Drupal example source code file (INSTALL.txt)
The INSTALL.txt Drupal example source code
// $Id: INSTALL.txt,v 1.87 2011/01/01 22:41:24 webchick Exp $ CONTENTS OF THIS FILE --------------------- * Requirements and notes * Optional server requirements * Installation * Building and customizing your site * Multisite configuration * More information REQUIREMENTS AND NOTES ---------------------- Drupal requires: - A web server. Apache (version 2.0 or greater) is recommended. - PHP 5.2.4 (or greater) (http://www.php.net/). - One of the following databases: - MySQL 5.0.15 (or greater) (http://www.mysql.com/). - MariaDB 5.1.44 (or greater) (http://mariadb.org/). MariaDB is a fully compatible drop-in replacement for MySQL. - PostgreSQL 8.3 (or greater) (http://www.postgresql.org/). - SQLite 3.4.2 (or greater) (http://www.sqlite.org/). For more detailed information about Drupal requirements, including a list of PHP extensions and configurations that are required, see "System requirements" (http://drupal.org/requirements) in the Drupal handbook. For detailed information on how to configure a test server environment using a variety of operating systems and web servers, see "Local server setup" (http://drupal.org/node/157602) in the Drupal handbook. Note that all directories mentioned in this document are always relative to the directory of your Drupal installation, and commands are meant to be run from this directory (except for the initial commands that create that directory). OPTIONAL SERVER REQUIREMENTS ---------------------------- - If you want to use Drupal's "Clean URLs" feature on an Apache web server, you will need the mod_rewrite module and the ability to use local .htaccess files. For Clean URLs support on IIS, see "Using Clean URLs with IIS" (http://drupal.org/node/3854) in the Drupal handbook. - If you plan to use XML-based services such as RSS aggregation, you will need PHP's XML extension. This extension is enabled by default on most PHP installations. - To serve gzip compressed CSS and JS files on an Apache web server, you will need the mod_headers module and the ability to use local .htaccess files. - Some Drupal functionality (e.g., checking whether Drupal and contributed modules need updates, RSS aggregation, etc.) require that the web server be able to go out to the web and download information. If you want to use this functionality, you need to verify that your hosting provider or server configuration allows the web server to initiate outbound connections. Most web hosting setups allow this. INSTALLATION ------------ 1. Download and extract Drupal. You can obtain the latest Drupal release from http://drupal.org -- the files are in .tar.gz format and can be extracted using most compression tools. To download and extract the files, on a typical Unix/Linux command line, use the following commands (assuming you want version x.y of Drupal): wget http://drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-x.y.tar.gz tar -zxvf drupal-x.y.tar.gz This will create a new directory drupal-x.y/ containing all Drupal files and directories. Then, to move the contents of that directory into a directory within your web server's document root or your public HTML directory, continue with this command: mv drupal-x.y/* drupal-x.y/.htaccess /path/to/your/installation 2. Optionally, download a translation. By default, Drupal is installed in English, and further languages may be installed later. If you prefer to install Drupal in another language initially: - Download a translation file for the correct Drupal version and language from the translation server: http://localize.drupal.org/download - Place the file into your installation profile's translations directory. For instance, if you are using the Standard install profile, move the .po file into the directory: profiles/standard/translations/ For detailed instructions, visit http://drupal.org/localize 3. Create the Drupal database. Because Drupal stores all site information in a database, you must create this database in order to install Drupal, and grant Drupal certain database privileges (such as the ability to create tables). For details, consult INSTALL.mysql.txt, INSTALL.pgsql.txt, or INSTALL.sqlite.txt. You may also need to consult your web hosting provider for instructions specific to your web host. Take note of the username, password, database name, and hostname as you create the database. You will enter this information during the install. 4. Run the install script. To run the install script, point your browser to the base URL of your website (e.g., http://www.example.com). You will be guided through several screens to set up the database, add the site maintenance account (the first user, also known as user/1), and provide basic web site settings. During installation, several files and directories need to be created, which the install script will try to do automatically. However, on some hosting environments, manual steps are required, and the install script will tell you that it cannot proceed until you fix certain issues. This is normal and does not indicate a problem with your server. The most common steps you may need to perform are: a. Missing files directory. The install script will attempt to create a file storage directory in the default location at sites/default/files (the location of the files directory may be changed after Drupal is installed). If auto-creation fails, you can make it work by changing permissions on the sites/default directory so that the web server can create the files directory within it for you. (If you are creating a multisite installation, substitute the correct sites directory for sites/default; see the Multisite Configuration section