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Groovy example source code file (AsmClassGenerator.java)

This example Groovy source code file (AsmClassGenerator.java) is included in the DevDaily.com "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM.

Java - Groovy tags/keywords

annotationvisitor, classnode, classnode, expression, expression, label, label, list, listexpression, methodcallermultiadapter, methodvisitor, propertyexpression, string, string, util

The Groovy AsmClassGenerator.java source code

/*
 * Copyright 2003-2009 the original author or authors.
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package org.codehaus.groovy.classgen;

import groovy.lang.GroovyRuntimeException;
import org.codehaus.groovy.GroovyBugError;

import org.codehaus.groovy.ast.*;
import org.codehaus.groovy.ast.expr.*;
import org.codehaus.groovy.ast.stmt.*;
import org.codehaus.groovy.classgen.asm.*;

import org.codehaus.groovy.control.CompilerConfiguration;
import org.codehaus.groovy.control.SourceUnit;
import org.codehaus.groovy.runtime.MetaClassHelper;
import org.codehaus.groovy.runtime.ScriptBytecodeAdapter;
import org.codehaus.groovy.syntax.RuntimeParserException;

import org.objectweb.asm.AnnotationVisitor;
import org.objectweb.asm.*;

import java.util.*;

/**
 * Generates Java class versions of Groovy classes using ASM.
 *
 * @author <a href="mailto:james@coredevelopers.net">James Strachan
 * @author <a href="mailto:b55r@sina.com">Bing Ran
 * @author <a href="mailto:blackdrag@gmx.org">Jochen Theodorou
 * @author <a href='mailto:the[dot]mindstorm[at]gmail[dot]com'>Alex Popescu
 * @author Alex Tkachman
 * @version $Revision: 22582 $
 */
public class AsmClassGenerator extends ClassGenerator {

    private final ClassVisitor cv;
    private GeneratorContext context;
    private String sourceFile;

    // fields and properties
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter setField = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "setField", false, false);
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter getField = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "getField", false, false);
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter setGroovyObjectField = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "setGroovyObjectField", false, false);
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter getGroovyObjectField = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "getGroovyObjectField", false, false);
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter setFieldOnSuper = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "setFieldOnSuper", false, false);
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter getFieldOnSuper = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "getFieldOnSuper", false, false);

    public static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter setProperty = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "setProperty", false, false);
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter getProperty = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "getProperty", false, false);
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter setGroovyObjectProperty = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "setGroovyObjectProperty", false, false);
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter getGroovyObjectProperty = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "getGroovyObjectProperty", false, false);
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter setPropertyOnSuper = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "setPropertyOnSuper", false, false);
    static final MethodCallerMultiAdapter getPropertyOnSuper = MethodCallerMultiAdapter.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "getPropertyOnSuper", false, false);

     // spread expressions
    static final MethodCaller spreadMap = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "spreadMap");
    static final MethodCaller despreadList = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "despreadList");
    // Closure
    static final MethodCaller getMethodPointer = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "getMethodPointer");
    // unary plus, unary minus, bitwise negation
    static final MethodCaller unaryPlus = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "unaryPlus");
    static final MethodCaller unaryMinus = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "unaryMinus");
    static final MethodCaller bitwiseNegate = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "bitwiseNegate");

    // type conversions
    static final MethodCaller createListMethod = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "createList");
    static final MethodCaller createMapMethod = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "createMap");
    static final MethodCaller createRangeMethod = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "createRange");

    // wrapper creation methods
    static final MethodCaller createPojoWrapperMethod = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "createPojoWrapper");
    static final MethodCaller createGroovyObjectWrapperMethod = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "createGroovyObjectWrapper");

    // constructor calls with this() and super()
    static final MethodCaller selectConstructorAndTransformArguments = MethodCaller.newStatic(ScriptBytecodeAdapter.class, "selectConstructorAndTransformArguments");
    
    // exception blocks list
    private Map<String,ClassNode> referencedClasses = new HashMap();
    private boolean passingParams;

    public static final boolean CREATE_DEBUG_INFO = true;
    public static final boolean CREATE_LINE_NUMBER_INFO = true;
    public static final boolean ASM_DEBUG = false; // add marker in the bytecode to show source-bytecode relationship
    
    private int lineNumber = -1;
    private ASTNode currentASTNode = null;
    private Map genericParameterNames = null;
    private SourceUnit source;
    private WriterController controller;
    
    public AsmClassGenerator(
            SourceUnit source, GeneratorContext context, 
            ClassVisitor classVisitor, String sourceFile
    ) {
        this.source = source;
        this.context = context;
        this.cv = classVisitor;
        this.sourceFile = sourceFile;
        genericParameterNames = new HashMap();
    }

    public SourceUnit getSourceUnit() {
        return source;
    }

    // GroovyClassVisitor interface
    //-------------------------------------------------------------------------
    public void visitClass(ClassNode classNode) {
        referencedClasses.clear();
        this.controller = new WriterController();
        this.controller.init(this, context, cv, classNode);
        if (controller.shouldOptimizeForInt()) {
            OptimizingStatementWriter.setNodeMeta(classNode);
        }
        
        try {
            cv.visit(
                    getBytecodeVersion(),
                    adjustedClassModifiers(classNode.getModifiers()),
                    controller.getInternalClassName(),
                    BytecodeHelper.getGenericsSignature(classNode),
                    controller.getInternalBaseClassName(),
                    BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalNames(classNode.getInterfaces())
            );
            cv.visitSource(sourceFile, null);
            if (classNode.getName().endsWith("package-info")) {
                PackageNode packageNode = classNode.getPackage();
                if (packageNode != null) {
                    // pull them out of package node but treat them like they were on class node
                    for (AnnotationNode an : packageNode.getAnnotations()) {
                        // skip built-in properties
                        if (an.isBuiltIn()) continue;
                        if (an.hasSourceRetention()) continue;

                        AnnotationVisitor av = getAnnotationVisitor(classNode, an, cv);
                        visitAnnotationAttributes(an, av);
                        av.visitEnd();
                    }
                }
                cv.visitEnd();
                return;
            } else {
                visitAnnotations(classNode, cv);
            }

            if (classNode.isInterface()) {
                ClassNode owner = classNode;
                if (owner instanceof InnerClassNode) {
                    owner = owner.getOuterClass();
                }
                String outerClassName = classNode.getName();
                String name = outerClassName + "$" + context.getNextInnerClassIdx();
                controller.setInterfaceClassLoadingClass(
                        new InterfaceHelperClassNode (
                                owner, name, 4128, ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE, 
                                controller.getCallSiteWriter().getCallSites()));
                super.visitClass(classNode);
                createInterfaceSyntheticStaticFields();
            } else {
                super.visitClass(classNode);
                MopWriter mopWriter = new MopWriter(controller);
                mopWriter.createMopMethods();
                controller.getCallSiteWriter().generateCallSiteArray();
                createSyntheticStaticFields();
            }

            for (Iterator<InnerClassNode> iter = classNode.getInnerClasses(); iter.hasNext();) {
                InnerClassNode innerClass = iter.next();
                makeInnerClassEntry(innerClass);
            }
            makeInnerClassEntry(classNode);

            cv.visitEnd();
        } catch (GroovyRuntimeException e) {
            e.setModule(classNode.getModule());
            throw e;
        }
    }

    private void makeInnerClassEntry(ClassNode cn) {
        if (!(cn instanceof InnerClassNode)) return;
        InnerClassNode innerClass = (InnerClassNode) cn;
        String innerClassName = innerClass.getName();
        String innerClassInternalName = BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(innerClassName);
        {
            int index = innerClassName.lastIndexOf('$');
            if (index >= 0) innerClassName = innerClassName.substring(index + 1);
        }
        String outerClassName = BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(innerClass.getOuterClass().getName());
        MethodNode enclosingMethod = innerClass.getEnclosingMethod();
        if (enclosingMethod != null) {
            // local inner classes do not specify the outer class name
            outerClassName = null;
            innerClassName = null;
        }
        int mods = innerClass.getModifiers();
        cv.visitInnerClass(
                innerClassInternalName,
                outerClassName,
                innerClassName,
                mods);
    }

    /*
     * Classes but not interfaces should have ACC_SUPER set
     */
    private int adjustedClassModifiers(int modifiers) {
        boolean needsSuper = (modifiers & ACC_INTERFACE) == 0;
        modifiers = needsSuper ? modifiers | ACC_SUPER : modifiers;
        // eliminate static
        modifiers = modifiers & ~ACC_STATIC;
        return modifiers;
    }

    public void visitGenericType(GenericsType genericsType) {
        ClassNode type = genericsType.getType();
        genericParameterNames.put(type.getName(), genericsType);
    }

    private String[] buildExceptions(ClassNode[] exceptions) {
        if (exceptions == null) return null;
        String[] ret = new String[exceptions.length];
        for (int i = 0; i < exceptions.length; i++) {
            ret[i] = BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(exceptions[i]);
        }
        return ret;
    }

    protected void visitConstructorOrMethod(MethodNode node, boolean isConstructor) {
        lineNumber = -1;
        Parameter[] parameters = node.getParameters();
        String methodType = BytecodeHelper.getMethodDescriptor(node.getReturnType(), parameters);
        String signature = BytecodeHelper.getGenericsMethodSignature(node);
        int modifiers = node.getModifiers();
        if (isVargs(node.getParameters())) modifiers |= Opcodes.ACC_VARARGS;
        MethodVisitor mv = cv.visitMethod(modifiers, node.getName(), methodType, signature, buildExceptions(node.getExceptions()));
        controller.setMethodVisitor(mv);

        visitAnnotations(node, mv);
        for (int i = 0; i < parameters.length; i++) {
            visitParameterAnnotations(parameters[i], i, mv);
        }

        if (controller.getClassNode().isAnnotationDefinition() && !node.isStaticConstructor()) {
            visitAnnotationDefault(node, mv);
        } else if (!node.isAbstract()) {
            Statement code = node.getCode();
            mv.visitCode();

