Functional error handling in Scala

Because functional programming is like algebra, there are no null values or exceptions. But of course you can still have exceptions when you try to access servers that are down or files that are missing, so what can you do? This lesson demonstrates the techniques of functional error handling in Scala.

Scala: How to use higher-order functions with Option (instead of match expressions)

Table of Contents1 - Sample data2 - From match expressions to higher-order functions3 - Notes4 - Resources5 - Comments

I originally wrote a long introduction to this article about Scala Options, but I decided to keep that introduction for a future second article in this series. For this article I’ll just say:

  • idiomatic Scala code involves never using null values
  • because you never use nulls, it’s important for you to become an expert at using Option, Some, and None
  • initially you may want to use match expressions to handle Option values
  • as you become more proficient with Scala and Options, you’ll find that match expressions tend to be verbose
  • becoming proficient with higher-order functions (HOFs) like map, filter, fold, and many others are the cure for that verbosity

ScalaCheck custom generator examples

Table of Contents1 - Custom generators2 - Built-in ScalaCheck generators3 - How to use ScalaCheck generators4 - More ScalaCheck generators

Writing custom generators for ScalaCheck can be one of the more difficult and/or time-consuming parts of using it. As a result I thought I’d start putting together a list of generators that I have written or seen elsewhere. Unfortunately I can’t credit all the ones I’ve seen in other places because I google’d and copied them many moons ago, but I’ll give credit/attribution to all the ones I can.

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Custom generators

This is a combination of generators I wrote, and some that I copied from other places and may have modified a little:

Another Scala nested Option + flatMap example alvin January 20, 2018 - 3:09pm

After yesterday’s Scala nested Option + flatMap/for example, here’s another example of plowing through nested Options with flatMap. First, start with some nested options:

val o1 = Option(1)
val oo1 = Option(o1)
val ooo1 = Option(oo1)

Here are those same three lines, with the data type for each instance shown in the comments:

How to find regex patterns in Scala strings

This is an excerpt from the Scala Cookbook (partially modified for the internet). This is Recipe 1.7, “Finding Patterns in Scala Strings.”


You need to determine whether a Scala String contains a regular expression pattern.

Scala best practice: How to use the Option/Some/None pattern

Table of Contents1 - Problem2 - Solution3 - Returning an Option from a method4 - Getting the value from an Option5 - Using Option with Scala collections6 - Using Option with other frameworks7 - Using Try, Success, and Failure8 - Using Either, Left, and Right9 - Discussion10 - Don’t use the get method with Option11 - See Also12 - The Scala Cookbook

This is an excerpt from the Scala Cookbook (partially modified for the internet). This is Recipe 20.6, “Scala best practice: How to use the Option/Some/None pattern.”

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For a variety of reasons, including removing null values from your Scala code, you want to use what I call the Option/Some/None pattern. Or, if you’re interested in a problem (exception) that occurred while processing code, you may want to return Try/Success/Failure from a method instead of Option/Some/None.

Scala: How to declare a variable (var) before using it in try/catch/finally

This is an excerpt from the Scala Cookbook (partially modified for the internet). This is Recipe 3.17, “How to declare a variable (var) before using it in try/catch/finally.”


You want to use an object in a try block, and need to access it in the finally portion of the block, such as when you need to call a close method on an object.