression(node);

            case BNOT:
                BitwiseNegationExpression bitwiseNegationExpression = new BitwiseNegationExpression(expression(node.getFirstChild()));
                configureAST(bitwiseNegationExpression, node);
                return bitwiseNegationExpression;

            case UNARY_PLUS:
                return unaryPlusExpression(node);

            // Prefix expressions
            case INC:
                return prefixExpression(node, Types.PLUS_PLUS);

            case DEC:
                return prefixExpression(node, Types.MINUS_MINUS);

            // Postfix expressions
            case POST_INC:
                return postfixExpression(node, Types.PLUS_PLUS);

            case POST_DEC:
                return postfixExpression(node, Types.MINUS_MINUS);


            // Binary expressions

            case ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.ASSIGN, node);

            case EQUAL:
                return binaryExpression(Types.COMPARE_EQUAL, node);

            case IDENTICAL:
                return binaryExpression(Types.COMPARE_IDENTICAL, node);

            case NOT_EQUAL:
                return binaryExpression(Types.COMPARE_NOT_EQUAL, node);

            case NOT_IDENTICAL:
                return binaryExpression(Types.COMPARE_NOT_IDENTICAL, node);

            case COMPARE_TO:
                return binaryExpression(Types.COMPARE_TO, node);

            case LE:
                return binaryExpression(Types.COMPARE_LESS_THAN_EQUAL, node);

            case LT:
                return binaryExpression(Types.COMPARE_LESS_THAN, node);

            case GT:
                return binaryExpression(Types.COMPARE_GREATER_THAN, node);

            case GE:
                return binaryExpression(Types.COMPARE_GREATER_THAN_EQUAL, node);

            /**
             * TODO treble equal?
             return binaryExpression(Types.COMPARE_IDENTICAL, node);

             case ???:
             return binaryExpression(Types.LOGICAL_AND_EQUAL, node);

             case ???:
             return binaryExpression(Types.LOGICAL_OR_EQUAL, node);

             */

            case LAND:
                return binaryExpression(Types.LOGICAL_AND, node);

            case LOR:
                return binaryExpression(Types.LOGICAL_OR, node);

            case BAND:
                return binaryExpression(Types.BITWISE_AND, node);

            case BAND_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.BITWISE_AND_EQUAL, node);

            case BOR:
                return binaryExpression(Types.BITWISE_OR, node);

            case BOR_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.BITWISE_OR_EQUAL, node);

            case BXOR:
                return binaryExpression(Types.BITWISE_XOR, node);

            case BXOR_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.BITWISE_XOR_EQUAL, node);


            case PLUS:
                return binaryExpression(Types.PLUS, node);

            case PLUS_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.PLUS_EQUAL, node);


            case MINUS:
                return binaryExpression(Types.MINUS, node);

            case MINUS_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.MINUS_EQUAL, node);


            case STAR:
                return binaryExpression(Types.MULTIPLY, node);

            case STAR_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.MULTIPLY_EQUAL, node);


            case STAR_STAR:
                return binaryExpression(Types.POWER, node);

            case STAR_STAR_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.POWER_EQUAL, node);


            case DIV:
                return binaryExpression(Types.DIVIDE, node);

            case DIV_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.DIVIDE_EQUAL, node);


            case MOD:
                return binaryExpression(Types.MOD, node);

            case MOD_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.MOD_EQUAL, node);

            case SL:
                return binaryExpression(Types.LEFT_SHIFT, node);

            case SL_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.LEFT_SHIFT_EQUAL, node);

            case SR:
                return binaryExpression(Types.RIGHT_SHIFT, node);

            case SR_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.RIGHT_SHIFT_EQUAL, node);

            case BSR:
                return binaryExpression(Types.RIGHT_SHIFT_UNSIGNED, node);

            case BSR_ASSIGN:
                return binaryExpression(Types.RIGHT_SHIFT_UNSIGNED_EQUAL, node);

            case VARIABLE_DEF:
                return declarationExpression(node);

            // Regex
            case REGEX_FIND:
                return binaryExpression(Types.FIND_REGEX, node);

            case REGEX_MATCH:
                return binaryExpression(Types.MATCH_REGEX, node);


            // Ranges
            case RANGE_INCLUSIVE:
                return rangeExpression(node, true);

            case RANGE_EXCLUSIVE:
                return rangeExpression(node, false);

            case DYNAMIC_MEMBER:
                return dynamicMemberExpression(node);

            case LITERAL_in:
                return binaryExpression(Types.KEYWORD_IN, node);

            case ANNOTATION:
                return new AnnotationConstantExpression(annotation(node));

            case CLOSURE_LIST:
                return closureListExpression(node);

            case LBRACK:
            case LPAREN:
                return tupleExpression(node);

            case OBJBLOCK:
                return anonymousInnerClassDef(node);

            default:
                unknownAST(node);
        }
        return null;
    }

    private TupleExpression tupleExpression(AST node) {
        TupleExpression exp = new TupleExpression();
        configureAST(exp, node);
        node = node.getFirstChild();
        while (node != null) {
            assertNodeType(VARIABLE_DEF, node);
            AST nameNode = node.getFirstChild().getNextSibling();
            VariableExpression varExp = new VariableExpression(nameNode.getText());
            configureAST(varExp, nameNode);
            exp.addExpression(varExp);
            node = node.getNextSibling();
        }
        return exp;
    }

    private ClosureListExpression closureListExpression(AST node) {
        isClosureListExpressionAllowedHere(node);
        AST exprNode = node.getFirstChild();
        List<Expression> list = new LinkedList();
        while (exprNode != null) {
            if (isType(EXPR, exprNode)) {
                Expression expr = expression(exprNode);
                configureAST(expr, exprNode);
                list.add(expr);
            } else {
                assertNodeType(EMPTY_STAT, exprNode);
                list.add(EmptyExpression.INSTANCE);
            }