            // fast path for getter/setters etc.
            if (code instanceof BytecodeSequence && ((BytecodeSequence)code).getInstructions().size() == 1 && ((BytecodeSequence)code).getInstructions().get(0) instanceof BytecodeInstruction) {
               ((BytecodeInstruction)((BytecodeSequence)code).getInstructions().get(0)).visit(mv);
            } else {
                visitStdMethod(node, isConstructor, parameters, code);
            }
            // we use this NOP to have a valid jump target for the various labels 
            //mv.visitInsn(NOP);
            mv.visitMaxs(0, 0);
        }
        mv.visitEnd();
    }

    private void visitStdMethod(MethodNode node, boolean isConstructor, Parameter[] parameters, Statement code) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        if (isConstructor && (code == null || !((ConstructorNode) node).firstStatementIsSpecialConstructorCall())) {
            // invokes the super class constructor
            mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(controller.getClassNode().getSuperClass()), "<init>", "()V");
        } 
        
        controller.getCompileStack().init(node.getVariableScope(), parameters);
        controller.getCallSiteWriter().makeSiteEntry();
        
        // handle body
        super.visitConstructorOrMethod(node, isConstructor);
        
        controller.getCompileStack().clear();
        if (node.isVoidMethod()) {
            mv.visitInsn(RETURN);
        } else {
            // we make a dummy return for label ranges that reach here
            ClassNode type = node.getReturnType().redirect();
            if (ClassHelper.isPrimitiveType(type)) {
                mv.visitLdcInsn(0);
                controller.getOperandStack().push(ClassHelper.int_TYPE);
                controller.getOperandStack().doGroovyCast(type);
                BytecodeHelper.doReturn(mv, type);
                controller.getOperandStack().remove(1);
            } else {
                mv.visitInsn(ACONST_NULL);
                BytecodeHelper.doReturn(mv, type);
            }
        }
    }

    void visitAnnotationDefaultExpression(AnnotationVisitor av, ClassNode type, Expression exp) {
        if (exp instanceof ClosureExpression) {
            ClassNode closureClass = controller.getClosureWriter().getOrAddClosureClass((ClosureExpression) exp, ACC_PUBLIC);
            Type t = Type.getType(BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(closureClass));
            av.visit(null, t);
       } else if (type.isArray()) {
           ListExpression list = (ListExpression) exp;
           AnnotationVisitor avl = av.visitArray(null);
           ClassNode componentType = type.getComponentType();
           for (Expression lExp : list.getExpressions()) {
               visitAnnotationDefaultExpression(avl, componentType, lExp);
           }
       } else if (ClassHelper.isPrimitiveType(type) || type.equals(ClassHelper.STRING_TYPE)) {
           ConstantExpression constExp = (ConstantExpression) exp;
           av.visit(null, constExp.getValue());
       } else if (ClassHelper.CLASS_Type.equals(type)) {
           ClassNode clazz = exp.getType();
           Type t = Type.getType(BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(clazz));
           av.visit(null, t);
       } else if (type.isDerivedFrom(ClassHelper.Enum_Type)) {
           PropertyExpression pExp = (PropertyExpression) exp;
           ClassExpression cExp = (ClassExpression) pExp.getObjectExpression();
           String desc = BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(cExp.getType());
           String name = pExp.getPropertyAsString();
           av.visitEnum(null, desc, name);
       } else if (type.implementsInterface(ClassHelper.Annotation_TYPE)) {
           AnnotationConstantExpression avExp = (AnnotationConstantExpression) exp;
           AnnotationNode value = (AnnotationNode) avExp.getValue();
           AnnotationVisitor avc = av.visitAnnotation(null, BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(avExp.getType()));
           visitAnnotationAttributes(value,avc);
       } else {
           throw new GroovyBugError("unexpected annotation type " + type.getName());
       }
       av.visitEnd();
   }

    private void visitAnnotationDefault(MethodNode node, MethodVisitor mv) {
        if (!node.hasAnnotationDefault()) return;
        Expression exp = ((ReturnStatement) node.getCode()).getExpression();
        AnnotationVisitor av = mv.visitAnnotationDefault();
        visitAnnotationDefaultExpression(av,node.getReturnType(),exp);
    }

    private static boolean isVargs(Parameter[] p) {
        if (p.length==0) return false;
        ClassNode clazz = p[p.length-1].getType();
        return (clazz.isArray());
    }

    public void visitConstructor(ConstructorNode node) {
        controller.setConstructorNode(node);
        super.visitConstructor(node);
    }

    public void visitMethod(MethodNode node) {
        controller.setMethodNode(node);
        super.visitMethod(node);
    }

    public void visitField(FieldNode fieldNode) {
        onLineNumber(fieldNode, "visitField: " + fieldNode.getName());
        ClassNode t = fieldNode.getType();
        String signature = BytecodeHelper.getGenericsBounds(t);
        FieldVisitor fv = cv.visitField(
                fieldNode.getModifiers(),
                fieldNode.getName(),
                BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(t),
                signature, 
                null);
        visitAnnotations(fieldNode, fv);
        fv.visitEnd();
    }

    public void visitProperty(PropertyNode statement) {
        // the verifier created the field and the setter/getter methods, so here is
        // not really something to do
        onLineNumber(statement, "visitProperty:" + statement.getField().getName());
        controller.setMethodNode(null);
    }

    // GroovyCodeVisitor interface
    //-------------------------------------------------------------------------

    // Statements
    //-------------------------------------------------------------------------

    protected void visitStatement(Statement statement) {
        throw new GroovyBugError("visitStatement should not be visited here.");
    }
    
    @Override
    public void visitCatchStatement(CatchStatement statement) {
        statement.getCode().visit(this);
    }

    public void visitBlockStatement(BlockStatement block) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeBlockStatement(block);
    }

    public void visitForLoop(ForStatement loop) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeForStatement(loop);
    }

    public void visitWhileLoop( WhileStatement loop) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeWhileLoop(loop);
    }

    public void visitDoWhileLoop(DoWhileStatement loop) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeDoWhileLoop(loop);
    }

    public void visitIfElse(IfStatement ifElse) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeIfElse(ifElse);
    }
    
    public void visitAssertStatement(AssertStatement statement) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeAssert(statement);
    }
    
    public void visitTryCatchFinally(TryCatchStatement statement) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeTryCatchFinally(statement);
    }

    public void visitSwitch(SwitchStatement statement) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeSwitch(statement);
    }

    public void visitCaseStatement(CaseStatement statement) {}

    public void visitBreakStatement(BreakStatement statement) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeBreak(statement);
    }

    public void visitContinueStatement(ContinueStatement statement) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeContinue(statement);
    }

    public void visitSynchronizedStatement(SynchronizedStatement statement) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeSynchronized(statement);
    }

    public void visitThrowStatement(ThrowStatement statement) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeThrow(statement);
    }

    public void visitReturnStatement(ReturnStatement statement) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeReturn(statement);
    }

    public void visitExpressionStatement(ExpressionStatement statement) {
        controller.getStatementWriter().writeExpressionStatement(statement);
    }

    // Expressions
    //-------------------------------------------------------------------------

    public void visitTernaryExpression(TernaryExpression expression) {
        onLineNumber(expression, "visitTernaryExpression");
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        
        Expression boolPart = expression.getBooleanExpression();
        Expression truePart = expression.getTrueExpression();
        Expression falsePart = expression.getFalseExpression();
        final OperandStack operandStack = controller.getOperandStack();
        int numberOfOperandParts = 2;
        
        if (expression instanceof ElvisOperatorExpression) {
            truePart.visit(this);
            operandStack.box();
            int mark = operandStack.getStackLength();
            operandStack.dup();
            operandStack.castToBool(mark,true);
            boolPart = BytecodeExpression.NOP;
            truePart = BytecodeExpression.NOP;
            final Expression oldFalse = falsePart;
            falsePart = new BytecodeExpression() {
                public void visit(MethodVisitor mv) {
                    operandStack.pop();
                    oldFalse.visit(AsmClassGenerator.this);
                    operandStack.box();
                }
            };
        }

        if (boolPart!=BytecodeExpression.NOP) {
            boolPart.visit(this);
            operandStack.doGroovyCast(ClassHelper.boolean_TYPE);
        }
        Label l0 = operandStack.jump(IFEQ);
        
        controller.getCompileStack().pushBooleanExpression();
        if (truePart!=BytecodeExpression.NOP) {
            truePart.visit(this);
            operandStack.box();
        }
        controller.getCompileStack().pop();
        Label l1 = new Label();
        mv.visitJumpInsn(GOTO, l1);

        mv.visitLabel(l0);
        controller.getCompileStack().pushBooleanExpression();
        falsePart.visit(this);
        operandStack.box();
        controller.getCompileStack().pop();

        mv.visitLabel(l1);
        controller.getOperandStack().replace(ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE,numberOfOperandParts);
    }
    
    public void visitDeclarationExpression(DeclarationExpression expression) {
        onLineNumber(expression, "visitDeclarationExpression: \"" + expression.getText() + "\"");
        controller.getBinaryExpHelper().evaluateEqual(expression,true);
    }

    public void visitBinaryExpression(BinaryExpression expression) {
        onLineNumber(expression, "visitBinaryExpression: \"" + expression.getOperation().getText() + "\" ");
        controller.getBinaryExpHelper().eval(expression);
        controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression.getOperation());
    }

    public void visitPostfixExpression(PostfixExpression expression) {
        controller.getBinaryExpHelper().evaluatePostfixMethod(expression);
        controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression);
    }

    public void throwException(String s) {
        throw new RuntimeParserException(s, currentASTNode);
    }

    public void visitPrefixExpression(PrefixExpression expression) {
        controller.getBinaryExpHelper().evaluatePrefixMethod(expression);
        controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression);
    }

    public void visitClosureExpression(ClosureExpression expression) {
        controller.getClosureWriter().writeClosure(expression);
    }

