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Drupal example source code file (bootstrap.inc)

This example Drupal source code file (bootstrap.inc) is included in the DevDaily.com "Drupal Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Drupal by Example".

PHP - Drupal tags/keywords

array, file, foreach, function, if, isset, name, php, return, string, true, type, value, variable

The bootstrap.inc Drupal example source code

<?php
// $Id: bootstrap.inc,v 1.462 2011/01/05 06:17:58 webchick Exp $

/**
 * @file
 * Functions that need to be loaded on every Drupal request.
 */

/**
 * The current system version.
 */
define('VERSION', '7.0');

/**
 * Core API compatibility.
 */
define('DRUPAL_CORE_COMPATIBILITY', '7.x');

/**
 * Minimum supported version of PHP.
 */
define('DRUPAL_MINIMUM_PHP', '5.2.4');

/**
 * Minimum recommended value of PHP memory_limit.
 */
define('DRUPAL_MINIMUM_PHP_MEMORY_LIMIT', '32M');

/**
 * Indicates that the item should never be removed unless explicitly selected.
 *
 * The item may be removed using cache_clear_all() with a cache ID.
 */
define('CACHE_PERMANENT', 0);

/**
 * Indicates that the item should be removed at the next general cache wipe.
 */
define('CACHE_TEMPORARY', -1);

/**
 * Log message severity -- Emergency: system is unusable.
 *
 * The WATCHDOG_* constant definitions correspond to the logging severity levels
 * defined in RFC 3164, section 4.1.1: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3164.html
 *
 * @see watchdog()
 * @see watchdog_severity_levels()
 */
define('WATCHDOG_EMERGENCY', 0);

/**
 * Log message severity -- Alert: action must be taken immediately.
 *
 * The WATCHDOG_* constant definitions correspond to the logging severity levels
 * defined in RFC 3164, section 4.1.1: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3164.html
 *
 * @see watchdog()
 * @see watchdog_severity_levels()
 */
define('WATCHDOG_ALERT', 1);

/**
 * Log message severity -- Critical: critical conditions.
 *
 * The WATCHDOG_* constant definitions correspond to the logging severity levels
 * defined in RFC 3164, section 4.1.1: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3164.html
 *
 * @see watchdog()
 * @see watchdog_severity_levels()
 */
define('WATCHDOG_CRITICAL', 2);

/**
 * Log message severity -- Error: error conditions.
 *
 * The WATCHDOG_* constant definitions correspond to the logging severity levels
 * defined in RFC 3164, section 4.1.1: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3164.html
 *
 * @see watchdog()
 * @see watchdog_severity_levels()
 */
define('WATCHDOG_ERROR', 3);

/**
 * Log message severity -- Warning: warning conditions.
 *
 * The WATCHDOG_* constant definitions correspond to the logging severity levels
 * defined in RFC 3164, section 4.1.1: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3164.html
 *
 * @see watchdog()
 * @see watchdog_severity_levels()
 */
define('WATCHDOG_WARNING', 4);

/**
 * Log message severity -- Notice: normal but significant condition.
 *
 * The WATCHDOG_* constant definitions correspond to the logging severity levels
 * defined in RFC 3164, section 4.1.1: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3164.html
 *
 * @see watchdog()
 * @see watchdog_severity_levels()
 */
define('WATCHDOG_NOTICE', 5);

/**
 * Log message severity -- Informational: informational messages.
 *
 * The WATCHDOG_* constant definitions correspond to the logging severity levels
 * defined in RFC 3164, section 4.1.1: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3164.html
 *
 * @see watchdog()
 * @see watchdog_severity_levels()
 */
define('WATCHDOG_INFO', 6);

/**
 * Log message severity -- Debug: debug-level messages.
 *
 * The WATCHDOG_* constant definitions correspond to the logging severity levels
 * defined in RFC 3164, section 4.1.1: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3164.html
 *
 * @see watchdog()
 * @see watchdog_severity_levels()
 */
define('WATCHDOG_DEBUG', 7);

/**
 * First bootstrap phase: initialize configuration.
 */
define('DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_CONFIGURATION', 0);

/**
 * Second bootstrap phase: try to serve a cached page.
 */
define('DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_PAGE_CACHE', 1);

/**
 * Third bootstrap phase: initialize database layer.
 */
define('DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_DATABASE', 2);

/**
 * Fourth bootstrap phase: initialize the variable system.
 */
define('DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_VARIABLES', 3);

/**
 * Fifth bootstrap phase: initialize session handling.
 */
define('DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_SESSION', 4);

/**
 * Sixth bootstrap phase: set up the page header.
 */
define('DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_PAGE_HEADER', 5);

/**
 * Seventh bootstrap phase: find out language of the page.
 */
define('DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_LANGUAGE', 6);

/**
 * Final bootstrap phase: Drupal is fully loaded; validate and fix
 * input data.
 */
define('DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_FULL', 7);

/**
 * Role ID for anonymous users; should match what's in the "role" table.
 */
define('DRUPAL_ANONYMOUS_RID', 1);

/**
 * Role ID for authenticated users; should match what's in the "role" table.
 */
define('DRUPAL_AUTHENTICATED_RID', 2);

/**
 * The number of bytes in a kilobyte. For more information, visit
 * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilobyte.
 */
define('DRUPAL_KILOBYTE', 1024);

/**
 * The language code used when no language is explicitly assigned.
 *
 * Defined by ISO639-2 for "Undetermined".
 */
define('LANGUAGE_NONE', 'und');

/**
 * The type of language used to define the content language.
 */
define('LANGUAGE_TYPE_CONTENT', 'language_content');

/**
 * The type of language used to select the user interface.
 */
define('LANGUAGE_TYPE_INTERFACE', 'language');

/**
 * The type of language used for URLs.
 */
define('LANGUAGE_TYPE_URL', 'language_url');

/**
 * Language written left to right. Possible value of $language->direction.
 */
define('LANGUAGE_LTR', 0);

/**
 * Language written right to left. Possible value of $language->direction.
 */
define('LANGUAGE_RTL', 1);