            exprNode = exprNode.getNextSibling();
        }
        ClosureListExpression cle = new ClosureListExpression(list);
        configureAST(cle, node);
        return cle;
    }

    private void isClosureListExpressionAllowedHere(AST node) {
        if (!forStatementBeingDef) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(node,
                    "Expression list of the form (a; b; c) is not supported in this context.");
        }
    }

    protected Expression dynamicMemberExpression(AST dynamicMemberNode) {
        AST node = dynamicMemberNode.getFirstChild();
        return expression(node);
    }

    protected Expression ternaryExpression(AST ternaryNode) {
        AST node = ternaryNode.getFirstChild();
        Expression base = expression(node);
        node = node.getNextSibling();
        Expression left = expression(node);
        node = node.getNextSibling();
        Expression ret;
        if (node == null) {
            ret = new ElvisOperatorExpression(base, left);
        } else {
            Expression right = expression(node);
            BooleanExpression booleanExpression = new BooleanExpression(base);
            booleanExpression.setSourcePosition(base);
            ret = new TernaryExpression(booleanExpression, left, right);
        }
        configureAST(ret, ternaryNode);
        return ret;
    }

    protected Expression variableExpression(AST node) {
        String text = node.getText();

        // TODO we might wanna only try to resolve the name if we are
        // on the left hand side of an expression or before a dot?
        VariableExpression variableExpression = new VariableExpression(text);
        configureAST(variableExpression, node);
        return variableExpression;
    }

    protected Expression literalExpression(AST node, Object value) {
        ConstantExpression constantExpression = new ConstantExpression(value);
        configureAST(constantExpression, node);
        return constantExpression;
    }

    protected Expression rangeExpression(AST rangeNode, boolean inclusive) {
        AST node = rangeNode.getFirstChild();
        Expression left = expression(node);
        Expression right = expression(node.getNextSibling());
        RangeExpression rangeExpression = new RangeExpression(left, right, inclusive);
        configureAST(rangeExpression, rangeNode);
        return rangeExpression;
    }

    protected Expression spreadExpression(AST node) {
        AST exprNode = node.getFirstChild();
        AST listNode = exprNode.getFirstChild();
        Expression right = expression(listNode);
        SpreadExpression spreadExpression = new SpreadExpression(right);
        configureAST(spreadExpression, node);
        return spreadExpression;
    }

    protected Expression spreadMapExpression(AST node) {
        AST exprNode = node.getFirstChild();
        Expression expr = expression(exprNode);
        SpreadMapExpression spreadMapExpression = new SpreadMapExpression(expr);
        configureAST(spreadMapExpression, node);
        return spreadMapExpression;
    }

    protected Expression methodPointerExpression(AST node) {
        AST exprNode = node.getFirstChild();
        Expression objectExpression = expression(exprNode);
        AST mNode = exprNode.getNextSibling();
        Expression methodName;
        if (isType(DYNAMIC_MEMBER, mNode)) {
            methodName = expression(mNode);
        } else {
            methodName = new ConstantExpression(identifier(mNode));
        }
        configureAST(methodName, mNode);
        MethodPointerExpression methodPointerExpression = new MethodPointerExpression(objectExpression, methodName);
        configureAST(methodPointerExpression, node);
        return methodPointerExpression;
    }

/*  commented out due to groovy.g non-determinisms
  protected Expression defaultMethodPointerExpression(AST node) {
        AST exprNode = node.getFirstChild();
        String methodName = exprNode.toString();
        MethodPointerExpression methodPointerExpression = new MethodPointerExpression(null, methodName);
        configureAST(methodPointerExpression, node);
        return methodPointerExpression;
    }
*/

    protected Expression listExpression(AST listNode) {
        List<Expression> expressions = new ArrayList();
        AST elist = listNode.getFirstChild();
        assertNodeType(ELIST, elist);

        for (AST node = elist.getFirstChild(); node != null; node = node.getNextSibling()) {
            // check for stray labeled arguments:
            switch (node.getType()) {
                case LABELED_ARG:
                    assertNodeType(COMMA, node);
                    break;  // helpful error?
                case SPREAD_MAP_ARG:
                    assertNodeType(SPREAD_ARG, node);
                    break;  // helpful error
            }
            expressions.add(expression(node));
        }
        ListExpression listExpression = new ListExpression(expressions);
        configureAST(listExpression, listNode);
        return listExpression;
    }

    /**
     * Typically only used for map constructors I think?
     */
    protected Expression mapExpression(AST mapNode) {
        List expressions = new ArrayList();
        AST elist = mapNode.getFirstChild();
        if (elist != null) {  // totally empty in the case of [:]
            assertNodeType(ELIST, elist);
            for (AST node = elist.getFirstChild(); node != null; node = node.getNextSibling()) {
                switch (node.getType()) {
                    case LABELED_ARG:
                    case SPREAD_MAP_ARG:
                        break;  // legal cases
                    case SPREAD_ARG:
                        assertNodeType(SPREAD_MAP_ARG, node);
                        break;  // helpful error
                    default:
                        assertNodeType(LABELED_ARG, node);
                        break;  // helpful error
                }
                expressions.add(mapEntryExpression(node));
            }
        }
        MapExpression mapExpression = new MapExpression(expressions);
        configureAST(mapExpression, mapNode);
        return mapExpression;
    }

    protected MapEntryExpression mapEntryExpression(AST node) {
        if (node.getType() == SPREAD_MAP_ARG) {
            AST rightNode = node.getFirstChild();
            Expression keyExpression = spreadMapExpression(node);
            Expression rightExpression = expression(rightNode);
            MapEntryExpression mapEntryExpression = new MapEntryExpression(keyExpression, rightExpression);
            configureAST(mapEntryExpression, node);
            return mapEntryExpression;
        } else {
            AST keyNode = node.getFirstChild();
            Expression keyExpression = expression(keyNode);
            AST valueNode = keyNode.getNextSibling();
            Expression valueExpression = expression(valueNode);
            MapEntryExpression mapEntryExpression = new MapEntryExpression(keyExpression, valueExpression);
            configureAST(mapEntryExpression, node);
            return mapEntryExpression;
        }
    }


    protected Expression instanceofExpression(AST node) {
        AST leftNode = node.getFirstChild();
        Expression leftExpression = expression(leftNode);

