Linux crontab FAQ: How do I schedule Unix or Linux crontab jobs to run at intervals, like “Every five minutes,” “Every ten minutes,” “Every half hour,” and so on?
Solution: I’ve posted other Unix and Linux crontab tutorials here before (How to edit your Linux crontab file, Example Linux crontab file format), but I’ve never included a tutorial that covers the “every” options, so here are some examples to demonstrate this crontab syntax.Back to top
Linux crontab: How to run a command every minute
To run a Unix/Linux crontab command every minute, use this syntax:
# run this command every minute of every day to check apache * * * * * /var/www/devdaily.com/bin/check-apache.sh
I created that crontab entry when I was having a problem with the Apache web server, and needed to run a shell script test every minute of every day to see that it was running properly.Back to top
Descriptions of the crontab date/time fields
* symbols are what make this command run every minute. Specifically, those first five fields have the following meanings:
# field # meaning allowed values # ------- ------------ -------------- # 1 minute 0-59 # 2 hour 0-23 # 3 day of month 1-31 # 4 month 1-12 (or names, see below) # 5 day of week 0-7 (0 or 7 is Sun, or use names)
I’m assuming that you have some previous knowledge of the crontab syntax in this tutorial, so I won’t discuss those fields too much, but what this shows is that in the first field you specify the “Minute” value, in the second field you specify the “Hour,” followed by Day Of Month, then Month, and finally Day Of Week. You’ll see more examples as we go along.Back to top
Run a crontab command every hour
To run a Linux/Unix crontab every hour of every day, you use a very similar syntax. Here’s a crontab entry I use to access a Drupal
cron.php page five minutes after every hour using
# hit this url to run the drupal cron process every hour of every day # this command will run at 12:05, 1:05, etc. 5 * * * * /usr/bin/wget -O - -q -t 1 http://localhost/cron.phpBack to top
Run a crontab entry every day
Here’s a crontab example that shows how to run a command from the cron daemon once every day. In this command I run my backup scripts at 4:30 a.m. every day:
# run the backup scripts at 4:30am 30 4 * * * /var/www/devdaily.com/bin/create-all-backups.shBack to top
Run a crontab entry every 5 minutes
There are a couple of ways to run a crontab entry every five minutes. First, here’s the brute force way:
0,5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40,45,50,55 * * * * /var/www/devdaily.com/bin/do-update.sh
That command works just fine, and there’s nothing technically wrong with it. But, the crontab syntax offers a shortcut for this situation. The crontab step syntax lets you use a crontab entry in the following format to run a Unix or Linux command every five minutes. I show this syntax in bold in this example:
# run this crontab entry every 5 minutes */5 * * * * /var/www/devdaily.com/bin/do-update.sh
That’s a nice convenience feature for situations like this. Here’s a nice blurb about the step command syntax from the crontab man page:
Step values can be used in conjunction with ranges. Following a range with "<number>" specifies skips of the number’s value through the range. For example, "0-23/2" can be used in the hours field to specify command execution every other hour (the alternative in the V7 standard is "0,2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22"). Steps are also permitted after an asterisk, so if you want to say "every two hours", just use "*/2".Back to top
Unix and Linux “crontab every” summary
I hope that’s enough crontab examples to help you run your own commands every minute, every 5 minutes, every hour, or every day, etc.
As usual, if you have any questions, comments, or your own crontab examples to share, just use the comment form below.
Unix and Linux crontab reference information
For more information on the Unix and Linux cron/crontab system, here are two links to the man pages (help/support documentation):
- The Linux crontab man page that describes the crontab command
- The Linux crontab man page that describes the crontab file format
That has helped me, thanks.