/**
 * For convenience, define a short form of the request time global.
 */
define('REQUEST_TIME', $_SERVER['REQUEST_TIME']);

/**
 * Flag for drupal_set_title(); text is not sanitized, so run check_plain().
 */
define('CHECK_PLAIN', 0);

/**
 * Flag for drupal_set_title(); text has already been sanitized.
 */
define('PASS_THROUGH', -1);

/**
 * Signals that the registry lookup cache should be reset.
 */
define('REGISTRY_RESET_LOOKUP_CACHE', 1);

/**
 * Signals that the registry lookup cache should be written to storage.
 */
define('REGISTRY_WRITE_LOOKUP_CACHE', 2);

/**
 * Regular expression to match PHP function names.
 *
 * @see http://php.net/manual/en/language.functions.php
 */
define('DRUPAL_PHP_FUNCTION_PATTERN', '[a-zA-Z_\x7f-\xff][a-zA-Z0-9_\x7f-\xff]*');

/**
 * Start the timer with the specified name. If you start and stop the same
 * timer multiple times, the measured intervals will be accumulated.
 *
 * @param name
 *   The name of the timer.
 */
function timer_start($name) {
  global $timers;

  $timers[$name]['start'] = microtime(TRUE);
  $timers[$name]['count'] = isset($timers[$name]['count']) ? ++$timers[$name]['count'] : 1;
}

/**
 * Read the current timer value without stopping the timer.
 *
 * @param name
 *   The name of the timer.
 * @return
 *   The current timer value in ms.
 */
function timer_read($name) {
  global $timers;

  if (isset($timers[$name]['start'])) {
    $stop = microtime(TRUE);
    $diff = round(($stop - $timers[$name]['start']) * 1000, 2);

    if (isset($timers[$name]['time'])) {
      $diff += $timers[$name]['time'];
    }
    return $diff;
  }
  return $timers[$name]['time'];
}

/**
 * Stop the timer with the specified name.
 *
 * @param name
 *   The name of the timer.
 * @return
 *   A timer array. The array contains the number of times the timer has been
 *   started and stopped (count) and the accumulated timer value in ms (time).
 */
function timer_stop($name) {
  global $timers;

  if (isset($timers[$name]['start'])) {
    $stop = microtime(TRUE);
    $diff = round(($stop - $timers[$name]['start']) * 1000, 2);
    if (isset($timers[$name]['time'])) {
      $timers[$name]['time'] += $diff;
    }
    else {
      $timers[$name]['time'] = $diff;
    }
    unset($timers[$name]['start']);
  }

  return $timers[$name];
}

/**
 * Find the appropriate configuration directory.
 *
 * Try finding a matching configuration directory by stripping the website's
 * hostname from left to right and pathname from right to left. The first
 * configuration file found will be used; the remaining will ignored. If no
 * configuration file is found, return a default value '$confdir/default'.
 *
 * Example for a fictitious site installed at
 * http://www.drupal.org:8080/mysite/test/ the 'settings.php' is searched in
 * the following directories:
 *
 *  1. $confdir/8080.www.drupal.org.mysite.test
 *  2. $confdir/www.drupal.org.mysite.test
 *  3. $confdir/drupal.org.mysite.test
 *  4. $confdir/org.mysite.test
 *
 *  5. $confdir/8080.www.drupal.org.mysite
 *  6. $confdir/www.drupal.org.mysite
 *  7. $confdir/drupal.org.mysite
 *  8. $confdir/org.mysite
 *
 *  9. $confdir/8080.www.drupal.org
 * 10. $confdir/www.drupal.org
 * 11. $confdir/drupal.org
 * 12. $confdir/org
 *
 * 13. $confdir/default
 *
 * If a file named sites.php is present in the $confdir, it will be loaded
 * prior to scanning for directories. It should define an associative array
 * named $sites, which maps domains to directories. It should be in the form
 * of:
 *
 * $sites = array(
 *   'The url to alias' => 'A directory within the sites directory'
 * );
 *
 * For example:
 *
 * $sites = array(
 *   'devexample.com' => 'example.com',
 *   'localhost.example' => 'example.com',
 * );
 *
 * The above array will cause Drupal to look for a directory named
 * "example.com" in the sites directory whenever a request comes from
 * "example.com", "devexample.com", or "localhost/example". That is useful
 * on development servers, where the domain name may not be the same as the
 * domain of the live server. Since Drupal stores file paths into the database
 * (files, system table, etc.) this will ensure the paths are correct while
 * accessed on development servers.
 *
 * @param $require_settings
 *   Only configuration directories with an existing settings.php file
 *   will be recognized. Defaults to TRUE. During initial installation,
 *   this is set to FALSE so that Drupal can detect a matching directory,
 *   then create a new settings.php file in it.
 * @param reset
 *   Force a full search for matching directories even if one had been
 *   found previously.
 * @return
 *   The path of the matching directory.
 */
function conf_path($require_settings = TRUE, $reset = FALSE) {
  $conf = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, '');

  if ($conf && !$reset) {
    return $conf;
  }

  $confdir = 'sites';

  $sites = array();
  if (file_exists(DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . $confdir . '/sites.php')) {
    // This will overwrite $sites with the desired mappings.
    include(DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . $confdir . '/sites.php');
  }

  $uri = explode('/', $_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'] ? $_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'] : $_SERVER['SCRIPT_FILENAME']);
  $server = explode('.', implode('.', array_reverse(explode(':', rtrim($_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'], '.')))));
  for ($i = count($uri) - 1; $i > 0; $i--) {
    for ($j = count($server); $j > 0; $j--) {
      $dir = implode('.', array_slice($server, -$j)) . implode('.', array_slice($uri, 0, $i));
      if (isset($sites[$dir]) && file_exists(DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . $confdir . '/' . $sites[$dir])) {
        $dir = $sites[$dir];
      }
      if (file_exists(DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . $confdir . '/' . $dir . '/settings.php') || (!$require_settings && file_exists(DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . $confdir . '/' . $dir))) {
        $conf = "$confdir/$dir";
        return $conf;
      }
    }
  }
  $conf = "$confdir/default";
  return $conf;
}