        AST rightNode = leftNode.getNextSibling();
        ClassNode type = buildName(rightNode);
        assertTypeNotNull(type, rightNode);

        Expression rightExpression = new ClassExpression(type);
        configureAST(rightExpression, rightNode);
        BinaryExpression binaryExpression = new BinaryExpression(leftExpression, makeToken(Types.KEYWORD_INSTANCEOF, node), rightExpression);
        configureAST(binaryExpression, node);
        return binaryExpression;
    }

    protected void assertTypeNotNull(ClassNode type, AST rightNode) {
        if (type == null) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(rightNode, "No type available for: " + qualifiedName(rightNode));
        }
    }

    protected Expression asExpression(AST node) {
        AST leftNode = node.getFirstChild();
        Expression leftExpression = expression(leftNode);

        AST rightNode = leftNode.getNextSibling();
        ClassNode type = makeTypeWithArguments(rightNode);

        return CastExpression.asExpression(type, leftExpression);
    }

    protected Expression castExpression(AST castNode) {
        AST node = castNode.getFirstChild();
        ClassNode type = makeTypeWithArguments(node);
        assertTypeNotNull(type, node);

        AST expressionNode = node.getNextSibling();
        Expression expression = expression(expressionNode);

        CastExpression castExpression = new CastExpression(type, expression);
        configureAST(castExpression, castNode);
        return castExpression;
    }


    protected Expression indexExpression(AST indexNode) {
        AST bracket = indexNode.getFirstChild();
        AST leftNode = bracket.getNextSibling();
        Expression leftExpression = expression(leftNode);

        AST rightNode = leftNode.getNextSibling();
        Expression rightExpression = expression(rightNode);

        BinaryExpression binaryExpression = new BinaryExpression(leftExpression, makeToken(Types.LEFT_SQUARE_BRACKET, bracket), rightExpression);
        configureAST(binaryExpression, indexNode);
        return binaryExpression;
    }

    protected Expression binaryExpression(int type, AST node) {
        Token token = makeToken(type, node);

        AST leftNode = node.getFirstChild();
        Expression leftExpression = expression(leftNode);

        AST rightNode = leftNode.getNextSibling();
        if (rightNode == null) {
            return leftExpression;
        }

        if (Types.ofType(type, Types.ASSIGNMENT_OPERATOR)) {
            if (leftExpression instanceof VariableExpression ||
                    leftExpression.getClass() == PropertyExpression.class ||
                    leftExpression instanceof FieldExpression ||
                    leftExpression instanceof AttributeExpression ||
                    leftExpression instanceof DeclarationExpression ||
                    leftExpression instanceof TupleExpression) {
                // Do nothing.
            } else if (leftExpression instanceof ConstantExpression) {
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "\n[" + ((ConstantExpression) leftExpression).getValue() + "] is a constant expression, but it should be a variable expression");
            } else if (leftExpression instanceof BinaryExpression) {
                Expression leftexp = ((BinaryExpression) leftExpression).getLeftExpression();
                int lefttype = ((BinaryExpression) leftExpression).getOperation().getType();
                if (!Types.ofType(lefttype, Types.ASSIGNMENT_OPERATOR) && lefttype != Types.LEFT_SQUARE_BRACKET) {
                    throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "\n" + ((BinaryExpression) leftExpression).getText() + " is a binary expression, but it should be a variable expression");
                }
            } else if (leftExpression instanceof GStringExpression) {
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "\n\"" + ((GStringExpression) leftExpression).getText() + "\" is a GString expression, but it should be a variable expression");
            } else if (leftExpression instanceof MethodCallExpression) {
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "\n\"" + ((MethodCallExpression) leftExpression).getText() + "\" is a method call expression, but it should be a variable expression");
            } else if (leftExpression instanceof MapExpression) {
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "\n'" + ((MapExpression) leftExpression).getText() + "' is a map expression, but it should be a variable expression");
            } else {
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "\n" + leftExpression.getClass() + ", with its value '" + leftExpression.getText() + "', is a bad expression as the left hand side of an assignment operator");
            }
        }
        /*if (rightNode == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException("No rightNode associated with binary expression");
        }*/
        Expression rightExpression = expression(rightNode);
        BinaryExpression binaryExpression = new BinaryExpression(leftExpression, token, rightExpression);
        configureAST(binaryExpression, node);
        return binaryExpression;
    }

    protected Expression prefixExpression(AST node, int token) {
        Expression expression = expression(node.getFirstChild());
        PrefixExpression prefixExpression = new PrefixExpression(makeToken(token, node), expression);
        configureAST(prefixExpression, node);
        return prefixExpression;
    }

    protected Expression postfixExpression(AST node, int token) {
        Expression expression = expression(node.getFirstChild());
        PostfixExpression postfixExpression = new PostfixExpression(expression, makeToken(token, node));
        configureAST(postfixExpression, node);
        return postfixExpression;
    }

    protected BooleanExpression booleanExpression(AST node) {
        BooleanExpression booleanExpression = new BooleanExpression(expression(node));
        configureAST(booleanExpression, node);
        return booleanExpression;
    }