    /**
     * Loads either this object or if we're inside a closure then load the top level owner
     */
    protected void loadThisOrOwner() {
        if (isInnerClass()) {
            visitFieldExpression(new FieldExpression(controller.getClassNode().getDeclaredField("owner")));
        } else {
            loadThis();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Generate byte code for constants
     *
     * @see <a href="http://java.sun.com/docs/books/vmspec/2nd-edition/html/ClassFile.doc.html#14152">Class field types
     */
    public void visitConstantExpression(ConstantExpression expression) {
        final String constantName = expression.getConstantName();
        if (controller.isStaticConstructor() || constantName == null) {
            controller.getOperandStack().pushConstant(expression);
        } else {
            controller.getMethodVisitor().visitFieldInsn(GETSTATIC, controller.getInternalClassName(),constantName, BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(expression.getType()));
            controller.getOperandStack().push(expression.getType());
        }
    }

    public void visitSpreadExpression(SpreadExpression expression) {
        throw new GroovyBugError("SpreadExpression should not be visited here");
    }

    public void visitSpreadMapExpression(SpreadMapExpression expression) {
        Expression subExpression = expression.getExpression();
        // to not record the underlying MapExpression twice, 
        // we disable the assertion tracker
        // see http://jira.codehaus.org/browse/GROOVY-3421
        controller.getAssertionWriter().disableTracker();
        subExpression.visit(this);
        controller.getOperandStack().box();
        spreadMap.call(controller.getMethodVisitor());
        controller.getAssertionWriter().reenableTracker();
        controller.getOperandStack().replace(ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE);
    }

    public void visitMethodPointerExpression(MethodPointerExpression expression) {
        Expression subExpression = expression.getExpression();
        subExpression.visit(this);
        controller.getOperandStack().box();
        controller.getOperandStack().pushDynamicName(expression.getMethodName());
        getMethodPointer.call(controller.getMethodVisitor());
        controller.getOperandStack().replace(ClassHelper.CLOSURE_TYPE,2);
    }

    public void visitUnaryMinusExpression(UnaryMinusExpression expression) {
        Expression subExpression = expression.getExpression();
        subExpression.visit(this);
        controller.getOperandStack().box();
        unaryMinus.call(controller.getMethodVisitor());
        controller.getOperandStack().replace(ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE);
        controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression);
    }

    public void visitUnaryPlusExpression(UnaryPlusExpression expression) {
        Expression subExpression = expression.getExpression();
        subExpression.visit(this);
        controller.getOperandStack().box();
        unaryPlus.call(controller.getMethodVisitor());
        controller.getOperandStack().replace(ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE);
        controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression);
    }

    public void visitBitwiseNegationExpression(BitwiseNegationExpression expression) {
        Expression subExpression = expression.getExpression();
        subExpression.visit(this);
        controller.getOperandStack().box();
        bitwiseNegate.call(controller.getMethodVisitor());
        controller.getOperandStack().replace(ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE);
        controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression);
    }

    public void visitCastExpression(CastExpression castExpression) {
        ClassNode type = castExpression.getType();
        castExpression.getExpression().visit(this);
        if (castExpression.isCoerce()) {
            controller.getOperandStack().doAsType(type);
        } else {
            controller.getOperandStack().doGroovyCast(type);
        }
    }

    public void visitNotExpression(NotExpression expression) {
        Expression subExpression = expression.getExpression();
        int mark = controller.getOperandStack().getStackLength();
        subExpression.visit(this);
        controller.getOperandStack().castToBool(mark, true);
        BytecodeHelper.negateBoolean(controller.getMethodVisitor());
        controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression);
    }

    /**
     * return a primitive boolean value of the BooleanExpression.
     *
     * @param expression
     */
    public void visitBooleanExpression(BooleanExpression expression) {
        controller.getCompileStack().pushBooleanExpression();
        int mark = controller.getOperandStack().getStackLength(); 
        Expression inner = expression.getExpression();
        inner.visit(this);
        controller.getOperandStack().castToBool(mark, true);
        controller.getCompileStack().pop();
    }

    public void visitMethodCallExpression(MethodCallExpression call) {
        onLineNumber(call, "visitMethodCallExpression: \"" + call.getMethod() + "\":");
        controller.getInvocationWriter().writeInvokeMethod(call);
        controller.getAssertionWriter().record(call.getMethod());
    }

    protected boolean emptyArguments(Expression arguments) {
        return argumentSize(arguments) == 0;
    }

    public static boolean containsSpreadExpression(Expression arguments) {
        List args = null;
        if (arguments instanceof TupleExpression) {
            TupleExpression tupleExpression = (TupleExpression) arguments;
            args = tupleExpression.getExpressions();
        } else if (arguments instanceof ListExpression) {
            ListExpression le = (ListExpression) arguments;
            args = le.getExpressions();
        } else {
            return arguments instanceof SpreadExpression;
        }
        for (Iterator iter = args.iterator(); iter.hasNext();) {
            if (iter.next() instanceof SpreadExpression) return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    public static int argumentSize(Expression arguments) {
        if (arguments instanceof TupleExpression) {
            TupleExpression tupleExpression = (TupleExpression) arguments;
            int size = tupleExpression.getExpressions().size();
            return size;
        }
        return 1;
    }

    public void visitStaticMethodCallExpression(StaticMethodCallExpression call) {
        onLineNumber(call, "visitStaticMethodCallExpression: \"" + call.getMethod() + "\":");
        controller.getInvocationWriter().writeInvokeStaticMethod(call);
        controller.getAssertionWriter().record(call);
    }
    
    private void visitSpecialConstructorCall(ConstructorCallExpression call) {
        if (controller.getClosureWriter().addGeneratedClosureConstructorCall(call)) return;
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        OperandStack operandStack = controller.getOperandStack();

        ClassNode callNode = controller.getClassNode();
        if (call.isSuperCall()) callNode = callNode.getSuperClass();
        List constructors = sortConstructors(call, callNode);
        call.getArguments().visit(this);
        // keep Object[] on stack
        mv.visitInsn(DUP);
        // to select the constructor we need also the number of
        // available constructors and the class we want to make
        // the call on
        BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, constructors.size());
        visitClassExpression(new ClassExpression(callNode));
        operandStack.remove(1);
        // removes one Object[] leaves the int containing the
        // call flags and the constructor number
        selectConstructorAndTransformArguments.call(mv);
        // Object[],int -> int,Object[],int
        // we need to examine the flags and maybe change the
        // Object[] later, so this reordering will do the job
        mv.visitInsn(DUP_X1);
        // test if rewrap flag is set
        mv.visitInsn(ICONST_1);
        mv.visitInsn(IAND);
        Label afterIf = new Label();
        mv.visitJumpInsn(IFEQ, afterIf);
        // true part, so rewrap using the first argument
        mv.visitInsn(ICONST_0);
        mv.visitInsn(AALOAD);
        mv.visitTypeInsn(CHECKCAST, "[Ljava/lang/Object;");
        mv.visitLabel(afterIf);
        // here the stack is int,Object[], but we need the
        // the int for our table, so swap it
        mv.visitInsn(SWAP);
        //load "this"
        if (controller.isConstructor()) {
            mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
        } else {
            mv.visitTypeInsn(NEW, BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(callNode));
        }
        mv.visitInsn(SWAP);
        //prepare switch with >>8
        mv.visitIntInsn(BIPUSH, 8);
        mv.visitInsn(ISHR);
        Label[] targets = new Label[constructors.size()];
        int[] indices = new int[constructors.size()];
        for (int i = 0; i < targets.length; i++) {
            targets[i] = new Label();
            indices[i] = i;
        }
        // create switch targets
        Label defaultLabel = new Label();
        Label afterSwitch = new Label();
        mv.visitLookupSwitchInsn(defaultLabel, indices, targets);
        for (int i = 0; i < targets.length; i++) {
            mv.visitLabel(targets[i]);
            // to keep the stack height, we need to leave
            // one Object[] on the stack as last element. At the
            // same time, we need the Object[] on top of the stack
            // to extract the parameters.
            if (controller.isConstructor()) {
                // in this case we need one "this", so a SWAP will exchange
                // "this" and Object[], a DUP_X1 will then copy the Object[]
                /// to the last place in the stack:
                //     Object[],this -SWAP-> this,Object[]
                //     this,Object[] -DUP_X1-> Object[],this,Object[]
                mv.visitInsn(SWAP);
                mv.visitInsn(DUP_X1);
            } else {
                // in this case we need two "this" in between and the Object[]
                // at the bottom of the stack as well as on top for our invokeSpecial
                // So we do DUP_X1, DUP2_X1, POP
                //     Object[],this -DUP_X1-> this,Object[],this
                //     this,Object[],this -DUP2_X1-> Object[],this,this,Object[],this
                //     Object[],this,this,Object[],this -POP->  Object[],this,this,Object[]
                mv.visitInsn(DUP_X1);
                mv.visitInsn(DUP2_X1);
                mv.visitInsn(POP);
            }