/**
 * Set appropriate server variables needed for command line scripts to work.
 *
 * This function can be called by command line scripts before bootstrapping
 * Drupal, to ensure that the page loads with the desired server parameters.
 * This is because many parts of Drupal assume that they are running in a web
 * browser and therefore use information from the global PHP $_SERVER variable
 * that does not get set when Drupal is run from the command line.
 *
 * In many cases, the default way in which this function populates the $_SERVER
 * variable is sufficient, and it can therefore be called without passing in
 * any input. However, command line scripts running on a multisite installation
 * (or on any installation that has settings.php stored somewhere other than
 * the sites/default folder) need to pass in the URL of the site to allow
 * Drupal to detect the correct location of the settings.php file. Passing in
 * the 'url' parameter is also required for functions like request_uri() to
 * return the expected values.
 *
 * Most other parameters do not need to be passed in, but may be necessary in
 * some cases; for example, if Drupal's ip_address() function needs to return
 * anything but the standard localhost value ('127.0.0.1'), the command line
 * script should pass in the desired value via the 'REMOTE_ADDR' key.
 *
 * @param $variables
 *   (optional) An associative array of variables within $_SERVER that should
 *   be replaced. If the special element 'url' is provided in this array, it
 *   will be used to populate some of the server defaults; it should be set to
 *   the URL of the current page request, excluding any $_GET request but
 *   including the script name (e.g., http://www.example.com/mysite/index.php).
 *
 * @see conf_path()
 * @see request_uri()
 * @see ip_address()
 */
function drupal_override_server_variables($variables = array()) {
  // Allow the provided URL to override any existing values in $_SERVER.
  if (isset($variables['url'])) {
    $url = parse_url($variables['url']);
    if (isset($url['host'])) {
      $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'] = $url['host'];
    }
    if (isset($url['path'])) {
      $_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'] = $url['path'];
    }
    unset($variables['url']);
  }
  // Define default values for $_SERVER keys. These will be used if $_SERVER
  // does not already define them and no other values are passed in to this
  // function.
  $defaults = array(
    'HTTP_HOST' => 'localhost',
    'SCRIPT_NAME' => NULL,
    'REMOTE_ADDR' => '127.0.0.1',
    'REQUEST_METHOD' => 'GET',
    'SERVER_NAME' => NULL,
    'SERVER_SOFTWARE' => NULL,
    'HTTP_USER_AGENT' => NULL,
  );
  // Replace elements of the $_SERVER array, as appropriate.
  $_SERVER = $variables + $_SERVER + $defaults;
}

/**
 * Initialize PHP environment.
 */
function drupal_environment_initialize() {
  if (!isset($_SERVER['HTTP_REFERER'])) {
    $_SERVER['HTTP_REFERER'] = '';
  }
  if (!isset($_SERVER['SERVER_PROTOCOL']) || ($_SERVER['SERVER_PROTOCOL'] != 'HTTP/1.0' && $_SERVER['SERVER_PROTOCOL'] != 'HTTP/1.1')) {
    $_SERVER['SERVER_PROTOCOL'] = 'HTTP/1.0';
  }

  if (isset($_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'])) {
    // As HTTP_HOST is user input, ensure it only contains characters allowed
    // in hostnames. See RFC 952 (and RFC 2181).
    // $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'] is lowercased here per specifications.
    $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'] = strtolower($_SERVER['HTTP_HOST']);
    if (!drupal_valid_http_host($_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'])) {
      // HTTP_HOST is invalid, e.g. if containing slashes it may be an attack.
      header($_SERVER['SERVER_PROTOCOL'] . ' 400 Bad Request');
      exit;
    }
  }
  else {
    // Some pre-HTTP/1.1 clients will not send a Host header. Ensure the key is
    // defined for E_ALL compliance.
    $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'] = '';
  }

  // When clean URLs are enabled, emulate ?q=foo/bar using REQUEST_URI. It is
  // not possible to append the query string using mod_rewrite without the B
  // flag (this was added in Apache 2.2.8), because mod_rewrite unescapes the
  // path before passing it on to PHP. This is a problem when the path contains
  // e.g. "&" or "%" that have special meanings in URLs and must be encoded.
  $_GET['q'] = request_path();

  // Enforce E_ALL, but allow users to set levels not part of E_ALL.
  error_reporting(E_ALL | error_reporting());

  // Override PHP settings required for Drupal to work properly.
  // sites/default/default.settings.php contains more runtime settings.
  // The .htaccess file contains settings that cannot be changed at runtime.

  // Don't escape quotes when reading files from the database, disk, etc.
  ini_set('magic_quotes_runtime', '0');
  // Use session cookies, not transparent sessions that puts the session id in
  // the query string.
  ini_set('session.use_cookies', '1');
  ini_set('session.use_only_cookies', '1');
  ini_set('session.use_trans_sid', '0');
  // Don't send HTTP headers using PHP's session handler.
  ini_set('session.cache_limiter', 'none');
  // Use httponly session cookies.
  ini_set('session.cookie_httponly', '1');

  // Set sane locale settings, to ensure consistent string, dates, times and
  // numbers handling.
  setlocale(LC_ALL, 'C');
}

/**
 * Validate that a hostname (for example $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST']) is safe.
 *
 * @return
 *  TRUE if only containing valid characters, or FALSE otherwise.
 */
function drupal_valid_http_host($host) {
  return preg_match('/^\[?(?:[a-zA-Z0-9-:\]_]+\.?)+$/', $host);
}

/**
 * Loads the configuration and sets the base URL, cookie domain, and
 * session name correctly.
 */
function drupal_settings_initialize() {
  global $base_url, $base_path, $base_root;

