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Groovy example source code file (Gep3Test.groovy)

This example Groovy source code file (Gep3Test.groovy) is included in the DevDaily.com "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM.

Java - Groovy tags/keywords

drink, drink, drug, email, guillaume, guillaume, ingredient, lidia, map, number, recipe, red, string, string

The Groovy Gep3Test.groovy source code

package gls.syntax

import static Container.*
import static Ingredient.*
import static CookingAction.*
import static Temperature.*

/**
 * Test case for "extended command expressions" (GEP-3) added in Groovy 1.8
 *
 * Simple table presenting what is possible and what is not
 * according to this table old syntax should works the same as now
 *
 * expression              | meaning                   | before extended command expressions (GEP-3)
 *  foo {c}                |  foo({c})                 |  (same meaning)
 *  foo a1                 |  foo(a1)                  |  (same meaning)
 *  foo a1()               |  foo(a1())                |  (same meaning)
 *  foo a1 {c}             |  foo(a1({c}))             |  (same meaning)
 *  foo a1 a2              |  foo(a1).getA2()          |   not allowed
 *  foo a1() a2            |  foo(a1()).getA2()        |   not allowed
 *  foo a1 a2()            |  foo(a1).a2()             |   not allowed
 *  foo a1 a2 {c}          |  foo(a1).a2{c}            |   not allowed
 *  foo a1 {c} a2          |  foo(a1{c}).getA2()       |   not allowed
 *  foo a1 {c} a2 {c}      |  foo(a1{c}).a2{c}         |   not allowed
 *  foo a1 a2 a3           |  foo(a1).a2(a3)           |   not allowed
 *  foo a1() a2 a3()       |  foo(a1()).a2(a3())       |   not allowed
 *  foo a1 a2() a3         |  foo(a1).a2().getA3()     |   not allowed
 *  foo a1 a2 a3 {c}       |  foo(a1).a2(a3({c}))      |   not allowed
 *  foo a1 a2 a3 a4        |  foo(a1).a2(a3).getA4()   |   not allowed
 *  foo a1 a2 a3 a4 {c}    |  foo(a1).a2(a3).a4{c}     |   not allowed
 *  foo {} a1 {}           |  foo({}).a1({})           |  foo({}).call(a1({}))  <- breaking change
 *  foo {} a1 {} a2 {}     |  foo({}).a1({}).a2({})    |   not allowed
 *  foo a1 a2[1](){} a3 a4 |  foo(a1).a2[1](){}.a3(a4) |   not allowed
 *
 * Summary of the pattern
 * - A command-expression is composed of an even number of elements
 * - The elements are alternating a method name, and its parameters
 *  (can be named and non-named parameters)
 * - A parameter element can be any kind of expression (ie. a method
 *  call foo(), foo{}, or some expression like x+y)
 * - All those pairs of method name and parameters are actually chained
 *  method calls (ie. send "hello" to "Guillaume" is two methods chained
 *  one after the other as send("hello").to("Guillaume"))
 * - extend command expressions to be allowed on the RHS of assignments.
 *  def txt = foo a1() not allowed rigth now
 *
 * @author Lidia Donajczyk-Lipinska
 * @author Jochen "blackdrag" Theodorou
 * @author Guillaume Laforge
 */
class Gep3Test extends GroovyTestCase {

    protected void tearDown() {
        Number.metaClass = null
        Integer.metaClass = null
    }

    static String txt = "Lidia is Groovy ;)"

    void testSimpleClassicalCommandExpressions() {
        foo txt
        foo a1()
        foo a2{}
        foo a2{}, and: txt
    }

    static void foo(a) { assert a == txt }
    static void foo(Map m, a) { assert a == txt && m.and == txt }
    static a1() { return txt }
    static a2(Closure c) { return txt }

    void testNewSyntax() {
        def expectedResult = "from:Lidia;to:Guillaume;body:how are you?;"
        def e = new Email()
        e.from "Lidia" to "Guillaume" body "how are you?"
        def result = e.send()

        assert expectedResult == result
    }

    void testContactInfo() {
        def contact = [name: { String name -> assert name == "Guillaume"; [age: { int age -> assert age == 33 }]}]
        contact.name "Guillaume" age 33
    }