            ConstructorNode cn = (ConstructorNode) constructors.get(i);
            String descriptor = BytecodeHelper.getMethodDescriptor(ClassHelper.VOID_TYPE, cn.getParameters());
            // unwrap the Object[] and make transformations if needed
            // that means, to duplicate the Object[], make a cast with possible
            // unboxing and then swap it with the Object[] for each parameter
            Parameter[] parameters = cn.getParameters();
            for (int p = 0; p < parameters.length; p++) {
                operandStack.push(ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE);
                mv.visitInsn(DUP);
                BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, p);
                mv.visitInsn(AALOAD);
                operandStack.push(ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE);
                ClassNode type = parameters[p].getType();
                operandStack.doGroovyCast(type);
                operandStack.swap();
                operandStack.remove(2);
            }
            // at the end we remove the Object[]
            mv.visitInsn(POP);
            // make the constructor call
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(callNode), "<init>", descriptor);
            mv.visitJumpInsn(GOTO, afterSwitch);
        }
        mv.visitLabel(defaultLabel);
        // this part should never be reached!
        mv.visitTypeInsn(NEW, "java/lang/IllegalArgumentException");
        mv.visitInsn(DUP);
        mv.visitLdcInsn("illegal constructor number");
        mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, "java/lang/IllegalArgumentException", "<init>", "(Ljava/lang/String;)V");
        mv.visitInsn(ATHROW);
        mv.visitLabel(afterSwitch);

        // For a special constructor call inside a constructor we don't need 
        // any result object on the stack, for outside the constructor we do.
        // to keep the stack height for the able we kept one object as dummy 
        // result on the stack, which we can remove now if inside a constructor. 
        if (!controller.isConstructor()) {
            // in case we are not in a constructor we have an additional
            // object on the stack, the result of our constructor call
            // which we want to keep, so we swap with the dummy object and
            // do normal removal of it. In the end, the call result will be
            // on the stack then
            mv.visitInsn(SWAP);
            operandStack.push(callNode); // for call result
        }
        mv.visitInsn(POP);
    }

    private List sortConstructors(ConstructorCallExpression call, ClassNode callNode) {
        // sort in a new list to prevent side effects
        List constructors = new ArrayList(callNode.getDeclaredConstructors());
        Comparator comp = new Comparator() {
            public int compare(Object arg0, Object arg1) {
                ConstructorNode c0 = (ConstructorNode) arg0;
                ConstructorNode c1 = (ConstructorNode) arg1;
                String descriptor0 = BytecodeHelper.getMethodDescriptor(ClassHelper.VOID_TYPE, c0.getParameters());
                String descriptor1 = BytecodeHelper.getMethodDescriptor(ClassHelper.VOID_TYPE, c1.getParameters());
                return descriptor0.compareTo(descriptor1);
            }
        };
        Collections.sort(constructors, comp);
        return constructors;
    }

    public void visitConstructorCallExpression(ConstructorCallExpression call) {
        onLineNumber(call, "visitConstructorCallExpression: \"" + call.getType().getName() + "\":");

        if (call.isSpecialCall()) {
            controller.getCompileStack().pushInSpecialConstructorCall();
            visitSpecialConstructorCall(call);
            controller.getCompileStack().pop();
            return;
        }

        Expression arguments = call.getArguments();
        if (arguments instanceof TupleExpression) {
            TupleExpression tupleExpression = (TupleExpression) arguments;
            int size = tupleExpression.getExpressions().size();
            if (size == 0) {
                arguments = MethodCallExpression.NO_ARGUMENTS;
            }
        }

        Expression receiverClass = new ClassExpression(call.getType());
        controller.getCallSiteWriter().makeCallSite(
                receiverClass, CallSiteWriter.CONSTRUCTOR,
                arguments, false, false, false,
                false);
        controller.getAssertionWriter().record(call);
    }

    private static String makeFieldClassName(ClassNode type) {
        String internalName = BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(type);
        StringBuffer ret = new StringBuffer(internalName.length());
        for (int i = 0; i < internalName.length(); i++) {
            char c = internalName.charAt(i);
            if (c == '/') {
                ret.append('$');
            } else if (c == ';') {
                //append nothing -> delete ';'
            } else {
                ret.append(c);
            }
        }
        return ret.toString();
    }

    private static String getStaticFieldName(ClassNode type) {
        ClassNode componentType = type;
        String prefix = "";
        for (; componentType.isArray(); componentType = componentType.getComponentType()) {
            prefix += "$";
        }
        if (prefix.length() != 0) prefix = "array" + prefix;
        String name = prefix + "$class$" + makeFieldClassName(componentType);
        return name;
    }

    private void visitAttributeOrProperty(PropertyExpression expression, MethodCallerMultiAdapter adapter) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        
        Expression objectExpression = expression.getObjectExpression();
        if (isThisOrSuper(objectExpression)) {
            // let's use the field expression if it's available
            String name = expression.getPropertyAsString();
            if (name != null) {
                FieldNode field = null;
                boolean privateSuperField = false;
                if (isSuperExpression(objectExpression)) {
                    field = controller.getClassNode().getSuperClass().getDeclaredField(name);
                    if (field != null && ((field.getModifiers() & ACC_PRIVATE) != 0)) {
                    	privateSuperField = true;
                    }
                } else {
                	if (controller.isNotExplicitThisInClosure(expression.isImplicitThis())) {
                        field = controller.getClassNode().getDeclaredField(name);
                	}
                }
                if (field != null && !privateSuperField) {//GROOVY-4497: don't visit super field if it is private 
                    visitFieldExpression(new FieldExpression(field));
                    return;
                }
            }
            if (isSuperExpression(objectExpression)) {
                String prefix;
                if (controller.getCompileStack().isLHS()) {
                    prefix = "set";
                } else {
                    prefix = "get";
                }
                String propName = prefix + MetaClassHelper.capitalize(name);
                visitMethodCallExpression(new MethodCallExpression(objectExpression, propName, MethodCallExpression.NO_ARGUMENTS));
                return;
            }
        }

        final String propName = expression.getPropertyAsString();
        //TODO: add support for super here too
        if (expression.getObjectExpression() instanceof ClassExpression && 
            propName!=null && propName.equals("this")) 
        {
            // we have something like A.B.this, and need to make it
            // into this.this$0.this$0, where this.this$0 returns 
            // A.B and this.this$0.this$0 return A.
            ClassNode type = objectExpression.getType();
            ClassNode iterType = controller.getClassNode();
            mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
            while (!iterType.equals(type)) {
                String ownerName = BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(iterType);
                iterType = iterType.getOuterClass();
                String typeName = BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(iterType);
                mv.visitFieldInsn(GETFIELD, ownerName, "this$0", typeName);                
            }
            controller.getOperandStack().push(type);
            return;
        }

        if (adapter == getProperty && !expression.isSpreadSafe() && propName != null) {
            controller.getCallSiteWriter().makeGetPropertySite(objectExpression, propName, expression.isSafe(), expression.isImplicitThis());
        } else if (adapter == getGroovyObjectProperty && !expression.isSpreadSafe() && propName != null) {
            controller.getCallSiteWriter().makeGroovyObjectGetPropertySite(objectExpression, propName, expression.isSafe(), expression.isImplicitThis());
        } else {
            if (controller.getCompileStack().isLHS()) controller.getOperandStack().box();
            controller.getInvocationWriter().makeCall(
                    expression,
                    objectExpression, // receiver
                    new CastExpression(ClassHelper.STRING_TYPE, expression.getProperty()), // messageName
                    MethodCallExpression.NO_ARGUMENTS, adapter,
                    expression.isSafe(), expression.isSpreadSafe(), expression.isImplicitThis()
            );
        }
    }

    public void visitPropertyExpression(PropertyExpression expression) {
        Expression objectExpression = expression.getObjectExpression();
        OperandStack operandStack = controller.getOperandStack();
        int mark = operandStack.getStackLength()-1;
        MethodCallerMultiAdapter adapter;
        if (controller.getCompileStack().isLHS()) {
            operandStack.box();
            adapter = setProperty;
            if (isGroovyObject(objectExpression)) adapter = setGroovyObjectProperty;
            if (controller.isStaticContext() && isThisOrSuper(objectExpression)) adapter = setProperty;
        } else {
            adapter = getProperty;
            if (isGroovyObject(objectExpression)) adapter = getGroovyObjectProperty;
            if (controller.isStaticContext() && isThisOrSuper(objectExpression)) adapter = getProperty;
        }
        visitAttributeOrProperty(expression, adapter);
        if (controller.getCompileStack().isLHS()) {
            // remove surplus values 
            operandStack.remove(operandStack.getStackLength()-mark);
        } else {
            controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression.getProperty());
        }
    }