    protected Expression dotExpression(AST node) {
        // let's decide if this is a property invocation or a method call
        AST leftNode = node.getFirstChild();
        if (leftNode != null) {
            AST identifierNode = leftNode.getNextSibling();
            if (identifierNode != null) {
                Expression leftExpression = expression(leftNode);
                if (isType(SELECT_SLOT, identifierNode)) {
                    Expression field = expression(identifierNode.getFirstChild(), true);
                    AttributeExpression attributeExpression = new AttributeExpression(leftExpression, field, node.getType() != DOT);
                    if (node.getType() == SPREAD_DOT) {
                        attributeExpression.setSpreadSafe(true);
                    }
                    configureAST(attributeExpression, node);
                    return attributeExpression;
                }
                if (isType(SLIST, identifierNode)) {
                    Statement code = statementList(identifierNode);
                    ClosureExpression closureExpression = new ClosureExpression(Parameter.EMPTY_ARRAY, code);
                    configureAST(closureExpression, identifierNode);
                    final PropertyExpression propertyExpression = new PropertyExpression(leftExpression, closureExpression);
                    if (node.getType() == SPREAD_DOT) {
                        propertyExpression.setSpreadSafe(true);
                    }
                    configureAST(propertyExpression, node);
                    return propertyExpression;
                }
                Expression property = expression(identifierNode, true);


                // A."this" assumes a VariableExpression can be used for "this"
                // we correct that here into a ConstantExpression
                if (property instanceof VariableExpression) {
                    VariableExpression ve = (VariableExpression) property;
                    property = new ConstantExpression(ve.getName());
                }

                PropertyExpression propertyExpression = new PropertyExpression(leftExpression, property, node.getType() != DOT);
                if (node.getType() == SPREAD_DOT) {
                    propertyExpression.setSpreadSafe(true);
                }
                configureAST(propertyExpression, node);
                return propertyExpression;
            }
        }
        return methodCallExpression(node);
    }

    protected Expression specialConstructorCallExpression(AST methodCallNode, ClassNode special) {
        AST node = methodCallNode.getFirstChild();
        Expression arguments = arguments(node);

        ConstructorCallExpression expression = new ConstructorCallExpression(special, arguments);
        configureAST(expression, methodCallNode);
        return expression;
    }

    private int getTypeInParenthesis(AST node) {
        if (!isType(EXPR, node)) node = node.getFirstChild();
        while (node != null && isType(EXPR, node) && node.getNextSibling() == null) {
            node = node.getFirstChild();
        }
        if (node == null) return -1;
        return node.getType();
    }

    protected Expression methodCallExpression(AST methodCallNode) {
        AST node = methodCallNode.getFirstChild();
        Expression objectExpression;
        AST selector;
        AST elist = node.getNextSibling();
        List<GenericsType> typeArgumentList = null;

        boolean implicitThis = false;
        boolean safe = isType(OPTIONAL_DOT, node);
        boolean spreadSafe = isType(SPREAD_DOT, node);
        if (isType(DOT, node) || safe || spreadSafe) {
            AST objectNode = node.getFirstChild();
            objectExpression = expression(objectNode);
            selector = objectNode.getNextSibling();
        } else {
            implicitThis = true;
            objectExpression = VariableExpression.THIS_EXPRESSION;
            selector = node;
        }

        if (isType(TYPE_ARGUMENTS, selector)) {
            typeArgumentList = getTypeArgumentsList(selector);
            selector = selector.getNextSibling();
        }

        Expression name = null;
        if (isType(LITERAL_super, selector)) {
            implicitThis = true;
            name = new ConstantExpression("super");
            if (objectExpression instanceof VariableExpression && ((VariableExpression) objectExpression).isThisExpression()) {
                objectExpression = VariableExpression.SUPER_EXPRESSION;
            }
        } else if (isPrimitiveTypeLiteral(selector)) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(selector, "Primitive type literal: " + selector.getText()
                    + " cannot be used as a method name");
        } else if (isType(SELECT_SLOT, selector)) {
            Expression field = expression(selector.getFirstChild(), true);
            AttributeExpression attributeExpression = new AttributeExpression(objectExpression, field, node.getType() != DOT);
            configureAST(attributeExpression, node);
            Expression arguments = arguments(elist);
            MethodCallExpression expression = new MethodCallExpression(attributeExpression, "call", arguments);
            setTypeArgumentsOnMethodCallExpression(expression, typeArgumentList);
            configureAST(expression, methodCallNode);
            return expression;
        } else if (!implicitThis || isType(DYNAMIC_MEMBER, selector) || isType(IDENT, selector) ||
                isType(STRING_CONSTRUCTOR, selector) || isType(STRING_LITERAL, selector)) {
            name = expression(selector, true);
        } else {
            implicitThis = false;
            name = new ConstantExpression("call");
            objectExpression = expression(selector, true);
        }

        // if node text is found to be "super"/"this" when a method call is being processed, it is a 
        // call like this(..)/super(..) after the first statement, which shouldn't be allowed. GROOVY-2836
        if (selector.getText().equals("this") || selector.getText().equals("super")) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(elist, "Constructor call must be the first statement in a constructor.");
        }