of this file, below.) For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can grant everyone (including the web server) permission to write to the sites/default directory with this command: chmod a+w sites/default Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished! Sample command: chmod go-w sites/default Alternatively, instead of allowing the web server to create the files directory for you as described above, you can create it yourself. Sample commands from a Unix/Linux command line: mkdir sites/default/files chmod a+w sites/default/files b. Missing settings file. Drupal will try to automatically create a settings.php configuration file, which is normally in the directory sites/default (to avoid problems when upgrading, Drupal is not packaged with this file). If auto-creation fails, you will need to create this file yourself, using the file sites/default/default.settings.php as a template. For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can make a copy of the default.settings.php file with the command: cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/default/settings.php Next, grant write privileges to the file to everyone (including the web server) with the command: chmod a+w sites/default/settings.php Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished! Sample command: chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php c. Write permissions after install. The install script will attempt to write-protect the settings.php file and the sites/default directory after saving your configuration. If this fails, you will be notified, and you can do it manually. Sample commands from a Unix/Linux command line: chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php chmod go-w sites/default 5. Verify that the site is working. When the install script finishes, you will be logged in with the site maintenance account on a "Welcome" page. If the default Drupal theme is not displaying properly and links on the page result in "Page Not Found" errors, you may be experiencing problems with clean URLs. Visit http://drupal.org/getting-started/clean-urls to troubleshoot. 6. Change file system storage settings (optional). The files directory created in step 4 is the default file system path used to store all uploaded files, as well as some temporary files created by Drupal. After installation, you can modify the file system path to store uploaded files in a different location. It is not necessary to modify this path, but you may wish to change it if: - Your site runs multiple Drupal installations from a single codebase (modify the file system path of each installation to a different directory so that uploads do not overlap between installations). - Your site runs on a number of web servers behind a load balancer or reverse proxy (modify the file system path on each server to point to a shared file repository). - You want to restrict access to uploaded files. To modify the file system path: a. Ensure that the new location for the path exists and is writable by the web server. For example, to create a new directory named uploads and grant write permissions, use the following commands on a Unix/Linux command line: mkdir uploads chmod a+w uploads b. Navigate to Administration > Configuration > Media > File system, and enter the desired path. Note that if you want to use private file storage, you need to first enter the path for private files and save the configuration, and then change the "Default download method" setting and save again. Changing the file system path after files have been uploaded may cause unexpected problems on an existing site. If you modify the file system path on an existing site, remember to copy all files from the original location to the new location. 7. Revoke documentation file permissions (optional). Some administrators suggest making the documentation files, especially CHANGELOG.txt, non-readable so that the exact version of Drupal you are running is slightly more difficult to determine. If you wish to implement this optional security measure, from a Unix/Linux command line you can use the following command: chmod a-r CHANGELOG.txt Note that the example only affects CHANGELOG.txt. To completely hide all documentation files from public view, repeat this command for each of the Drupal documentation files in the installation directory, substituting the name of each file for CHANGELOG.txt in the example. For more information on setting file permissions, see "Modifying Linux, Unix, and Mac file permissions" (http://drupal.org/node/202483) or "Modifying Windows file permissions" (http://drupal.org/node/202491) in the online handbook. 8. Set up independent "cron" maintenance jobs. Many Drupal modules have tasks that must be run periodically, including the Search module (building and updating the index used for keyword searching), the Aggregator module (retrieving feeds from other sites), and the System module (performing routine maintenance and pruning of database tables). These tasks are known as "cron maintenance tasks", named after the Unix/Linux "cron" utility. When you install Drupal, its built-in cron feature is enabled, which automatically runs the cron tasks periodically, triggered by people visiting pages of your site. You can configure the built-in cron feature by navigating to Administration > Configuration > System > Cron. It is also possible to run the cron tasks independent of site visits; this is recommended for most sites. To do this, you will need to set up an automated process to visit the page cron.php on your site, which executes the cron tasks. The URL of the cron.php page requires a "cron key" to protect against unauthorized access. Your site's cron key