    public void visitAttributeExpression(AttributeExpression expression) {
        Expression objectExpression = expression.getObjectExpression();
        MethodCallerMultiAdapter adapter;
        if (controller.getCompileStack().isLHS()) {
            adapter = setField;
            if (isGroovyObject(objectExpression)) adapter = setGroovyObjectField;
            if (usesSuper(expression)) adapter = setFieldOnSuper;
        } else {
            adapter = getField;
            if (isGroovyObject(objectExpression)) adapter = getGroovyObjectField;
            if (usesSuper(expression)) adapter = getFieldOnSuper;
        }
        visitAttributeOrProperty(expression, adapter);
        if (!controller.getCompileStack().isLHS()) {
            controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression.getProperty());
        } else {
            controller.getOperandStack().remove(2);
        }
    }
    
    private static boolean usesSuper(PropertyExpression pe) {
        Expression expression = pe.getObjectExpression();
        if (expression instanceof VariableExpression) {
            VariableExpression varExp = (VariableExpression) expression;
            String variable = varExp.getName();
            return variable.equals("super");
        }
        return false;
    }

    private static boolean isGroovyObject(Expression objectExpression) {
        return isThisExpression(objectExpression) || objectExpression.getType().isDerivedFromGroovyObject() && !(objectExpression instanceof ClassExpression);
    }

    public void visitFieldExpression(FieldExpression expression) {
        FieldNode field = expression.getField();

        if (field.isStatic()) {
            if (controller.getCompileStack().isLHS()) {
                storeStaticField(expression);
            } else {
                loadStaticField(expression);
            }
        } else {
            if (controller.getCompileStack().isLHS()) {
                storeThisInstanceField(expression);
            } else {
                loadInstanceField(expression);
            }
        }
        if (controller.getCompileStack().isLHS()) controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression);
    }

    /**
     * @param fldExp
     */
    public void loadStaticField(FieldExpression fldExp) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        FieldNode field = fldExp.getField();
        boolean holder = field.isHolder() && !controller.isInClosureConstructor();
        ClassNode type = field.getType();

        String ownerName = (field.getOwner().equals(controller.getClassNode()))
                ? controller.getInternalClassName()
                : BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(field.getOwner());
        if (holder) {
            mv.visitFieldInsn(GETSTATIC, ownerName, fldExp.getFieldName(), BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(type));
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "groovy/lang/Reference", "get", "()Ljava/lang/Object;");
            controller.getOperandStack().push(ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE);
        } else {
            mv.visitFieldInsn(GETSTATIC, ownerName, fldExp.getFieldName(), BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(type));
            controller.getOperandStack().push(field.getType());
        }
    }

    /**
     * RHS instance field. should move most of the code in the BytecodeHelper
     *
     * @param fldExp
     */
    public void loadInstanceField(FieldExpression fldExp) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        FieldNode field = fldExp.getField();
        boolean holder = field.isHolder() && !controller.isInClosureConstructor();
        ClassNode type = field.getType();
        String ownerName = (field.getOwner().equals(controller.getClassNode()))
                ? controller.getInternalClassName()
                : BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(field.getOwner());

        mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
        mv.visitFieldInsn(GETFIELD, ownerName, fldExp.getFieldName(), BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(type));

        if (holder) {
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "groovy/lang/Reference", "get", "()Ljava/lang/Object;");
            controller.getOperandStack().push(ClassHelper.OBJECT_TYPE);
        } else {
            controller.getOperandStack().push(field.getType());
        }
    }

    private void storeThisInstanceField(FieldExpression expression) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        FieldNode field = expression.getField();

        boolean setReferenceFromReference = field.isHolder() && expression.isUseReferenceDirectly();
        String ownerName = (field.getOwner().equals(controller.getClassNode())) ?
                controller.getInternalClassName() : BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(field.getOwner());
        OperandStack operandStack = controller.getOperandStack();
        
        if (setReferenceFromReference) {
            // rhs is ready to use reference, just put it in the field
            mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
            operandStack.push(controller.getClassNode());
            operandStack.swap();
            mv.visitFieldInsn(PUTFIELD, ownerName, field.getName(), BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(field.getType()));
        } else if (field.isHolder()){
            // rhs is normal value, set the value in the Reference
            operandStack.doGroovyCast(field.getOriginType());
            operandStack.box();
            mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
            mv.visitFieldInsn(GETFIELD, ownerName, expression.getFieldName(), BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(field.getType()));
            mv.visitInsn(SWAP);
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "groovy/lang/Reference", "set", "(Ljava/lang/Object;)V");
        } else {
            // rhs is normal value, set normal value
            operandStack.doGroovyCast(field.getOriginType());
            mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
            operandStack.push(controller.getClassNode());
            operandStack.swap();
            mv.visitFieldInsn(PUTFIELD, ownerName, field.getName(), BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(field.getType()));
        }
    }

    private void storeStaticField(FieldExpression expression) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        FieldNode field = expression.getField();
        
        boolean holder = field.isHolder() && !controller.isInClosureConstructor();
        controller.getOperandStack().doGroovyCast(field);

        String ownerName = (field.getOwner().equals(controller.getClassNode())) ?
                controller.getInternalClassName() : BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(field.getOwner());
        if (holder) {
            controller.getOperandStack().box();
            mv.visitFieldInsn(GETSTATIC, ownerName, expression.getFieldName(), BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(field.getType()));
            mv.visitInsn(SWAP);
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "groovy/lang/Reference", "set", "(Ljava/lang/Object;)V");
        } else {
            mv.visitFieldInsn(PUTSTATIC, ownerName, expression.getFieldName(), BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(field.getType()));
        }
        controller.getOperandStack().remove(1);
    }
    
    /**
     * Visits a bare (unqualified) variable expression.
     */
    public void visitVariableExpression(VariableExpression expression) {
        String variableName = expression.getName();

        //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
        // SPECIAL CASES

        // "this" for static methods is the Class instance
        ClassNode classNode = controller.getClassNode();
        //if (controller.isInClosure()) classNode = controller.getOutermostClass();

        if (variableName.equals("this")) {
            if (controller.isStaticMethod() || (!controller.getCompileStack().isImplicitThis() && controller.isStaticContext())) {
                if (controller.isInClosure()) classNode = controller.getOutermostClass();
                visitClassExpression(new ClassExpression(classNode));
            } else {
                loadThis();
            }
            return;
        }

        // "super" also requires special handling
        if (variableName.equals("super")) {
            if (controller.isStaticMethod()) {
                visitClassExpression(new ClassExpression(classNode.getSuperClass()));
            } else {
                loadThis();
            }
            return;
        }

        BytecodeVariable variable = controller.getCompileStack().getVariable(variableName, false);
        if (variable == null) {
            processClassVariable(variableName);
        } else {
            controller.getOperandStack().loadOrStoreVariable(variable, expression.isUseReferenceDirectly());
        }
        if (!controller.getCompileStack().isLHS()) controller.getAssertionWriter().record(expression);
    }

    private void loadThis() {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
        if (controller.isInClosure() && !controller.getCompileStack().isImplicitThis()) {
            mv.visitMethodInsn(
                    INVOKEVIRTUAL,
                    "groovy/lang/Closure",
                    "getThisObject",
                    "()Ljava/lang/Object;"
            );
            controller.getOperandStack().push(controller.getClassNode().getOuterClass());
        } else {
            controller.getOperandStack().push(controller.getClassNode());
        }
    }

    private void processClassVariable(String name) {
        if (passingParams && controller.isInScriptBody()) {
            //TODO: check if this part is actually used
            MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
            // let's create a ScriptReference to pass into the closure
            mv.visitTypeInsn(NEW, "org/codehaus/groovy/runtime/ScriptReference");
            mv.visitInsn(DUP);

            loadThisOrOwner();
            mv.visitLdcInsn(name);

            mv.visitMethodInsn(
                    INVOKESPECIAL,
                    "org/codehaus/groovy/runtime/ScriptReference",
                    "<init>",
                    "(Lgroovy/lang/Script;Ljava/lang/String;)V");
        } else {
            PropertyExpression pexp = new PropertyExpression(VariableExpression.THIS_EXPRESSION, name);
            pexp.setImplicitThis(true);
            visitPropertyExpression(pexp);
        }
    }

    protected void createInterfaceSyntheticStaticFields() {
        if (referencedClasses.isEmpty()) return;