    void testArtistPaintingWithAMixOfNamedAndNonNamedParams() {
        Number.metaClass.getPm = { -> "$delegate PM" }

        def artist = [
            paint: { String what ->
                assert what == "wall"
                [
                    with: { Map m, String c1, String c2 ->
                        assert m.and == "Blue"
                        assert c1 == "Red"
                        assert c2 == "Green"
                        [
                            at: { String time ->
                                assert time == "3 PM"
                            }
                        ]
                    }
                ]
            }
        ]

        artist.paint "wall" with "Red", "Green", and: "Blue" at 3.pm
    }

    void testArgWith() {
        def arr = ["he", "ll", "o"]
        def concat = { String s1 -> [with: { String s2 -> [and: { String s3 -> assert s1+s2+s3 == "hello"}]}]}

        concat arr[0] with arr[1] and arr[2]
    }

    void testWaitAndExecuteUsingParamsTakingClosureAsArg() {
        Number.metaClass.getSecond { -> delegate * 1000 }
        def wait = { int t -> [and: { Closure c -> c() }]}

        wait 1.second and execute { assert true }
    }
    static execute(Closure c) { c }


    static String message = ""
    static drugQuantity, drug

    void testMedicine() {
        Number.metaClass.getPills = { -> new DrugQuantity(q: delegate, form: "pills") }
        Number.metaClass.getHours = { -> new Duration(q: delegate, unit: "hours") }

        def chloroquinine = new Drug(name: "Chloroquinine")

        take 3.pills of chloroquinine after 6.hours

        assert message == "Take 3 pills of Chloroquinine after 6 hours"

    }

    def take(DrugQuantity dq) { drugQuantity = dq; this }
    def of(Drug d) { drug = d; this }
    def after(Duration dur) { message = "Take $drugQuantity of $drug after $dur" }

    void testRecipeDsl() {
        def (once, twice) = [1, 2]

        Integer.metaClass.getMinutes { delegate }

        Recipe.instructions {
            take medium_bowl
            combine soy_sauce, vinegar, chili_powder, garlic
            place chicken into sauce
            turn once to coat
            marinate 30.minutes at room_temperature
        }
    }

    void testExtendedCommandExpressionSpanningTwoLinesWithNewlineAfterNamedArg() {
        boolean success = false
        def good = true
        def margherita = [tastes: { boolean b -> success = true }]
        def check = { Map m -> margherita }

        check that:
                margherita tastes good

        assert success
    }

    def check(Map m) { m.that }

    void testExtendedCommandExpressionsOnTheRHS() {
        def ( coffee,   sugar,   milk,   liquor ) =
            ["coffee", "sugar", "milk", "liquor"]
        def drink = Drink.&drink

        def r1 = drink coffee
        assert r1.beverage == coffee && !r1.ingredients

        def r2 = drink coffee with sugar
        assert r2.beverage == coffee && r2.ingredients == [sugar]

        def r3 = drink coffee with sugar, milk
        assert r3.beverage == coffee && r3.ingredients == [sugar, milk]

        r3 = drink coffee with sugar, milk and liquor
        assert r3.beverage == coffee && r3.ingredients == [sugar, milk, liquor]
    }

    /**
     * case             a b  c d
     * equivalent       a(b).c(d)
     */
    void testNominalCase() {

        def turned = false
        def (left, right) = ['left', 'right']
        def turn = { String s -> [then: { turned = true }] }

        turn left then right

        assert turned
    }

    /**
     * For odd number of elements, treat the last element as a call to a getter
     *
     * case            a b  c
     * equivalent      a(b).getC()
     */
    void testTrailingElementAsGetter() {
        def drank = false
        def more = 'more'
        def drink = { String s -> [milk: { drank = true }()] }

        def d = drink more milk

        assert drank
    }

    /**
     * Only closure parameters, enabling interesting control constructs
     *
     * case          a {}  b {}  c {}
     * equivalent    a({}).b({}).c({})
     *
     */
    void testOnlyClosureParameters() {
        def bdd = 0
        def given = { c1 -> c1(); [when: { c2 -> c2(); [then: { c3 -> c3() }] }]}

        given {
            bdd++
        } when {
            bdd++
        } then {
            bdd++
        }