  // Export the following settings.php variables to the global namespace
  global $databases, $cookie_domain, $conf, $installed_profile, $update_free_access, $db_url, $db_prefix, $drupal_hash_salt, $is_https, $base_secure_url, $base_insecure_url;
  $conf = array();

  if (file_exists(DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . conf_path() . '/settings.php')) {
    include_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . conf_path() . '/settings.php';
  }
  $is_https = isset($_SERVER['HTTPS']) && strtolower($_SERVER['HTTPS']) == 'on';

  if (isset($base_url)) {
    // Parse fixed base URL from settings.php.
    $parts = parse_url($base_url);
    $http_protocol = $parts['scheme'];
    if (!isset($parts['path'])) {
      $parts['path'] = '';
    }
    $base_path = $parts['path'] . '/';
    // Build $base_root (everything until first slash after "scheme://").
    $base_root = substr($base_url, 0, strlen($base_url) - strlen($parts['path']));
  }
  else {
    // Create base URL
    $http_protocol = $is_https ? 'https' : 'http';
    $base_root = $http_protocol . '://' . $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'];

    $base_url = $base_root;

    // $_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'] can, in contrast to $_SERVER['PHP_SELF'], not
    // be modified by a visitor.
    if ($dir = rtrim(dirname($_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME']), '\/')) {
      $base_path = $dir;
      $base_url .= $base_path;
      $base_path .= '/';
    }
    else {
      $base_path = '/';
    }
  }
  $base_secure_url = str_replace('http://', 'https://', $base_url);
  $base_insecure_url = str_replace('https://', 'http://', $base_url);

  if ($cookie_domain) {
    // If the user specifies the cookie domain, also use it for session name.
    $session_name = $cookie_domain;
  }
  else {
    // Otherwise use $base_url as session name, without the protocol
    // to use the same session identifiers across http and https.
    list( , $session_name) = explode('://', $base_url, 2);
    // HTTP_HOST can be modified by a visitor, but we already sanitized it
    // in drupal_settings_initialize().
    if (!empty($_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'])) {
      $cookie_domain = $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'];
      // Strip leading periods, www., and port numbers from cookie domain.
      $cookie_domain = ltrim($cookie_domain, '.');
      if (strpos($cookie_domain, 'www.') === 0) {
        $cookie_domain = substr($cookie_domain, 4);
      }
      $cookie_domain = explode(':', $cookie_domain);
      $cookie_domain = '.' . $cookie_domain[0];
    }
  }
  // Per RFC 2109, cookie domains must contain at least one dot other than the
  // first. For hosts such as 'localhost' or IP Addresses we don't set a cookie domain.
  if (count(explode('.', $cookie_domain)) > 2 && !is_numeric(str_replace('.', '', $cookie_domain))) {
    ini_set('session.cookie_domain', $cookie_domain);
  }
  // To prevent session cookies from being hijacked, a user can configure the
  // SSL version of their website to only transfer session cookies via SSL by
  // using PHP's session.cookie_secure setting. The browser will then use two
  // separate session cookies for the HTTPS and HTTP versions of the site. So we
  // must use different session identifiers for HTTPS and HTTP to prevent a
  // cookie collision.
  if ($is_https) {
    ini_set('session.cookie_secure', TRUE);
  }
  $prefix = ini_get('session.cookie_secure') ? 'SSESS' : 'SESS';
  session_name($prefix . substr(hash('sha256', $session_name), 0, 32));
}

/**
 * Returns and optionally sets the filename for a system item (module,
 * theme, etc.). The filename, whether provided, cached, or retrieved
 * from the database, is only returned if the file exists.
 *
 * This function plays a key role in allowing Drupal's resources (modules
 * and themes) to be located in different places depending on a site's
 * configuration. For example, a module 'foo' may legally be be located
 * in any of these three places:
 *
 * modules/foo/foo.module
 * sites/all/modules/foo/foo.module
 * sites/example.com/modules/foo/foo.module
 *
 * Calling drupal_get_filename('module', 'foo') will give you one of
 * the above, depending on where the module is located.
 *
 * @param $type
 *   The type of the item (i.e. theme, theme_engine, module, profile).
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the item for which the filename is requested.
 * @param $filename
 *   The filename of the item if it is to be set explicitly rather
 *   than by consulting the database.
 *
 * @return
 *   The filename of the requested item.
 */
function drupal_get_filename($type, $name, $filename = NULL) {
  // The location of files will not change during the request, so do not use
  // drupal_static().
  static $files = array();

  if (!isset($files[$type])) {
    $files[$type] = array();
  }

  if (!empty($filename) && file_exists($filename)) {
    $files[$type][$name] = $filename;
  }
  elseif (isset($files[$type][$name])) {
    // nothing
  }
  // Verify that we have an active database connection, before querying
  // the database. This is required because this function is called both
  // before we have a database connection (i.e. during installation) and
  // when a database connection fails.
  else {
    try {
      if (function_exists('db_query')) {
        $file = db_query("SELECT filename FROM {system} WHERE name = :name AND type = :type", array(':name' => $name, ':type' => $type))->fetchField();
        if (file_exists(DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . $file)) {
          $files[$type][$name] = $file;
        }
      }
    }
    catch (Exception $e) {
      // The database table may not exist because Drupal is not yet installed,
      // or the database might be down. We have a fallback for this case so we
      // hide the error completely.
    }
    // Fallback to searching the filesystem if the database could not find the
    // file or the file returned by the database is not found.
    if (!isset($files[$type][$name])) {
      // We have a consistent directory naming: modules, themes...
      $dir = $type . 's';
      if ($type == 'theme_engine') {
        $dir = 'themes/engines';
        $extension = 'engine';
      }
      elseif ($type == 'theme') {
        $extension = 'info';
      }
      else {
        $extension = $type;
      }

      if (!function_exists('drupal_system_listing')) {
        require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/common.inc';
      }
      // Scan the appropriate directories for all files with the requested
      // extension, not just the file we are currently looking for. This
      // prevents unnecessary scans from being repeated when this function is
      // called more than once in the same page request.
      $matches = drupal_system_listing("/^" . DRUPAL_PHP_FUNCTION_PATTERN . "\.$extension$/", $dir, 'name', 0);
      foreach ($matches as $matched_name => $file) {
        $files[$type][$matched_name] = $file->uri;
      }
    }
  }