        Expression arguments = arguments(elist);
        MethodCallExpression expression = new MethodCallExpression(objectExpression, name, arguments);
        expression.setSafe(safe);
        expression.setSpreadSafe(spreadSafe);
        expression.setImplicitThis(implicitThis);
        setTypeArgumentsOnMethodCallExpression(expression, typeArgumentList);
        Expression ret = expression;
        //FIXME: do we really want this() to create a new object regardless
        // the position.. for example not as first statement in a constructor
        // this=first statement in constructor is handled by specialConstructorCallExpression
        // we may have to add a check and remove this part of the code
        if (implicitThis && "this".equals(expression.getMethodAsString())) {
            ret = new ConstructorCallExpression(this.classNode, arguments);
        }
        configureAST(ret, methodCallNode);
        return ret;
    }

    private void setTypeArgumentsOnMethodCallExpression(MethodCallExpression expression,
                                                        List<GenericsType> typeArgumentList) {
        if (typeArgumentList != null && typeArgumentList.size() > 0) {
            expression.setGenericsTypes(typeArgumentList.toArray(new GenericsType[typeArgumentList.size()]));
        }
    }

    protected Expression constructorCallExpression(AST node) {
        AST constructorCallNode = node;
        ClassNode type = makeTypeWithArguments(constructorCallNode);

        if (isType(CTOR_CALL, node) || isType(LITERAL_new, node)) {
            node = node.getFirstChild();
        }

        AST elist = node.getNextSibling();

        if (elist == null && isType(ELIST, node)) {
            elist = node;
            if ("(".equals(type.getName())) {
                type = classNode;
            }
        }

        if (isType(ARRAY_DECLARATOR, elist)) {
            AST expressionNode = elist.getFirstChild();
            if (expressionNode == null) {
                throw new ASTRuntimeException(elist, "No expression for the array constructor call");
            }
            List size = arraySizeExpression(expressionNode);
            ArrayExpression arrayExpression = new ArrayExpression(type, null, size);
            configureAST(arrayExpression, constructorCallNode);
            return arrayExpression;
        }
        Expression arguments = arguments(elist);
        ClassNode innerClass = getAnonymousInnerClassNode(arguments);
        ConstructorCallExpression ret = new ConstructorCallExpression(type, arguments);
        if (innerClass != null) {
            ret.setType(innerClass);
            ret.setUsingAnonymousInnerClass(true);
            innerClass.setUnresolvedSuperClass(type);
        }

        configureAST(ret, constructorCallNode);
        return ret;
    }

    private ClassNode getAnonymousInnerClassNode(Expression arguments) {
        if (arguments instanceof TupleExpression) {
            TupleExpression te = (TupleExpression) arguments;
            List<Expression> expressions = te.getExpressions();
            if (expressions.size() == 0) return null;
            Expression last = (Expression) expressions.remove(expressions.size() - 1);
            if (last instanceof AnonymousInnerClassCarrier) {
                AnonymousInnerClassCarrier carrier = (AnonymousInnerClassCarrier) last;
                return carrier.innerClass;
            } else {
                expressions.add(last);
            }
        } else if (arguments instanceof AnonymousInnerClassCarrier) {
            AnonymousInnerClassCarrier carrier = (AnonymousInnerClassCarrier) arguments;
            return carrier.innerClass;
        }
        return null;
    }

    protected List arraySizeExpression(AST node) {
        List list;
        Expression size = null;
        if (isType(ARRAY_DECLARATOR, node)) {
            AST right = node.getNextSibling();
            if (right != null) {
                size = expression(right);
            } else {
                size = ConstantExpression.EMPTY_EXPRESSION;
            }
            list = arraySizeExpression(node.getFirstChild());
        } else {
            size = expression(node);
            list = new ArrayList();
        }
        list.add(size);
        return list;
    }

    protected Expression arguments(AST elist) {
        List expressionList = new ArrayList();
        // FIXME: all labeled arguments should follow any unlabeled arguments
        boolean namedArguments = false;
        for (AST node = elist; node != null; node = node.getNextSibling()) {
            if (isType(ELIST, node)) {
                for (AST child = node.getFirstChild(); child != null; child = child.getNextSibling()) {
                    namedArguments |= addArgumentExpression(child, expressionList);
                }
            } else {
                namedArguments |= addArgumentExpression(node, expressionList);
            }
        }
        if (namedArguments) {
            if (!expressionList.isEmpty()) {
                // let's remove any non-MapEntryExpression instances
                // such as if the last expression is a ClosureExpression
                // so let's wrap the named method calls in a Map expression
                List<Expression> argumentList = new ArrayList();
                for (Object next : expressionList) {
                    Expression expression = (Expression) next;
                    if (!(expression instanceof MapEntryExpression)) {
                        argumentList.add(expression);
                    }
                }
                if (!argumentList.isEmpty()) {
                    expressionList.removeAll(argumentList);
                    checkDuplicateNamedParams(elist, expressionList);
                    MapExpression mapExpression = new MapExpression(expressionList);
                    configureAST(mapExpression, elist);
                    argumentList.add(0, mapExpression);
                    ArgumentListExpression argumentListExpression = new ArgumentListExpression(argumentList);
                    configureAST(argumentListExpression, elist);
                    return argumentListExpression;
                }
            }
            checkDuplicateNamedParams(elist, expressionList);
            NamedArgumentListExpression namedArgumentListExpression = new NamedArgumentListExpression(expressionList);
            configureAST(namedArgumentListExpression, elist);
            return namedArgumentListExpression;
        } else {
            ArgumentListExpression argumentListExpression = new ArgumentListExpression(expressionList);
            configureAST(argumentListExpression, elist);
            return argumentListExpression;
        }
    }

    private void checkDuplicateNamedParams(AST elist, List expressionList) {
        if (expressionList.isEmpty()) return;