        assert bdd == 3
    }

    /**
     * If the last method takes no arguments, parentheses are required
     *
     * case            a b  c()
     * equivalent      a(b).c()
     */
    void testZeroArgMethodCallAtEndOfChain() {
        def built = false
        def all = 'all'
        def select = { String s -> [build: { built = true }] }

        select all build()

        assert built
    }

    /**
     * A zero-arg method call in the middle of a chain requires parentheses
     *
     * case            a b  c() d e
     * equivalent      a(b).c().d(e)
     */
    void testZeroArgMethodCallInTheMiddleOfTheChain() {
        def uploaded = false
        def (file, here) = ['file', 'here']
        def upload = { String s1 -> [check: {-> [decompress: { String s2 -> uploaded = true }] }]}

        upload file check() decompress here

        assert uploaded
    }

    /**
     * Case where a middle element of the chain is actually a pretty complex exception
     *
     * case            a b  c[1](){} d e
     * equivalent      a(b).c[1](){}.d(e)
     */
    void testComplexCaseWithSubscriptAndMethodCallWithClosureArgument() {
        def resolved = false
        def (cube, topLayer, down) = ['cube', 3, 'down']
        def resolve = { String s1 -> [move: [0, 1, 2, { c -> [upside: { String s2 -> resolved = true }] }]] }

        resolve cube move [topLayer]() {} upside down

        assert resolved
    }
    
    /**
    * Case where an Integer is used as name
    *
    * case            a b 1 2
    * equivalent      a(b)."1"(2)
    */
    void testIntegerAsName() {
        Integer.metaClass."1" = {x-> assert delegate == 10; x}
        def a = {x-> assert x == "b"; 10}
        def b = "b"
        def x = a b 1 2
        assert x == 2
        assert a(b)."1"(2) == 2
    }

    void testMethodAndMethodCallTakingClosureArgument() {
        def valued = { it() }
        def at = { it }

        def res1 = valued at {}
        def res2 = valued at { 42 }

        assert res1 == null
        assert res2 == 42
    }

    // case             a b  c d
    // equivalent       a(b).c(d)
    void testTurnLeftThenRight() {
        def turned = false
        def (left, right) = ['left', 'right']
        def turn = { String s -> [then: { turned = true }] }

        turn left then right

        assert turned
    }
}


class Drink {
    String beverage
    List<String> ingredients = []

    static Drink drink(String beverage) {
        new Drink(beverage: beverage)
    }

    def with(String... ingredients) {
        this.ingredients = ingredients.toList()
        return this
    }

    def and(String ingredient) {
        this.ingredients << ingredient
        return this
    }
}

enum Container { medium_bowl }
enum Ingredient { soy_sauce, vinegar, chili_powder, garlic, chicken, sauce }
enum CookingAction { coat }
enum Temperature { room_temperature }

class Recipe {
    static instructions(Closure c) {
        def clone = c.clone()
        clone.delegate = new Recipe()
        clone.resolveStrategy = Closure.DELEGATE_ONLY
        clone()
    }

    void take(Container cont) {
        assert cont == medium_bowl
    }

    void combine(Ingredient... ingr) {
        assert ingr.every { it in Ingredient.values() }
    }

    def place(Ingredient ingr) {
        assert ingr == Ingredient.chicken
        [into: { Ingredient otherIngr -> assert otherIngr == Ingredient.sauce}]
    }

    def turn(Integer i) {
        assert i == 1
        [to: { CookingAction cAct -> assert cAct == CookingAction.coat }]
    }

    def marinate(Integer minutes) {
        assert minutes == 30
        [at: { Temperature temp -> assert temp == Temperature.room_temperature }]
    }
}

class Drug {
    String name
    String toString() { name }
}

class DrugQuantity {
    Number q
    String form
    String toString() { "$q $form" }
}

class Duration {
    Number q
    String unit
    String toString() { "$q $unit" }
}

class Email {
    String msg = ""

    def from(address) {
        msg += "from:" + address + ";"
        return this
    }

    def to(address) {
        msg += "to:" + address + ";"
        return this
    }

    def body(text) {
        msg += "body:" + text + ";"
        return this
    }

    def send() {
        return msg
    }
}

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