scalac

How to create an executable JAR file with `scalac` (and run it with `scala`)

Table of Contents1 - Example2 - A more complex example3 - Note4 - Summary

If you’re ever working on a really small Scala project — something that contains only a few source code files — and don’t want to use SBT to create a JAR file, you can do it yourself manually. Let’s look at a quick example. Note that the commands below work on Mac and Linux systems, and should work on Windows with minor changes.

What def, val, and var fields in Scala traits look like after they’re compiled (including the classes that extend them)

Table of Contents1 - def field in trait2 - val field in trait (abstract)3 - val field in trait (concrete)4 - var field in trait (abstract)5 - var field in trait (concrete)6 - An abstract class in the middle7 - A trait in the middle8 - Summary

I generally have a pretty good feel for how Scala traits work, and how they can be used for different needs. As one example, a few years ago I learned that it’s best to define abstract fields in traits using def. But there are still a few things I wonder about.

Today I had a few free moments and I decided to look at what happens under the covers when you use def, val, and var fields in traits, and then mix-in or extend those traits with classes. So I created some examples, compiled them with scalac -Xprint:all, and then decompiled them with JAD to see what everything looks like under the covers.

I was initially going to write a summary here, but if you want to know how things work under the hood, I think it helps to work through the examples, so for today I’ll leave that as an exercise for the reader.

Bloop’s compiler performance is ~29% faster than SBT (on at least one project)

I had read that Bloop was faster than Scala compiler tools like scalac and fsc, so I wondered if it was faster than SBT, and if so, how much faster. So I downloaded Eric Torreborre’s specs2 source code, which has 880 source code files, and compiled the entire project with both SBT and Bloop.

SBT performance

To test SBT’s speed, I ran all the commands from inside the SBT command prompt, which I usually do anyway to avoid the SBT/JVM startup lag time. I also ran clean and compile several times before recording SBT’s speed, because I thought that would be a better reflection of real-world usage and performance. I ran the tests four times, and the average time with SBT was 49 seconds, and that was very consistent, always coming in between 48 and 50 seconds.

Bloop performance

Scala SBT scalacOptions syntax/examples

As a quick note to self, here’s an example of how to set scalacOptions in an SBT build.sbt file:

scalacOptions ++= Seq(
    "-Xfatal-warnings",
    "-deprecation",
    "-feature",
    "-unchecked",
    "-language:implicitConversions",
    "-language:higherKinds",
    "-language:existentials",
    "-language:postfixOps"
)

As shown, scalacOptions lets you set Scala compiler options in your SBT project build.

This is a page from my book, Functional Programming, Simplified

On Using `def` vs `val` To Define Abstract Members in Scala Traits

When I update the Scala Cookbook, I need to update Recipe 8.2, “How to use abstract and concrete fields in Scala traits.” That recipe is written particularly with an OOP developer in mind, and I didn’t write about handling the same situation from an FP perspective.