        Set<String> namedArgumentNames = new HashSet();
        for (Object expression : expressionList) {
            MapEntryExpression meExp = (MapEntryExpression) expression;
            if (meExp.getKeyExpression() instanceof ConstantExpression) {
                String argName = meExp.getKeyExpression().getText();
                if (!namedArgumentNames.contains(argName)) {
                    namedArgumentNames.add(argName);
                } else {
                    throw new ASTRuntimeException(elist, "Duplicate named parameter '" + argName
                            + "' found.");
                }
            }
        }
    }

    protected boolean addArgumentExpression(AST node, List<Expression> expressionList) {
        if (node.getType() == SPREAD_MAP_ARG) {
            AST rightNode = node.getFirstChild();
            Expression keyExpression = spreadMapExpression(node);
            Expression rightExpression = expression(rightNode);
            MapEntryExpression mapEntryExpression = new MapEntryExpression(keyExpression, rightExpression);
            expressionList.add(mapEntryExpression);
            return true;
        } else {
            Expression expression = expression(node);
            expressionList.add(expression);
            return expression instanceof MapEntryExpression;
        }
    }

    protected Expression expressionList(AST node) {
        List<Expression> expressionList = new ArrayList();
        for (AST child = node.getFirstChild(); child != null; child = child.getNextSibling()) {
            expressionList.add(expression(child));
        }
        if (expressionList.size() == 1) {
            return expressionList.get(0);
        } else {
            ListExpression listExpression = new ListExpression(expressionList);
            listExpression.setWrapped(true);
            configureAST(listExpression, node);
            return listExpression;
        }
    }

    protected ClosureExpression closureExpression(AST node) {
        AST paramNode = node.getFirstChild();
        Parameter[] parameters = null;
        AST codeNode = paramNode;
        if (isType(PARAMETERS, paramNode) || isType(IMPLICIT_PARAMETERS, paramNode)) {
            parameters = parameters(paramNode);
            codeNode = paramNode.getNextSibling();
        }
        Statement code = statementListNoChild(codeNode, node);
        ClosureExpression closureExpression = new ClosureExpression(parameters, code);
        configureAST(closureExpression, node);
        return closureExpression;
    }

    protected Expression blockExpression(AST node) {
        AST codeNode = node.getFirstChild();
        if (codeNode == null) return ConstantExpression.NULL;
        if (codeNode.getType() == EXPR && codeNode.getNextSibling() == null) {
            // Simplify common case of {expr} to expr.
            return expression(codeNode);
        }
        Parameter[] parameters = Parameter.EMPTY_ARRAY;
        Statement code = statementListNoChild(codeNode, node);
        ClosureExpression closureExpression = new ClosureExpression(parameters, code);
        configureAST(closureExpression, node);
        // Call it immediately.
        String callName = "call";
        Expression noArguments = new ArgumentListExpression();
        MethodCallExpression call = new MethodCallExpression(closureExpression, callName, noArguments);
        configureAST(call, node);
        return call;
    }

    protected Expression unaryMinusExpression(AST unaryMinusExpr) {
        AST node = unaryMinusExpr.getFirstChild();

        // if we are a number literal then let's just parse it
        // as the negation operator on MIN_INT causes rounding to a long
        String text = node.getText();
        switch (node.getType()) {
            case NUM_DOUBLE:
            case NUM_FLOAT:
            case NUM_BIG_DECIMAL:
                ConstantExpression constantExpression = new ConstantExpression(Numbers.parseDecimal("-" + text));
                configureAST(constantExpression, unaryMinusExpr);
                return constantExpression;

            case NUM_BIG_INT:
            case NUM_INT:
            case NUM_LONG:
                ConstantExpression constantLongExpression = new ConstantExpression(Numbers.parseInteger("-" + text));
                configureAST(constantLongExpression, unaryMinusExpr);
                return constantLongExpression;

            default:
                UnaryMinusExpression unaryMinusExpression = new UnaryMinusExpression(expression(node));
                configureAST(unaryMinusExpression, unaryMinusExpr);
                return unaryMinusExpression;
        }
    }

    protected Expression unaryPlusExpression(AST unaryPlusExpr) {
        AST node = unaryPlusExpr.getFirstChild();
        switch (node.getType()) {
            case NUM_DOUBLE:
            case NUM_FLOAT:
            case NUM_BIG_DECIMAL:
            case NUM_BIG_INT:
            case NUM_INT:
            case NUM_LONG:
                return expression(node);

            default:
                UnaryPlusExpression unaryPlusExpression = new UnaryPlusExpression(expression(node));
                configureAST(unaryPlusExpression, unaryPlusExpr);
                return unaryPlusExpression;
        }
    }

    protected ConstantExpression decimalExpression(AST node) {
        String text = node.getText();
        ConstantExpression constantExpression = new ConstantExpression(Numbers.parseDecimal(text));
        configureAST(constantExpression, node);
        return constantExpression;
    }

    protected ConstantExpression integerExpression(AST node) {
        String text = node.getText();
        Object number = Numbers.parseInteger(text);
        ConstantExpression constantExpression = new ConstantExpression(number, number instanceof Integer);
        configureAST(constantExpression, node);
        return constantExpression;
    }

    protected Expression gstring(AST gstringNode) {
        List strings = new ArrayList();
        List values = new ArrayList();

        StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer();

        boolean isPrevString = false;

        for (AST node = gstringNode.getFirstChild(); node != null; node = node.getNextSibling()) {
            int type = node.getType();
            String text = null;
            switch (type) {

                case STRING_LITERAL:
                    if (isPrevString) assertNodeType(IDENT, node);  // parser bug
                    isPrevString = true;
                    text = node.getText();
                    ConstantExpression constantExpression = new ConstantExpression(text);
                    configureAST(constantExpression, node);
                    strings.add(constantExpression);
                    buffer.append(text);
                    break;

                default: {
                    if (!isPrevString) assertNodeType(IDENT, node);  // parser bug
                    isPrevString = false;
                    Expression expression = expression(node);
                    values.add(expression);
                    buffer.append("$");
                    buffer.append(expression.getText());
                }
                break;
            }
        }
        GStringExpression gStringExpression = new GStringExpression(buffer.toString(), strings, values);
        configureAST(gStringExpression, gstringNode);
        return gStringExpression;
    }

