base type

Scala: How to define a generic method parameter that must extend a base type

In today’s installation of “how to have fun with Scala,” if you want to define a method that takes a parameter that has a generic type, and want to further declare that the parameter must extend some base type, use this syntax:

def getName[A <: RequiredBaseType](a: A) = ???

That example says, “The parameter a has the generic type A, and A must be a subtype of RequiredBaseType.”

How to define a collection whose element are all of some base type (inheritance)

This is an excerpt from the Scala Cookbook (partially modified for the internet). This is Recipe 19.6, “How to define a collection whose element are all of some base type.”

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You want to specify that a class or method takes a type parameter, and that parameter is limited so it can only be a base type, or a subtype of that base type.

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Define the class or method by specifying the type parameter with an upper bound. To demonstrate this, create a simple type hierarchy:

Table of Contents

  1. Problem
  2. Solution
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A Scala “Null Object” example

A Null Object is an object that extends a base type with a null or neutral behavior. Here’s the Scala version of the Java example Wikipedia uses to demonstrate this:

trait Animal {
  def makeSound()

class Dog extends Animal {
  def makeSound() { println("woof") }

class NullAnimal extends Animal {
  def makeSound() {}

As you can imagine, later in your application you might have some code like this: