scala

Tutorials about the Scala programming language.

Scala: What do “effect” and “effectful” mean in functional programming?

When you get started with functional programming (FP) a common question you’ll have is, “What is an effect in functional programming?” You’ll hear advanced FPers use the words effects and effectful, but it can be hard to find a definition of what these terms mean.

Examples of converting Scala 2 code to Scala 3 with Dotty 0.20

Table of Contents1 - Significant indentation syntax with traits and classes2 - match expressions3 - for loops and if/else (and `do` and `then`)4 - try/catch syntax5 - A couple of braces not removed6 - More Dotty/Scala 3 changes

With the Dotty compiler you can convert Scala 2 code to the new Scala 3 syntax, and with the Dotty 0.20.0-RC1 release on November 4, 2019, I thought I’d see how some of the conversions work. Almost all of the changes shown below have to do with the elimination of curly braces and the use of “significant indentation” syntax, but in one example I also show the then and do keywords.

Scala: How to use higher-order functions with Option (instead of match expressions)

Table of Contents1 - Sample data2 - From match expressions to higher-order functions3 - Notes4 - Resources5 - Comments

I originally wrote a long introduction to this article about Scala Options, but I decided to keep that introduction for a future second article in this series. For this article I’ll just say:

  • idiomatic Scala code involves never using null values
  • because you never use nulls, it’s important for you to become an expert at using Option, Some, and None
  • initially you may want to use match expressions to handle Option values
  • as you become more proficient with Scala and Options, you’ll find that match expressions tend to be verbose
  • becoming proficient with higher-order functions (HOFs) like map, filter, fold, and many others are the cure for that verbosity
Scala 3: No parentheses in control structures alvin September 28, 2019 - 7:55am

When I originally saw the first image, I thought it was a “This would be nice in Scala 3 (Dotty)” idea. But then I found the “No parentheses in control structures” pull request shown in the second image. Here’s a link to that pull request.

How to search for multiple regex patterns in many files with `ffx`

I recently created a command I named ffx that lets you search your filesystem for files that contain multiple strings or regular expressions. This post describes and demonstrates its capabilities. (There’s a little video down below if you want to see how it works before reading about it.)

Think of the Scala collections’ map method as “transform”

I’ve written this before, but when I saw this “pseudocode to Scala code” example in the book Functional Thinking, I thought it was worth mentioning again: If you have trouble grokking the Scala map method, think of it as being named transform instead. It transforms an input collection to an output collection, based on the algorithm you supply.

For those coming from the OOP world, I think “transform” is a better word because it is more meaningful, at least initially.