    protected ClassNode type(AST typeNode) {
        // TODO intern types?
        // TODO configureAST(...)
        return buildName(typeNode.getFirstChild());
    }

    public static String qualifiedName(AST qualifiedNameNode) {
        if (isType(IDENT, qualifiedNameNode)) {
            return qualifiedNameNode.getText();
        }
        if (isType(DOT, qualifiedNameNode)) {
            AST node = qualifiedNameNode.getFirstChild();
            StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer();
            boolean first = true;

            for (; node != null && !isType(TYPE_ARGUMENTS, node); node = node.getNextSibling()) {
                if (first) {
                    first = false;
                } else {
                    buffer.append(".");
                }
                buffer.append(qualifiedName(node));
            }
            return buffer.toString();
        } else {
            return qualifiedNameNode.getText();
        }
    }

    private static AST getTypeArgumentsNode(AST root) {
        while (root != null && !isType(TYPE_ARGUMENTS, root)) {
            root = root.getNextSibling();
        }
        return root;
    }

    private int getBoundType(AST node) {
        if (node == null) return -1;
        if (isType(TYPE_UPPER_BOUNDS, node)) return TYPE_UPPER_BOUNDS;
        if (isType(TYPE_LOWER_BOUNDS, node)) return TYPE_LOWER_BOUNDS;
        throw new ASTRuntimeException(node,
                "Unexpected node type: " + getTokenName(node) +
                        " found when expecting type: " + getTokenName(TYPE_UPPER_BOUNDS) +
                        " or type: " + getTokenName(TYPE_LOWER_BOUNDS));
    }

    private GenericsType makeGenericsArgumentType(AST typeArgument) {
        GenericsType gt;
        AST rootNode = typeArgument.getFirstChild();
        if (isType(WILDCARD_TYPE, rootNode)) {
            ClassNode base = ClassHelper.makeWithoutCaching("?");
            if (rootNode.getNextSibling() != null) {
                int boundType = getBoundType(rootNode.getNextSibling());
                ClassNode[] gts = makeGenericsBounds(rootNode, boundType);
                if (boundType == TYPE_UPPER_BOUNDS) {
                    gt = new GenericsType(base, gts, null);
                } else {
                    gt = new GenericsType(base, null, gts[0]);
                }
            } else {
                gt = new GenericsType(base, null, null);
            }
            gt.setName("?");
            gt.setWildcard(true);
        } else {
            ClassNode argument = makeTypeWithArguments(rootNode);
            gt = new GenericsType(argument);
        }
        configureAST(gt, typeArgument);
        return gt;
    }

    protected ClassNode makeTypeWithArguments(AST rootNode) {
        ClassNode basicType = makeType(rootNode);
        AST node = rootNode.getFirstChild();
        if (node == null || isType(INDEX_OP, node) || isType(ARRAY_DECLARATOR, node)) return basicType;

        if (!isType(DOT, node)) {
            node = node.getFirstChild();
            if (node == null) return basicType;
            return addTypeArguments(basicType, node);
        } else {
            node = node.getFirstChild();
            while (node != null && !isType(TYPE_ARGUMENTS, node))
                node = node.getNextSibling();
            return node == null ? basicType : addTypeArguments(basicType, node);
        }
    }

    private ClassNode addTypeArguments(ClassNode basicType, AST node) {
        List<GenericsType> typeArgumentList = getTypeArgumentsList(node);
        if (typeArgumentList.size() > 0) {
            basicType.setGenericsTypes(typeArgumentList.toArray(new GenericsType[typeArgumentList.size()]));
        }
        return basicType;
    }

    private List<GenericsType> getTypeArgumentsList(AST node) {
        assertNodeType(TYPE_ARGUMENTS, node);
        List<GenericsType> typeArgumentList = new LinkedList();
        AST typeArgument = node.getFirstChild();

        while (typeArgument != null) {
            assertNodeType(TYPE_ARGUMENT, typeArgument);
            GenericsType gt = makeGenericsArgumentType(typeArgument);
            typeArgumentList.add(gt);
            typeArgument = typeArgument.getNextSibling();
        }
        return typeArgumentList;
    }

    private ClassNode[] makeGenericsBounds(AST rn, int boundType) {
        AST boundsRoot = rn.getNextSibling();
        if (boundsRoot == null) return null;
        assertNodeType(boundType, boundsRoot);
        LinkedList bounds = new LinkedList();
        for (AST boundsNode = boundsRoot.getFirstChild();
             boundsNode != null;
             boundsNode = boundsNode.getNextSibling()
                ) {
            ClassNode bound = null;
            bound = makeTypeWithArguments(boundsNode);
            configureAST(bound, boundsNode);
            bounds.add(bound);
        }
        if (bounds.size() == 0) return null;
        return (ClassNode[]) bounds.toArray(new ClassNode[bounds.size()]);
    }

    protected GenericsType[] makeGenericsType(AST rootNode) {
        AST typeParameter = rootNode.getFirstChild();
        LinkedList ret = new LinkedList();
        assertNodeType(TYPE_PARAMETER, typeParameter);

        while (isType(TYPE_PARAMETER, typeParameter)) {
            AST typeNode = typeParameter.getFirstChild();
            ClassNode type = makeType(typeParameter);