is automatically generated during installation and is specific to your site. The full URL of the page, with the cron key, is available in the "Cron maintenance tasks" section of the Status report page at Administration > Reports > Status report. As an example for how to set up this automated process, you can use the crontab utility on Unix/Linux systems. The following crontab line uses the wget command to visit the cron.php page, and runs each hour, on the hour: 0 * * * * wget -O - -q -t 1 http://example.com/cron.php?cron_key=YOURKEY Replace the text "http://example.com/cron.php?cron_key=YOURKEY" in the example with the full URL displayed under "Cron maintenance tasks" on the "Status report" page. More information about cron maintenance tasks is available at http://drupal.org/cron, and sample cron shell scripts can be found in the scripts/ directory. (Note that these scripts must be customized like the above example, to add your site-specific cron key and domain name.) BUILDING AND CUSTOMIZING YOUR SITE ---------------------------------- A new installation of Drupal defaults to a very basic configuration. To extend your site, you use "modules" and "themes". A module is a plugin that adds functionality to Drupal, while a theme changes the look of your site. The core of Drupal provides several optional modules and themes, and you can download more at http://drupal.org/project/modules and http://drupal.org/project/themes Do not mix downloaded or custom modules and themes with Drupal's core modules and themes. Drupal's modules and themes are located in the top-level modules and themes directories, while the modules and themes you add to Drupal are normally placed in the sites/all/modules and sites/all/themes directories. If you run a multisite installation, you can also place modules and themes in the site-specific directories -- see the Multisite Configuration section, below. Never edit Drupal's core modules and themes; instead, use the hooks available in the Drupal API. To modify the behavior of Drupal, develope a module as described at http://drupal.org/developing/modules. To modify the look of Drupal, create a subtheme as described at http://drupal.org/node/225125, or a completely new theme as described at http://drupal.org/documentation/theme MULTISITE CONFIGURATION ----------------------- A single Drupal installation can host several Drupal-powered sites, each with its own individual configuration. Additional site configurations are created in subdirectories within the 'sites' directory. Each subdirectory must have a 'settings.php' file, which specifies the configuration settings. The easiest way to create additional sites is to copy the 'default' directory and modify the 'settings.php' file as appropriate. The new directory name is constructed from the site's URL. The configuration for www.example.com could be in 'sites/example.com/settings.php' (note that 'www.' should be omitted if users can access your site at http://example.com/). Sites do not have to have a different domain. You can also use subdomains and subdirectories for Drupal sites. For example, example.com, sub.example.com, and sub.example.com/site3 can all be defined as independent Drupal sites. The setup for a configuration such as this would look like the following: sites/default/settings.php sites/example.com/settings.php sites/sub.example.com/settings.php sites/sub.example.com.site3/settings.php When searching for a site configuration (for example www.sub.example.com/site3), Drupal will search for configuration files in the following order, using the first configuration it finds: sites/www.sub.example.com.site3/settings.php sites/sub.example.com.site3/settings.php sites/example.com.site3/settings.php sites/www.sub.example.com/settings.php sites/sub.example.com/settings.php sites/example.com/settings.php sites/default/settings.php If you are installing on a non-standard port, the port number is treated as the deepest subdomain. For example: http://www.example.com:8080/ could be loaded from sites/8080.www.example.com/. The port number will be removed according to the pattern above if no port-specific configuration is found, just like a real subdomain. Each site configuration can have its own site-specific modules and themes in addition to those installed in the standard 'modules' and 'themes' directories. To use site-specific modules or themes, simply create a 'modules' or 'themes' directory within the site configuration directory. For example, if sub.example.com has a custom theme and a custom module that should not be accessible to other sites, the setup would look like this: sites/sub.example.com/ settings.php themes/custom_theme modules/custom_module NOTE: for more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration settings, consult http://drupal.org/getting-started/6/install/multi-site For more information on configuring Drupal's file system path in a multisite configuration, see step 6 above. MORE INFORMATION ---------------- - For additional documentation, see the online Drupal handbook: http://drupal.org/handbook - For a list of security announcements, see the "Security announcements" page at http://drupal.org/security (available as an RSS feed). This page also describes how to subscribe to these announcements via e-mail. - For information about the Drupal security process, or to find out how to report a potential security issue to the Drupal security team, see the "Security team" page at http://drupal.org/security-team - For information about the wide range of available support options, visit http://drupal.org and click on Community and Support in the top or bottom navigation.
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