nm − list symbols from object files.



[−a|−−debug−syms] [−g|−−extern−only] [−B] [−C|−−demangle] [−D|−−dynamic] [−s|−−print−armap] [−o|−−print−file−name] [−n|−−numeric−sort] [−p|−−no−sort] [−r|−−reverse−sort] [−−size−sort] [−u|−−undefined−only] [−l|−−line−numbers] [−−help] [−−version] [−t radix|−−radix=radix] [−P|--portability] [−f format|−−format=format] [−−target=bfdname] [objfile...]


GNU nm lists the symbols from object files objfile. If no object files are given as arguments, nm assumes ‘a.out’.


The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are equivalent.




Precede each symbol by the name of the input file where it was found, rather than identifying the input file once only before all of its symbols.



Display debugger-only symbols; normally these are not listed.


The same as −−format=bsd (for compatibility with the MIPS nm).



Decode (demangle) low-level symbol names into user-level names. Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system, this makes C++ function names readable.



Display the dynamic symbols rather than the normal symbols. This is only meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of shared libraries.

−f format

Use the output format format, which can be ‘‘bsd’’, ‘‘sysv’’, or ‘‘posix’’. The default is ‘‘bsd’’. Only the first character of format is significant; it can be either upper or lower case.



Display only external symbols.




Sort symbols numerically by their addresses, not alphabetically by their names.



Don’t bother to sort the symbols in any order; just print them in the order encountered.



Use the POSIX.2 standard output format instead of the default format. Equivalent to ‘‘−f posix’’.



When listing symbols from archive members, include the index: a mapping (stored in the archive by ar or ranlib) of what modules contain definitions for what names.



Reverse the sense of the sort (whether numeric or alphabetic); let the last come first.


Sort symbols by size. The size is computed as the difference between the value of the symbol and the value of the symbol with the next higher value. The size of the symbol is printed, rather than the value.

−t radix


Use radix as the radix for printing the symbol values. It must be ‘‘d’’ for decimal, ‘‘o’’ for octal, or ‘‘x’’ for hexadecimal.


Specify an object code format other than your system’s default format. See objdump(1), for information on listing available formats.



Display only undefined symbols (those external to each object file).



For each symbol, use debugging information to try to find a filename and line number. For a defined symbol, look for the line number of the address of the symbol. For an undefined symbol, look for the line number of a relocation entry which refers to the symbol. If line number information can be found, print it after the other symbol information.



Show the version number of nm and exit.


Show a summary of the options to nm and exit.


binutils’ entry in info; The GNU Binary Utilities, Roland H. Pesch (October 1991); ar(1), objdump(1), ranlib(1).


Copyright (c) 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be included in translations approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the original English.