            GenericsType gt = new GenericsType(type, makeGenericsBounds(typeNode, TYPE_UPPER_BOUNDS), null);
            configureAST(gt, typeParameter);

            ret.add(gt);
            typeParameter = typeParameter.getNextSibling();
        }
        return (GenericsType[]) ret.toArray(new GenericsType[0]);
    }

    protected ClassNode makeType(AST typeNode) {
        ClassNode answer = ClassHelper.DYNAMIC_TYPE;
        AST node = typeNode.getFirstChild();
        if (node != null) {
            if (isType(INDEX_OP, node) || isType(ARRAY_DECLARATOR, node)) {
                answer = makeType(node).makeArray();
            } else {
                answer = ClassHelper.make(qualifiedName(node));
                if (answer.isUsingGenerics()) {
                    ClassNode newAnswer = ClassHelper.makeWithoutCaching(answer.getName());
                    newAnswer.setRedirect(answer);
                    answer = newAnswer;
                }
            }
            configureAST(answer, node);
        }
        return answer;
    }

    /**
     * Performs a name resolution to see if the given name is a type from imports,
     * aliases or newly created classes
     */
    /*protected String resolveTypeName(String name, boolean safe) {
        if (name == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return resolveNewClassOrName(name, safe);
    }*/

    /**
     * Extracts an identifier from the Antlr AST and then performs a name resolution
     * to see if the given name is a type from imports, aliases or newly created classes
     */
    protected ClassNode buildName(AST node) {
        if (isType(TYPE, node)) {
            node = node.getFirstChild();
        }
        ClassNode answer = null;
        if (isType(DOT, node) || isType(OPTIONAL_DOT, node)) {
            answer = ClassHelper.make(qualifiedName(node));
        } else if (isPrimitiveTypeLiteral(node)) {
            answer = ClassHelper.make(node.getText());
        } else if (isType(INDEX_OP, node) || isType(ARRAY_DECLARATOR, node)) {
            AST child = node.getFirstChild();
            answer = buildName(child).makeArray();
            configureAST(answer, node);
            return answer;
        } else {
            String identifier = node.getText();
            answer = ClassHelper.make(identifier);
        }
        AST nextSibling = node.getNextSibling();
        if (isType(INDEX_OP, nextSibling) || isType(ARRAY_DECLARATOR, node)) {
            answer = answer.makeArray();
            configureAST(answer, node);
            return answer;
        } else {
            configureAST(answer, node);
            return answer;
        }
    }

    protected boolean isPrimitiveTypeLiteral(AST node) {
        int type = node.getType();
        switch (type) {
            case LITERAL_boolean:
            case LITERAL_byte:
            case LITERAL_char:
            case LITERAL_double:
            case LITERAL_float:
            case LITERAL_int:
            case LITERAL_long:
            case LITERAL_short:
                return true;

            default:
                return false;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Extracts an identifier from the Antlr AST
     */
    protected String identifier(AST node) {
        assertNodeType(IDENT, node);
        return node.getText();
    }

    protected String label(AST labelNode) {
        AST node = labelNode.getFirstChild();
        if (node == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return identifier(node);
    }


    // Helper methods
    //-------------------------------------------------------------------------


    /**
     * Returns true if the modifiers flags contain a visibility modifier
     */
    protected boolean hasVisibility(int modifiers) {
        return (modifiers & (Opcodes.ACC_PRIVATE | Opcodes.ACC_PROTECTED | Opcodes.ACC_PUBLIC)) != 0;
    }

    protected void configureAST(ASTNode node, AST ast) {
        if (ast == null)
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(ast, "PARSER BUG: Tried to configure " + node.getClass().getName() + " with null Node");
        node.setColumnNumber(ast.getColumn());
        node.setLineNumber(ast.getLine());
        if (ast instanceof GroovySourceAST) {
            node.setLastColumnNumber(((GroovySourceAST) ast).getColumnLast());
            node.setLastLineNumber(((GroovySourceAST) ast).getLineLast());
        }

        // TODO we could one day store the Antlr AST on the Groovy AST
        // node.setCSTNode(ast);
    }

    protected static Token makeToken(int typeCode, AST node) {
        return Token.newSymbol(typeCode, node.getLine(), node.getColumn());
    }

    protected String getFirstChildText(AST node) {
        AST child = node.getFirstChild();
        return child != null ? child.getText() : null;
    }


    public static boolean isType(int typeCode, AST node) {
        return node != null && node.getType() == typeCode;
    }

    private String getTokenName(int token) {
        if (tokenNames == null) return "" + token;
        return tokenNames[token];
    }

    private String getTokenName(AST node) {
        if (node == null) return "null";
        return getTokenName(node.getType());
    }

    protected void assertNodeType(int type, AST node) {
        if (node == null) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "No child node available in AST when expecting type: " + getTokenName(type));
        }
        if (node.getType() != type) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "Unexpected node type: " + getTokenName(node) + " found when expecting type: " + getTokenName(type));
        }
    }

    protected void notImplementedYet(AST node) {
        throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "AST node not implemented yet for type: " + getTokenName(node));
    }

    protected void unknownAST(AST node) {
        if (node.getType() == CLASS_DEF) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(node,
                    "Class definition not expected here. Please define the class at an appropriate place or perhaps try using a block/Closure instead.");
        }
        if (node.getType() == METHOD_DEF) {
            throw new ASTRuntimeException(node,
                    "Method definition not expected here. Please define the method at an appropriate place or perhaps try using a block/Closure instead.");
        }
        throw new ASTRuntimeException(node, "Unknown type: " + getTokenName(node));
    }

    protected void dumpTree(AST ast) {
        for (AST node = ast.getFirstChild(); node != null; node = node.getNextSibling()) {
            dump(node);
        }
    }

    protected void dump(AST node) {
        System.out.println("Type: " + getTokenName(node) + " text: " + node.getText());
    }
}

Other Groovy examples (source code examples)

Here is a short list of links related to this Groovy AntlrParserPlugin.java source code file:

new blog posts

 

Copyright 1998-2014 Alvin Alexander, alvinalexander.com
All Rights Reserved.