  if (isset($files[$type][$name])) {
    return $files[$type][$name];
  }
}

/**
 * Load the persistent variable table.
 *
 * The variable table is composed of values that have been saved in the table
 * with variable_set() as well as those explicitly specified in the configuration
 * file.
 */
function variable_initialize($conf = array()) {
  // NOTE: caching the variables improves performance by 20% when serving
  // cached pages.
  if ($cached = cache_get('variables', 'cache_bootstrap')) {
    $variables = $cached->data;
  }
  else {
    // Cache miss. Avoid a stampede.
    $name = 'variable_init';
    if (!lock_acquire($name, 1)) {
      // Another request is building the variable cache.
      // Wait, then re-run this function.
      lock_wait($name);
      return variable_initialize($conf);
    }
    else {
      // Proceed with variable rebuild.
      $variables = array_map('unserialize', db_query('SELECT name, value FROM {variable}')->fetchAllKeyed());
      cache_set('variables', $variables, 'cache_bootstrap');
      lock_release($name);
    }
  }

  foreach ($conf as $name => $value) {
    $variables[$name] = $value;
  }

  return $variables;
}

/**
 * Returns a persistent variable.
 *
 * Case-sensitivity of the variable_* functions depends on the database
 * collation used. To avoid problems, always use lower case for persistent
 * variable names.
 *
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the variable to return.
 * @param $default
 *   The default value to use if this variable has never been set.
 *
 * @return
 *   The value of the variable.
 *
 * @see variable_del()
 * @see variable_set()
 */
function variable_get($name, $default = NULL) {
  global $conf;

  return isset($conf[$name]) ? $conf[$name] : $default;
}

/**
 * Sets a persistent variable.
 *
 * Case-sensitivity of the variable_* functions depends on the database
 * collation used. To avoid problems, always use lower case for persistent
 * variable names.
 *
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the variable to set.
 * @param $value
 *   The value to set. This can be any PHP data type; these functions take care
 *   of serialization as necessary.
 *
 * @see variable_del()
 * @see variable_get()
 */
function variable_set($name, $value) {
  global $conf;

  db_merge('variable')->key(array('name' => $name))->fields(array('value' => serialize($value)))->execute();

  cache_clear_all('variables', 'cache_bootstrap');

  $conf[$name] = $value;
}

/**
 * Unsets a persistent variable.
 *
 * Case-sensitivity of the variable_* functions depends on the database
 * collation used. To avoid problems, always use lower case for persistent
 * variable names.
 *
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the variable to undefine.
 *
 * @see variable_get()
 * @see variable_set()
 */
function variable_del($name) {
  global $conf;

  db_delete('variable')
    ->condition('name', $name)
    ->execute();
  cache_clear_all('variables', 'cache_bootstrap');

  unset($conf[$name]);
}

/**
 * Retrieve the current page from the cache.
 *
 * Note: we do not serve cached pages to authenticated users, or to anonymous
 * users when $_SESSION is non-empty. $_SESSION may contain status messages
 * from a form submission, the contents of a shopping cart, or other user-
 * specific content that should not be cached and displayed to other users.
 *
 * @param $check_only
 *   (optional) Set to TRUE to only return whether a previous call found a
 *   cache entry.
 *
 * @return
 *   The cache object, if the page was found in the cache, NULL otherwise.
 */
function drupal_page_get_cache($check_only = FALSE) {
  global $base_root;
  static $cache_hit = FALSE;

  if ($check_only) {
    return $cache_hit;
  }

  if (drupal_page_is_cacheable()) {
    $cache = cache_get($base_root . request_uri(), 'cache_page');
    if ($cache !== FALSE) {
      $cache_hit = TRUE;
    }
    return $cache;
  }
}

/**
 * Determine the cacheability of the current page.
 *
 * @param $allow_caching
 *   Set to FALSE if you want to prevent this page to get cached.
 *
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the current page can be cached, FALSE otherwise.
 */
function drupal_page_is_cacheable($allow_caching = NULL) {
  $allow_caching_static = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, TRUE);
  if (isset($allow_caching)) {
    $allow_caching_static = $allow_caching;
  }

  return $allow_caching_static && ($_SERVER['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'GET' || $_SERVER['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'HEAD')
    && !drupal_is_cli();
}

/**
 * Invoke a bootstrap hook in all bootstrap modules that implement it.
 *
 * @param $hook
 *   The name of the bootstrap hook to invoke.
 *
 * @see bootstrap_hooks()
 */
function bootstrap_invoke_all($hook) {
  // Bootstrap modules should have been loaded when this function is called, so
  // we don't need to tell module_list() to reset its internal list (and we
  // therefore leave the first parameter at its default value of FALSE). We
  // still pass in TRUE for the second parameter, though; in case this is the
  // first time during the bootstrap that module_list() is called, we want to
  // make sure that its internal cache is primed with the bootstrap modules
  // only.
  foreach (module_list(FALSE, TRUE) as $module) {
    drupal_load('module', $module);
    module_invoke($module, $hook);
  }
}

/**
 * Includes a file with the provided type and name. This prevents
 * including a theme, engine, module, etc., more than once.
 *
 * @param $type
 *   The type of item to load (i.e. theme, theme_engine, module).
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the item to load.
 *
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the item is loaded or has already been loaded.
 */
function drupal_load($type, $name) {
  // Once a file is included this can't be reversed during a request so do not
  // use drupal_static() here.
  static $files = array();

  if (isset($files[$type][$name])) {
    return TRUE;
  }

  $filename = drupal_get_filename($type, $name);

  if ($filename) {
    include_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . $filename;
    $files[$type][$name] = TRUE;

    return TRUE;
  }

  return FALSE;
}

/**
 * Set an HTTP response header for the current page.
 *
 * Note: When sending a Content-Type header, always include a 'charset' type,
 * too. This is necessary to avoid security bugs (e.g. UTF-7 XSS).
 *
 * @param $name
 *   The HTTP header name, or the special 'Status' header name.
 * @param $value
 *   The HTTP header value; if equal to FALSE, the specified header is unset.
 *   If $name is 'Status', this is expected to be a status code followed by a
 *   reason phrase, e.g. "404 Not Found".
 * @param $append
 *   Whether to append the value to an existing header or to replace it.
 */
function drupal_add_http_header($name, $value, $append = FALSE) {
  // The headers as name/value pairs.
  $headers = &drupal_static('drupal_http_headers', array());