        ClassNode icl =  controller.getInterfaceClassLoadingClass();
        addInnerClass(icl);
        for (String staticFieldName : referencedClasses.keySet()) {            // generate a field node
            icl.addField(staticFieldName, ACC_STATIC + ACC_SYNTHETIC, ClassHelper.CLASS_Type, new ClassExpression(referencedClasses.get(staticFieldName)));
        }
    }

    protected void createSyntheticStaticFields() {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        for (String staticFieldName : referencedClasses.keySet()) {
            // generate a field node
            FieldNode fn = controller.getClassNode().getDeclaredField(staticFieldName);
            if (fn != null) {
                boolean type = fn.getType() == ClassHelper.CLASS_Type;
                boolean modifiers = fn.getModifiers() == ACC_STATIC + ACC_SYNTHETIC;
                if (!type || !modifiers) {
                    String text = "";
                    if (!type) text = " with wrong type: " + fn.getType() + " (java.lang.Class needed)";
                    if (!modifiers)
                        text = " with wrong modifiers: " + fn.getModifiers() + " (" + (ACC_STATIC + ACC_SYNTHETIC) + " needed)";
                    throwException(
                            "tried to set a static synthetic field " + staticFieldName + " in " + controller.getClassNode().getName() +
                                    " for class resolving, but found already a node of that" +
                                    " name " + text);
                }
            } else {
                cv.visitField(ACC_PRIVATE + ACC_STATIC + ACC_SYNTHETIC, staticFieldName, "Ljava/lang/Class;", null, null);
            }

            mv = cv.visitMethod(ACC_PRIVATE + ACC_STATIC + ACC_SYNTHETIC, "$get$" + staticFieldName,"()Ljava/lang/Class;",null, null);
            mv.visitCode();
            mv.visitFieldInsn(GETSTATIC,controller.getInternalClassName(),staticFieldName,"Ljava/lang/Class;");
            mv.visitInsn(DUP);
            Label l0 = new Label();
            mv.visitJumpInsn(IFNONNULL,l0);
            mv.visitInsn(POP);
            mv.visitLdcInsn(BytecodeHelper.getClassLoadingTypeDescription(referencedClasses.get(staticFieldName)));
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESTATIC,controller.getInternalClassName(),"class$","(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/Class;");
            mv.visitInsn(DUP);
            mv.visitFieldInsn(PUTSTATIC,controller.getInternalClassName(),staticFieldName,"Ljava/lang/Class;");
            mv.visitLabel(l0);
            mv.visitInsn(ARETURN);
            mv.visitMaxs(0,0);
            mv.visitEnd();
        }

        mv =    cv.visitMethod(
                        ACC_STATIC + ACC_SYNTHETIC,
                        "class$",
                        "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/Class;",
                        null,
                        null);
        Label l0 = new Label();
        mv.visitLabel(l0);
        mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
        mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESTATIC, "java/lang/Class", "forName", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/Class;");
        Label l1 = new Label();
        mv.visitLabel(l1);
        mv.visitInsn(ARETURN);
        Label l2 = new Label();
        mv.visitLabel(l2);
        mv.visitVarInsn(ASTORE, 1);
        mv.visitTypeInsn(NEW, "java/lang/NoClassDefFoundError");
        mv.visitInsn(DUP);
        mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 1);
        mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/ClassNotFoundException", "getMessage", "()Ljava/lang/String;");
        mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, "java/lang/NoClassDefFoundError", "<init>", "(Ljava/lang/String;)V");
        mv.visitInsn(ATHROW);
        mv.visitTryCatchBlock(l0, l2, l2, "java/lang/ClassNotFoundException"); // br using l2 as the 2nd param seems create the right table entry
        mv.visitMaxs(3, 2);
    }

    /**
     * load class object on stack
     */
    public void visitClassExpression(ClassExpression expression) {
        ClassNode type = expression.getType();
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();

        if (ClassHelper.isPrimitiveType(type)) {
            ClassNode objectType = ClassHelper.getWrapper(type);
            mv.visitFieldInsn(GETSTATIC, BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(objectType), "TYPE", "Ljava/lang/Class;");
        } else {
            String staticFieldName = getStaticFieldName(type);
            referencedClasses.put(staticFieldName,type);

            String internalClassName = controller.getInternalClassName();
            if (controller.getClassNode().isInterface()) {
                internalClassName = BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(controller.getInterfaceClassLoadingClass());
                mv.visitFieldInsn(GETSTATIC, internalClassName, staticFieldName, "Ljava/lang/Class;");
            } else {
                mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESTATIC, internalClassName, "$get$" + staticFieldName, "()Ljava/lang/Class;");
            }
        }
        
        controller.getOperandStack().push(ClassHelper.CLASS_Type);
    }

    public void visitRangeExpression(RangeExpression expression) {
        OperandStack operandStack = controller.getOperandStack();
        expression.getFrom().visit(this);
        operandStack.box();
        expression.getTo().visit(this);
        operandStack.box();
        operandStack.pushBool(expression.isInclusive());

        createRangeMethod.call(controller.getMethodVisitor());
        operandStack.replace(ClassHelper.RANGE_TYPE, 3);
    }

    public void visitMapEntryExpression(MapEntryExpression expression) {
        throw new GroovyBugError("MapEntryExpression should not be visited here");
    }

    public void visitMapExpression(MapExpression expression) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        
        List entries = expression.getMapEntryExpressions();
        int size = entries.size();
        BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, size * 2);

        mv.visitTypeInsn(ANEWARRAY, "java/lang/Object");

        int i = 0;
        for (Iterator iter = entries.iterator(); iter.hasNext();) {
            Object object = iter.next();
            MapEntryExpression entry = (MapEntryExpression) object;

            mv.visitInsn(DUP);
            BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, i++);
            entry.getKeyExpression().visit(this);
            controller.getOperandStack().box();
            mv.visitInsn(AASTORE);

            mv.visitInsn(DUP);
            BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, i++);
            entry.getValueExpression().visit(this);
            controller.getOperandStack().box();
            mv.visitInsn(AASTORE);
            
            controller.getOperandStack().remove(2);
        }
        createMapMethod.call(mv);
        controller.getOperandStack().push(ClassHelper.MAP_TYPE);
    }

    public void visitArgumentlistExpression(ArgumentListExpression ale) {
        if (containsSpreadExpression(ale)) {
            despreadList(ale.getExpressions(), true);
        } else {
            visitTupleExpression(ale, true);
        }
    }
    
    public void despreadList(List expressions, boolean wrap) {
        ArrayList spreadIndexes = new ArrayList();
        ArrayList spreadExpressions = new ArrayList();
        ArrayList normalArguments = new ArrayList();
        for (int i = 0; i < expressions.size(); i++) {
            Object expr = expressions.get(i);
            if (!(expr instanceof SpreadExpression)) {
                normalArguments.add(expr);
            } else {
                spreadIndexes.add(new ConstantExpression(Integer.valueOf(i - spreadExpressions.size()),true));
                spreadExpressions.add(((SpreadExpression) expr).getExpression());
            }
        }

        //load normal arguments as array
        visitTupleExpression(new ArgumentListExpression(normalArguments), wrap);
        //load spread expressions as array
        (new TupleExpression(spreadExpressions)).visit(this);
        //load insertion index
        (new ArrayExpression(ClassHelper.int_TYPE, spreadIndexes, null)).visit(this);
        controller.getOperandStack().remove(1);
        despreadList.call(controller.getMethodVisitor());
    }

    public void visitTupleExpression(TupleExpression expression) {
        visitTupleExpression(expression, false);
    }

    void visitTupleExpression(TupleExpression expression, boolean useWrapper) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        int size = expression.getExpressions().size();

        BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, size);
        mv.visitTypeInsn(ANEWARRAY, "java/lang/Object");

        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            mv.visitInsn(DUP);
            BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, i);
            Expression argument = expression.getExpression(i);
            argument.visit(this);
            controller.getOperandStack().box();
            if (useWrapper && argument instanceof CastExpression) loadWrapper(argument);

            mv.visitInsn(AASTORE);
            controller.getOperandStack().remove(1);
        }
    }

    public void loadWrapper(Expression argument) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        ClassNode goalClass = argument.getType();
        visitClassExpression(new ClassExpression(goalClass));
        if (goalClass.isDerivedFromGroovyObject()) {
            createGroovyObjectWrapperMethod.call(mv);
        } else {
            createPojoWrapperMethod.call(mv);
        }
        controller.getOperandStack().remove(1);
    }

    public void visitArrayExpression(ArrayExpression expression) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        ClassNode elementType = expression.getElementType();
        String arrayTypeName = BytecodeHelper.getClassInternalName(elementType);
        List sizeExpression = expression.getSizeExpression();

        int size = 0;
        int dimensions = 0;
        if (sizeExpression != null) {
            for (Iterator iter = sizeExpression.iterator(); iter.hasNext();) {
                Expression element = (Expression) iter.next();
                if (element == ConstantExpression.EMPTY_EXPRESSION) break;
                dimensions++;
                // let's convert to an int
                element.visit(this);
                controller.getOperandStack().doGroovyCast(ClassHelper.int_TYPE);
            }
            controller.getOperandStack().remove(dimensions);
        } else {
            size = expression.getExpressions().size();
            BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, size);
        }

        int storeIns = AASTORE;
        if (sizeExpression != null) {
            arrayTypeName = BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(expression.getType());
            mv.visitMultiANewArrayInsn(arrayTypeName, dimensions);
        } else if (ClassHelper.isPrimitiveType(elementType)) {
            int primType = 0;
            if (elementType == ClassHelper.boolean_TYPE) {
                primType = T_BOOLEAN;
                storeIns = BASTORE;
            } else if (elementType == ClassHelper.char_TYPE) {
                primType = T_CHAR;
                storeIns = CASTORE;
            } else if (elementType == ClassHelper.float_TYPE) {
                primType = T_FLOAT;
                storeIns = FASTORE;
            } else if (elementType == ClassHelper.double_TYPE) {
                primType = T_DOUBLE;
                storeIns = DASTORE;
            } else if (elementType == ClassHelper.byte_TYPE) {
                primType = T_BYTE;
                storeIns = BASTORE;
            } else if (elementType == ClassHelper.short_TYPE) {
                primType = T_SHORT;
                storeIns = SASTORE;
            } else if (elementType == ClassHelper.int_TYPE) {
                primType = T_INT;
                storeIns = IASTORE;
            } else if (elementType == ClassHelper.long_TYPE) {
                primType = T_LONG;
                storeIns = LASTORE;
            }
            mv.visitIntInsn(NEWARRAY, primType);
        } else {
            mv.visitTypeInsn(ANEWARRAY, arrayTypeName);
        }