  $name_lower = strtolower($name);
  _drupal_set_preferred_header_name($name);

  if ($value === FALSE) {
    $headers[$name_lower] = FALSE;
  }
  elseif (isset($headers[$name_lower]) && $append) {
    // Multiple headers with identical names may be combined using comma (RFC
    // 2616, section 4.2).
    $headers[$name_lower] .= ',' . $value;
  }
  else {
    $headers[$name_lower] = $value;
  }
  drupal_send_headers(array($name => $headers[$name_lower]), TRUE);
}

/**
 * Get the HTTP response headers for the current page.
 *
 * @param $name
 *   An HTTP header name. If omitted, all headers are returned as name/value
 *   pairs. If an array value is FALSE, the header has been unset.
 * @return
 *   A string containing the header value, or FALSE if the header has been set,
 *   or NULL if the header has not been set.
 */
function drupal_get_http_header($name = NULL) {
  $headers = &drupal_static('drupal_http_headers', array());
  if (isset($name)) {
    $name = strtolower($name);
    return isset($headers[$name]) ? $headers[$name] : NULL;
  }
  else {
    return $headers;
  }
}

/**
 * Header names are case-insensitive, but for maximum compatibility they should
 * follow "common form" (see RFC 2617, section 4.2).
 */
function _drupal_set_preferred_header_name($name = NULL) {
  static $header_names = array();

  if (!isset($name)) {
    return $header_names;
  }
  $header_names[strtolower($name)] = $name;
}

/**
 * Send the HTTP response headers previously set using drupal_add_http_header().
 * Add default headers, unless they have been replaced or unset using
 * drupal_add_http_header().
 *
 * @param $default_headers
 *   An array of headers as name/value pairs.
 * @param $single
 *   If TRUE and headers have already be sent, send only the specified header.
 */
function drupal_send_headers($default_headers = array(), $only_default = FALSE) {
  $headers_sent = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, FALSE);
  $headers = drupal_get_http_header();
  if ($only_default && $headers_sent) {
    $headers = array();
  }
  $headers_sent = TRUE;

  $header_names = _drupal_set_preferred_header_name();
  foreach ($default_headers as $name => $value) {
    $name_lower = strtolower($name);
    if (!isset($headers[$name_lower])) {
      $headers[$name_lower] = $value;
      $header_names[$name_lower] = $name;
    }
  }
  foreach ($headers as $name_lower => $value) {
    if ($name_lower == 'status') {
      header($_SERVER['SERVER_PROTOCOL'] . ' ' . $value);
    }
    // Skip headers that have been unset.
    elseif ($value) {
      header($header_names[$name_lower] . ': ' . $value);
    }
  }
}

/**
 * Set HTTP headers in preparation for a page response.
 *
 * Authenticated users are always given a 'no-cache' header, and will fetch a
 * fresh page on every request. This prevents authenticated users from seeing
 * locally cached pages.
 *
 * Also give each page a unique ETag. This will force clients to include both
 * an If-Modified-Since header and an If-None-Match header when doing
 * conditional requests for the page (required by RFC 2616, section 13.3.4),
 * making the validation more robust. This is a workaround for a bug in Mozilla
 * Firefox that is triggered when Drupal's caching is enabled and the user
 * accesses Drupal via an HTTP proxy (see
 * https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=269303): When an authenticated
 * user requests a page, and then logs out and requests the same page again,
 * Firefox may send a conditional request based on the page that was cached
 * locally when the user was logged in. If this page did not have an ETag
 * header, the request only contains an If-Modified-Since header. The date will
 * be recent, because with authenticated users the Last-Modified header always
 * refers to the time of the request. If the user accesses Drupal via a proxy
 * server, and the proxy already has a cached copy of the anonymous page with an
 * older Last-Modified date, the proxy may respond with 304 Not Modified, making
 * the client think that the anonymous and authenticated pageviews are
 * identical.
 *
 * @see drupal_page_set_cache()
 */
function drupal_page_header() {
  $headers_sent = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, FALSE);
  if ($headers_sent) {
    return TRUE;
  }
  $headers_sent = TRUE;

  $default_headers = array(
    'Expires' => 'Sun, 19 Nov 1978 05:00:00 GMT',
    'Last-Modified' => gmdate(DATE_RFC1123, REQUEST_TIME),
    'Cache-Control' => 'no-cache, must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0',
    'ETag' => '"' . REQUEST_TIME . '"',
  );
  drupal_send_headers($default_headers);
}

/**
 * Set HTTP headers in preparation for a cached page response.
 *
 * The headers allow as much as possible in proxies and browsers without any
 * particular knowledge about the pages. Modules can override these headers
 * using drupal_add_http_header().
 *
 * If the request is conditional (using If-Modified-Since and If-None-Match),
 * and the conditions match those currently in the cache, a 304 Not Modified
 * response is sent.
 */
function drupal_serve_page_from_cache(stdClass $cache) {
  // Negotiate whether to use compression.
  $page_compression = variable_get('page_compression', TRUE) && extension_loaded('zlib');
  $return_compressed = $page_compression && isset($_SERVER['HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING']) && strpos($_SERVER['HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING'], 'gzip') !== FALSE;

  // Get headers set in hook_boot(). Keys are lower-case.
  $hook_boot_headers = drupal_get_http_header();

  // Headers generated in this function, that may be replaced or unset using
  // drupal_add_http_headers(). Keys are mixed-case.
  $default_headers = array();

  foreach ($cache->data['headers'] as $name => $value) {
    // In the case of a 304 response, certain headers must be sent, and the
    // remaining may not (see RFC 2616, section 10.3.5). Do not override
    // headers set in hook_boot().
    $name_lower = strtolower($name);
    if (in_array($name_lower, array('content-location', 'expires', 'cache-control', 'vary')) && !isset($hook_boot_headers[$name_lower])) {
      drupal_add_http_header($name, $value);
      unset($cache->data['headers'][$name]);
    }
  }

  // If a cache is served from a HTTP proxy without hitting the web server,
  // the boot and exit hooks cannot be fired, so only allow caching in
  // proxies if boot hooks are disabled. If the client send a session cookie,
  // do not bother caching the page in a public proxy, because the cached copy
  // will only be served to that particular user due to Vary: Cookie, unless
  // the Vary header has been replaced or unset in hook_boot() (see below).
  $max_age = !variable_get('page_cache_invoke_hooks', TRUE) && (!isset($_COOKIE[session_name()]) || isset($hook_boot_headers['vary'])) ? variable_get('page_cache_maximum_age', 0) : 0;
  $default_headers['Cache-Control'] = 'public, max-age=' . $max_age;

  // Entity tag should change if the output changes.
  $etag = '"' . $cache->created . '-' . intval($return_compressed) . '"';
  header('Etag: ' . $etag);

  // See if the client has provided the required HTTP headers.
  $if_modified_since = isset($_SERVER['HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE']) ? strtotime($_SERVER['HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE']) : FALSE;
  $if_none_match = isset($_SERVER['HTTP_IF_NONE_MATCH']) ? stripslashes($_SERVER['HTTP_IF_NONE_MATCH']) : FALSE;

  if ($if_modified_since && $if_none_match
      && $if_none_match == $etag // etag must match
      && $if_modified_since == $cache->created) {  // if-modified-since must match
    header($_SERVER['SERVER_PROTOCOL'] . ' 304 Not Modified');
    drupal_send_headers($default_headers);
    return;
  }

  // Send the remaining headers.
  foreach ($cache->data['headers'] as $name => $value) {
    drupal_add_http_header($name, $value);
  }

  $default_headers['Last-Modified'] = gmdate(DATE_RFC1123, $cache->created);

  // HTTP/1.0 proxies does not support the Vary header, so prevent any caching
  // by sending an Expires date in the past. HTTP/1.1 clients ignores the
  // Expires header if a Cache-Control: max-age= directive is specified (see RFC
  // 2616, section 14.9.3).
  $default_headers['Expires'] = 'Sun, 19 Nov 1978 05:00:00 GMT';

  drupal_send_headers($default_headers);

  // Allow HTTP proxies to cache pages for anonymous users without a session
  // cookie. The Vary header is used to indicates the set of request-header
  // fields that fully determines whether a cache is permitted to use the
  // response to reply to a subsequent request for a given URL without
  // revalidation. If a Vary header has been set in hook_boot(), it is assumed
  // that the module knows how to cache the page.
  if (!isset($hook_boot_headers['vary']) && !variable_get('omit_vary_cookie')) {
    header('Vary: Cookie');
  }

  if ($page_compression) {
    header('Vary: Accept-Encoding', FALSE);
    // If page_compression is enabled, the cache contains gzipped data.
    if ($return_compressed) {
      // $cache->data['body'] is already gzip'ed, so make sure
      // zlib.output_compression does not compress it once more.
      ini_set('zlib.output_compression', '0');
      header('Content-Encoding: gzip');
    }
    else {
      // The client does not support compression, so unzip the data in the
      // cache. Strip the gzip header and run uncompress.
      $cache->data['body'] = gzinflate(substr(substr($cache->data['body'], 10), 0, -8));
    }
  }

  // Print the page.
  print $cache->data['body'];
}

/**
 * Define the critical hooks that force modules to always be loaded.
 */
function bootstrap_hooks() {
  return array('boot', 'exit', 'watchdog', 'language_init');
}

/**
 * Unserializes and appends elements from a serialized string.
 *
 * @param $obj
 *   The object to which the elements are appended.
 * @param $field
 *   The attribute of $obj whose value should be unserialized.
 */
function drupal_unpack($obj, $field = 'data') {
  if ($obj->$field && $data = unserialize($obj->$field)) {
    foreach ($data as $key => $value) {
      if (!empty($key) && !isset($obj->$key)) {
        $obj->$key = $value;
      }
    }
  }
  return $obj;
}