        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            mv.visitInsn(DUP);
            BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, i);
            Expression elementExpression = expression.getExpression(i);
            if (elementExpression == null) {
                ConstantExpression.NULL.visit(this);
            } else {
                if (!elementType.equals(elementExpression.getType())) {
                    visitCastExpression(new CastExpression(elementType, elementExpression, true));
                } else {
                    elementExpression.visit(this);
                }
            }
            mv.visitInsn(storeIns);
            controller.getOperandStack().remove(1);
        }

        controller.getOperandStack().push(expression.getType());
    }

    public void visitClosureListExpression(ClosureListExpression expression) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        controller.getCompileStack().pushVariableScope(expression.getVariableScope());

        List<Expression> expressions = expression.getExpressions();
        final int size = expressions.size();
        // init declarations
        LinkedList<DeclarationExpression> declarations = new LinkedList();
        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            Expression expr = expressions.get(i);
            if (expr instanceof DeclarationExpression) {
                declarations.add((DeclarationExpression) expr);
                DeclarationExpression de = (DeclarationExpression) expr;
                BinaryExpression be = new BinaryExpression(
                        de.getLeftExpression(),
                        de.getOperation(),
                        de.getRightExpression());
                expressions.set(i, be);
                de.setRightExpression(ConstantExpression.NULL);
                visitDeclarationExpression(de);
            }
        }

        LinkedList instructions = new LinkedList();
        BytecodeSequence seq = new BytecodeSequence(instructions);
        BlockStatement bs = new BlockStatement();
        bs.addStatement(seq);
        Parameter closureIndex = new Parameter(ClassHelper.int_TYPE, "__closureIndex");
        ClosureExpression ce = new ClosureExpression(new Parameter[]{closureIndex}, bs);
        ce.setVariableScope(expression.getVariableScope());

        // to keep stack height put a null on stack
        instructions.add(ConstantExpression.NULL);

        // init table
        final Label dflt = new Label();
        final Label tableEnd = new Label();
        final Label[] labels = new Label[size];
        instructions.add(new BytecodeInstruction() {
            public void visit(MethodVisitor mv) {
                mv.visitVarInsn(ILOAD, 1);
                mv.visitTableSwitchInsn(0, size - 1, dflt, labels);
            }
        });

        // visit cases
        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            final Label label = new Label();
            Object expr = expressions.get(i);
            final boolean isStatement = expr instanceof Statement;
            labels[i] = label;
            instructions.add(new BytecodeInstruction() {
                public void visit(MethodVisitor mv) {
                    mv.visitLabel(label);
                    // expressions will leave a value on stack, statements not
                    // so expressions need to pop the alibi null
                    if (!isStatement) mv.visitInsn(POP);
                }
            });
            instructions.add(expr);
            instructions.add(new BytecodeInstruction() {
                public void visit(MethodVisitor mv) {
                    mv.visitJumpInsn(GOTO, tableEnd);
                }
            });
        }

        // default case
        {
            instructions.add(new BytecodeInstruction() {
                public void visit(MethodVisitor mv) {
                    mv.visitLabel(dflt);
                }
            });
            ConstantExpression text = new ConstantExpression("invalid index for closure");
            ConstructorCallExpression cce = new ConstructorCallExpression(ClassHelper.make(IllegalArgumentException.class), text);
            ThrowStatement ts = new ThrowStatement(cce);
            instructions.add(ts);
        }

        // return
        instructions.add(new BytecodeInstruction() {
            public void visit(MethodVisitor mv) {
                mv.visitLabel(tableEnd);
                mv.visitInsn(ARETURN);
            }
        });

        // load main Closure
        visitClosureExpression(ce);

        // we need later an array to store the curried
        // closures, so we create it here and ave it
        // in a temporary variable
        BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, size);
        mv.visitTypeInsn(ANEWARRAY, "java/lang/Object");
        int listArrayVar = controller.getCompileStack().defineTemporaryVariable("_listOfClosures", true);

        // add curried versions
        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            // stack: closure

            // we need to create a curried closure version
            // so we store the type on stack
            mv.visitTypeInsn(NEW, "org/codehaus/groovy/runtime/CurriedClosure");
            // stack: closure, type
            // for a constructor call we need the type two times

            // and the closure after them
            mv.visitInsn(DUP2);
            mv.visitInsn(SWAP);
            // stack: closure,type,type,closure

            // so we can create the curried closure
            mv.visitInsn(ICONST_1);
            mv.visitTypeInsn(ANEWARRAY, "java/lang/Object");
            mv.visitInsn(DUP);
            mv.visitInsn(ICONST_0);
            mv.visitLdcInsn(i);
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESTATIC, "java/lang/Integer", "valueOf", "(I)Ljava/lang/Integer;");
            mv.visitInsn(AASTORE);
            mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, "org/codehaus/groovy/runtime/CurriedClosure", "<init>", "(Lgroovy/lang/Closure;[Ljava/lang/Object;)V");
            // stack: closure,curriedClosure

            // we need to save the result
            mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, listArrayVar);
            mv.visitInsn(SWAP);
            BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, i);
            mv.visitInsn(SWAP);
            mv.visitInsn(AASTORE);
            // stack: closure
        }

        // we don't need the closure any longer, so remove it
        mv.visitInsn(POP);
        // we load the array and create a list from it
        mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, listArrayVar);
        createListMethod.call(mv);

        // remove the temporary variable to keep the
        // stack clean
        controller.getCompileStack().removeVar(listArrayVar);
        controller.getOperandStack().pop();
    }

    public void visitBytecodeSequence(BytecodeSequence bytecodeSequence) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        List instructions = bytecodeSequence.getInstructions();
        int mark = controller.getOperandStack().getStackLength();
        for (Iterator iterator = instructions.iterator(); iterator.hasNext();) {
            Object part = iterator.next();
            if (part == EmptyExpression.INSTANCE) {
                mv.visitInsn(ACONST_NULL);
            } else if (part instanceof Expression) {
                ((Expression) part).visit(this);
            } else if (part instanceof Statement) {
                Statement stm = (Statement) part;
                stm.visit(this);
                mv.visitInsn(ACONST_NULL);
            } else {
                BytecodeInstruction runner = (BytecodeInstruction) part;
                runner.visit(mv);
            }
        }
        controller.getOperandStack().remove(mark-controller.getOperandStack().getStackLength());
    }

    public void visitListExpression(ListExpression expression) {
        onLineNumber(expression,"ListExpression" );

        int size = expression.getExpressions().size();
        boolean containsSpreadExpression = containsSpreadExpression(expression);
        boolean containsOnlyConstants = !containsSpreadExpression && containsOnlyConstants(expression);
        OperandStack operandStack = controller.getOperandStack();
        if (!containsSpreadExpression) {
            MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
            BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, size);
            mv.visitTypeInsn(ANEWARRAY, "java/lang/Object");
            int maxInit = 1000;
            if (size<maxInit || !containsOnlyConstants) {
                for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
                    mv.visitInsn(DUP);
                    BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, i);
                    expression.getExpression(i).visit(this);
                    operandStack.box();
                    mv.visitInsn(AASTORE);
                }
                controller.getOperandStack().remove(size);
            } else {
                List<Expression> expressions = expression.getExpressions();
                List<String> methods = new ArrayList();
                MethodVisitor oldMv = mv;
                int index = 0;
                int methodIndex = 0;
                while (index<size) {
                    methodIndex++; 
                    String methodName = "$createListEntry_" + methodIndex; 
                    methods.add(methodName); 
                    mv = controller.getClassVisitor().visitMethod(
                            ACC_PRIVATE+ACC_STATIC+ACC_SYNTHETIC, 
                            methodName,
                            "([Ljava/lang/Object;)V", 
                            null, null);
                    controller.setMethodVisitor(mv);
                    mv.visitCode();
                    int methodBlockSize = Math.min(size-index, maxInit);
                    int methodBlockEnd = index + methodBlockSize; 
                    for (; index < methodBlockEnd; index++) { 
                        mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0); 
                        mv.visitLdcInsn(index); 
                        expressions.get(index).visit(this);
                        operandStack.box();
                        mv.visitInsn(AASTORE); 
                    } 
                    operandStack.remove(methodBlockSize);
                    mv.visitInsn(RETURN); 
                    mv.visitMaxs(0,0); 
                    mv.visitEnd(); 
                }
                mv = oldMv;
                controller.setMethodVisitor(mv);
                for (String methodName : methods) { 
                    mv.visitInsn(DUP);
                    mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESTATIC,controller.getInternalClassName(),methodName,"([Ljava/lang/Object;)V"); 
                }
            }
        } else {
            despreadList(expression.getExpressions(), false);
        }
        createListMethod.call(controller.getMethodVisitor());
        operandStack.push(ClassHelper.LIST_TYPE);
    }

    private boolean containsOnlyConstants(ListExpression list) {
        for (Expression exp : list.getExpressions()) {
            if (exp instanceof ConstantExpression) continue;
            return false;
        }
        return true;
    }

    public void visitGStringExpression(GStringExpression expression) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();

        mv.visitTypeInsn(NEW, "org/codehaus/groovy/runtime/GStringImpl");
        mv.visitInsn(DUP);

        int size = expression.getValues().size();
        BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, size);
        mv.visitTypeInsn(ANEWARRAY, "java/lang/Object");

        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            mv.visitInsn(DUP);
            BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, i);
            expression.getValue(i).visit(this);
            controller.getOperandStack().box();
            mv.visitInsn(AASTORE);
        }
        controller.getOperandStack().remove(size);

        List strings = expression.getStrings();
        size = strings.size();
        BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, size);
        mv.visitTypeInsn(ANEWARRAY, "java/lang/String");

        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            mv.visitInsn(DUP);
            BytecodeHelper.pushConstant(mv, i);
            controller.getOperandStack().pushConstant((ConstantExpression) strings.get(i));
            controller.getOperandStack().box();
            mv.visitInsn(AASTORE);
        }
        controller.getOperandStack().remove(size);

        mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, "org/codehaus/groovy/runtime/GStringImpl", "<init>", "([Ljava/lang/Object;[Ljava/lang/String;)V");
        controller.getOperandStack().push(ClassHelper.GSTRING_TYPE);
    }

    /**
     * Note: ignore it. Annotation generation needs the current visitor.
     */
    public void visitAnnotations(AnnotatedNode node) {
    }

    private void visitAnnotations(AnnotatedNode targetNode, Object visitor) {
        for (AnnotationNode an : targetNode.getAnnotations()) {
            // skip built-in properties
            if (an.isBuiltIn()) continue;
            if (an.hasSourceRetention()) continue;

            AnnotationVisitor av = getAnnotationVisitor(targetNode, an, visitor);
            visitAnnotationAttributes(an, av);
            av.visitEnd();
        }
    }

    private void visitParameterAnnotations(Parameter parameter, int paramNumber, MethodVisitor mv) {
        for (AnnotationNode an : parameter.getAnnotations()) {
            // skip built-in properties
            if (an.isBuiltIn()) continue;
            if (an.hasSourceRetention()) continue;

            final String annotationDescriptor = BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(an.getClassNode());
            AnnotationVisitor av = mv.visitParameterAnnotation(paramNumber, annotationDescriptor, an.hasRuntimeRetention());
            visitAnnotationAttributes(an, av);
            av.visitEnd();
        }
    }

    private AnnotationVisitor getAnnotationVisitor(AnnotatedNode targetNode, AnnotationNode an, Object visitor) {
        final String annotationDescriptor = BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(an.getClassNode());
        if (targetNode instanceof MethodNode) {
            return ((MethodVisitor) visitor).visitAnnotation(annotationDescriptor, an.hasRuntimeRetention());
        } else if (targetNode instanceof FieldNode) {
            return ((FieldVisitor) visitor).visitAnnotation(annotationDescriptor, an.hasRuntimeRetention());
        } else if (targetNode instanceof ClassNode) {
            return ((ClassVisitor) visitor).visitAnnotation(annotationDescriptor, an.hasRuntimeRetention());
        }
        throwException("Cannot create an AnnotationVisitor. Please report Groovy bug");
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * Generate the annotation attributes.
     * @param an the node with an annotation
     * @param av the visitor to use
     */
    private void visitAnnotationAttributes(AnnotationNode an, AnnotationVisitor av) {
        Map<String, Object> constantAttrs = new HashMap();
        Map<String, PropertyExpression> enumAttrs = new HashMap();
        Map<String, Object> atAttrs = new HashMap();
        Map<String, ListExpression> arrayAttrs = new HashMap();

        for (String name : an.getMembers().keySet()) {
            Expression expr = an.getMember(name);
            if (expr instanceof AnnotationConstantExpression) {
                atAttrs.put(name, ((AnnotationConstantExpression) expr).getValue());
            } else if (expr instanceof ConstantExpression) {
                constantAttrs.put(name, ((ConstantExpression) expr).getValue());
            } else if (expr instanceof ClassExpression) {
                constantAttrs.put(name,
                        Type.getType(BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription((expr.getType()))));
            } else if (expr instanceof PropertyExpression) {
                enumAttrs.put(name, (PropertyExpression) expr);
            } else if (expr instanceof ListExpression) {
                arrayAttrs.put(name, (ListExpression) expr);
            } else if (expr instanceof ClosureExpression) {
                ClassNode closureClass = controller.getClosureWriter().getOrAddClosureClass((ClosureExpression) expr, ACC_PUBLIC);
                constantAttrs.put(name,
                        Type.getType(BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(closureClass)));
            }
        }

        for (Map.Entry entry : constantAttrs.entrySet()) {
            av.visit((String) entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
        }
        for (Map.Entry entry : enumAttrs.entrySet()) {
            PropertyExpression propExp = (PropertyExpression) entry.getValue();
            av.visitEnum((String) entry.getKey(),
                    BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(propExp.getObjectExpression().getType()),
                    String.valueOf(((ConstantExpression) propExp.getProperty()).getValue()));
        }
        for (Map.Entry entry : atAttrs.entrySet()) {
            AnnotationNode atNode = (AnnotationNode) entry.getValue();
            AnnotationVisitor av2 = av.visitAnnotation((String) entry.getKey(),
                    BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(atNode.getClassNode()));
            visitAnnotationAttributes(atNode, av2);
            av2.visitEnd();
        }
        visitArrayAttributes(an, arrayAttrs, av);
    }

    private void visitArrayAttributes(AnnotationNode an, Map<String, ListExpression> arrayAttr, AnnotationVisitor av) {
        if (arrayAttr.isEmpty()) return;
        for (Map.Entry entry : arrayAttr.entrySet()) {
            AnnotationVisitor av2 = av.visitArray((String) entry.getKey());
            List<Expression> values = ((ListExpression) entry.getValue()).getExpressions();
            if (!values.isEmpty()) {
                int arrayElementType = determineCommonArrayType(values);
                for (Expression exprChild : values) {
                    visitAnnotationArrayElement(exprChild, arrayElementType, av2);
                }
            }
            av2.visitEnd();
        }
    }

    private int determineCommonArrayType(List values) {
        Expression expr = (Expression) values.get(0);
        int arrayElementType = -1;
        if (expr instanceof AnnotationConstantExpression) {
            arrayElementType = 1;
        } else if (expr instanceof ConstantExpression) {
            arrayElementType = 2;
        } else if (expr instanceof ClassExpression) {
            arrayElementType = 3;
        } else if (expr instanceof PropertyExpression) {
            arrayElementType = 4;
        }
        return arrayElementType;
    }

    private void visitAnnotationArrayElement(Expression expr, int arrayElementType, AnnotationVisitor av) {
        switch (arrayElementType) {
            case 1:
                AnnotationNode atAttr = (AnnotationNode) ((AnnotationConstantExpression) expr).getValue();
                AnnotationVisitor av2 = av.visitAnnotation(null, BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(atAttr.getClassNode()));
                visitAnnotationAttributes(atAttr, av2);
                av2.visitEnd();
                break;
            case 2:
                av.visit(null, ((ConstantExpression) expr).getValue());
                break;
            case 3:
                av.visit(null, Type.getType(BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(expr.getType())));
                break;
            case 4:
                PropertyExpression propExpr = (PropertyExpression) expr;
                av.visitEnum(null,
                        BytecodeHelper.getTypeDescription(propExpr.getObjectExpression().getType()),
                        String.valueOf(((ConstantExpression) propExpr.getProperty()).getValue()));
                break;
        }
    }

    // Implementation methods
    //-------------------------------------------------------------------------

    public void visitBytecodeExpression(BytecodeExpression cle) {
        cle.visit(controller.getMethodVisitor());
        controller.getOperandStack().push(cle.getType());
    }
    
    public static boolean isThisExpression(Expression expression) {
        if (expression instanceof VariableExpression) {
            VariableExpression varExp = (VariableExpression) expression;
            return varExp.getName().equals("this");
        }
        return false;
    }

    private static boolean isSuperExpression(Expression expression) {
        if (expression instanceof VariableExpression) {
            VariableExpression varExp = (VariableExpression) expression;
            return varExp.getName().equals("super");
        }
        return false;
    }

    private static boolean isThisOrSuper(Expression expression) {
        return isThisExpression(expression) || isSuperExpression(expression);
    }

    public void onLineNumber(ASTNode statement, String message) {
        MethodVisitor mv = controller.getMethodVisitor();
        
        if (statement==null) return;
        int line = statement.getLineNumber();
        this.currentASTNode = statement;

        if (line < 0) return;
        if (!ASM_DEBUG && line==lineNumber) return;

        lineNumber = line;
        if (mv != null) {
            Label l = new Label();
            mv.visitLabel(l);
            mv.visitLineNumber(line, l);
        }
    }

    private boolean isInnerClass() {
        return controller.getClassNode() instanceof InnerClassNode;
    }
    
    protected CompileUnit getCompileUnit() {
        CompileUnit answer = controller.getClassNode().getCompileUnit();
        if (answer == null) {
            answer = context.getCompileUnit();
        }
        return answer;
    }

    protected int getBytecodeVersion() {
        ClassNode classNode = controller.getClassNode();
        if ( !classNode.isUsingGenerics() &&
             !classNode.isAnnotated()  &&
             !classNode.isAnnotationDefinition() ) 
        {
            return Opcodes.V1_3;
        }

        final String target = getCompileUnit().getConfig().getTargetBytecode();
        return CompilerConfiguration.POST_JDK5.equals(target) ? Opcodes.V1_5 : Opcodes.V1_3;
    }
    
    public boolean addInnerClass(ClassNode innerClass) {
        innerClass.setModule(controller.getClassNode().getModule());
        return innerClasses.add(innerClass);
    }
}

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