/**
 * Translates a string to the current language or to a given language.
 *
 * All human-readable text that will be displayed on the site or sent to a user
 * should be passed through the t() function. This ensures that sites can be
 * fully translated into other languages.
 *
 * Here are some examples of translating static text using t():
 * @code
 *   if (!$info || !$info['extension']) {
 *     form_set_error('picture_upload', t('The uploaded file was not an image.'));
 *   }
 *
 *   $form['submit'] = array(
 *     '#type' => 'submit',
 *     '#value' => t('Log in'),
 *   );
 * @endcode
 *
 * In addition to translating static text, t() can handle text that should not
 * be translated or that might change from time to time (such as link paths)
 * and dynamic text from variables, using special "placeholders". There are
 * three styles of placeholders:
 * - !variable: Indicates that the text should be inserted as-is. This is
 *   useful for inserting variables into things like e-mail. Example:
 *   @code
 *     $message[] = t("If you don't want to receive such e-mails, you can change your settings at !url.", array('!url' => url("user/$account->uid", array('absolute' => TRUE))));
 *   @endcode
 * - @variable: Indicates that the text should be run through check_plain(), to
 *   escape HTML characters. Use this for any output that is displayed within a
 *   Drupal page. Example:
 *   @code
 *     drupal_set_title($title = t("@name's blog", array('@name' => format_username($account))), PASS_THROUGH);
 *   @endcode
 * - %variable: Indicates that the string should be HTML-escaped and highlighted
 *   with drupal_placeholder(), which shows up as <em>emphasized</em>.
 *   @code
 *     $message = t('%name-from sent %name-to an e-mail.', array('%name-from' => format_username($user), '%name-to' => format_username($account)));
 *   @endcode
 *
 * When using t(), try to put entire paragraphs in one t() call. This makes it
 * easier for translators, as it provides context as to what each word refers
 * to (and also allows translators to adjust word order, which may not be the
 * same in all languages). HTML markup within translation strings is allowed,
 * but should be avoided if possible. The exception is embedded links: link
 * titles add context for translators and need to be translated, so they should
 * be kept in the main string, while link URLs should be generated using
 * placeholders.
 * - Incorrect HTML in t():
 *   @code
 *     $output .= t('<p>Go to the @contact-page.</p>', array('@contact-page' => l(t('contact page'), 'contact')));
 *   @endcode
 * - Correct HTML in t():
 *   @code
 *     $output .= '<p>' . t('Go to the <a href="@contact-page">contact page</a>.', array('@contact-page' => url('contact'))) . '</p>';
 *   @endcode
 *
 * Another thing that is helpful is to avoid escaping quotation marks wherever
 * possible, because it can be confusing to translation teams.
 * - Less desirable quotation mark escaping:
 *   @code
 *     $output .= t('Don\'t click me.');
 *   @endcode
 * - Better way to use quotation marks:
 *   @code
 *     $output .= t("Don't click me.");
 *   @endcode
 *
 * It is important that all translation uses the t() mechanism, because in
 * addition to actually translating the text at run-time, the t() function is
 * also used by text-extraction routines to find text that needs to be
 * translated, and build databases of text to be translated for translation
 * teams. For that reason, you must put the actual string into the t() function,
 * in most cases, and not a variable.
 * - Incorrect use of a variable in t():
 *   @code
 *     $message = 'An error occurred.';
 *     drupal_set_message(t($message), 'error');
 *     $output .= t($message);
 *   @endcode
 * - Correct translation of a variable with t():
 *   @code
 *     $message = t('An error occurred.');
 *     drupal_set_message($message, 'error');
 *     $output .= $message;
 *   @endcode
 *
 * The only case in which variables can be passed safely through t() is when
 * code-based versions of the same strings will be passed through t() (or
 * otherwise extracted) elsewhere.
 *
 * Also, you cannot use t() early in the bootstrap process, prior to the
 * DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_LANGUAGE phase. The language variables will not be
 * initialized yet, so the string will not be translated into the correct
 * language. Examples of places where t() cannot be used include:
 * - In a PHP define() statement.
 * - In a hook_boot() implementation.
 *
 * In some cases, modules may include strings in code that can't use t()
 * calls. For example, a module may use an external PHP application that
 * produces strings that are loaded into variables in Drupal for output.
 * In these cases, module authors may include a dummy file that passes the
 * relevant strings through t(). This approach will allow the strings to be
 * extracted.
 *
 * Sample external (non-Drupal) code:
 * @code
 *   class Time {
 *     public $yesterday = 'Yesterday';
 *     public $today = 'Today';
 *     public $tomorrow = 'Tomorrow';
 *   }
 * @endcode
 *
 * Sample dummy file:
 * @code
 *   // Dummy function included in example.potx.inc.
 *   function example_potx() {
 *     $strings = array(
 *       t('Yesterday'),
 *       t('Today'),
 *       t('Tomorrow'),
 *     );
 *     // No return value needed, since this is a dummy function.
 *   }
 * @endcode
 *
 * Having passed strings through t() in a dummy function, it is then
 * possible to pass variables through t():
 * @code
 *   $time = new Time();
 *   $output .= t($time->today);
 * @endcode
 *
 * However tempting it is, custom data from user input or other non-code
 * sources should not be passed through t(). Doing so leads to the following
 * problems and errors:
 *  - The t() system doesn't support updates to existing strings. When user
 *    data is updated, the next time it's passed through t(), a new record is
 *    created instead of an update. The database bloats over time and any
 *    existing translations are orphaned with each update.
 *  - The t() system assumes any data it receives is in English. User data may
 *    be in another language, producing translation errors.
 *  - The "Built-in interface" text group in the locale system is used to
 *    produce translations for storage in .po files. When non-code strings are
 *    passed through t(), they are added to this text group, which is rendered
 *    inaccurate since it is a mix of actual interface strings and various user
 *    input strings of uncertain origin.
 * Instead, translation of these data can be done through the locale system,
 * either directly through hook_local() or through helper functions provided by
 * contributed modules.
 *
 * Incorrect:
 * @code
 *   $item = item_load();
 *   $output .= check_plain(t($item['title']));
 * @endcode
 *
 * During installation, st() is used in place of t(). Code that may be called
 * during installation or during normal operation should use the get_t()
 * helper function.
 *
 * @param $string
 *   A string containing the English string to translate.
 * @param $args
 *   An associative array of replacements to make after translation. Incidences
 *   of any key in this array are replaced with the corresponding value. Based
 *   on the first character of the key, the value is escaped and/or themed:
 *    - !variable: inserted as is
 *    - @variable: escape plain text to HTML (using check_plain())
 *    - %variable: escape text and theme as a placeholder for user-submitted
 *      content (using check_plain() + drupal_placeholder())
 * @param $options
 *   An associative array of additional options, with the following keys:
 *     - 'langcode' (defaults to the current language) The language code to
 *       translate to a language other than what is used to display the page.
 *     - 'context' (defaults to the empty context) The context the source string
 *       belongs to.
 *
 * @return
 *   The translated string.
 *
 * @ingroup sanitization
 */
function t($string, array $args = array(), array $options = array()) {
  global $language;
  static $custom_strings;

  // Merge in default.
  if (empty($options['langcode'])) {
    $options['langcode'] = isset($language->language) ? $language->language : 'en';
  }
  if (empty($options['context'])) {
    $options['context'] = '';
  }

  // First, check for an array of customized strings. If present, use the array
  // *instead of* database lookups. This is a high performance way to provide a
  // handful of string replacements. See settings.php for examples.
  // Cache the $custom_strings variable to improve performance.
  if (!isset($custom_strings[$options['langcode']])) {
    $custom_strings[$options['langcode']] = variable_get('locale_custom_strings_' . $options['langcode'], array());
  }
  // Custom strings work for English too, even if locale module is disabled.
  if (isset($custom_strings[$options['langcode']][$options['context']][$string])) {
    $string = $custom_strings[$options['langcode']][$options['context']][$string];
  }
  // Translate with locale module if enabled.
  elseif ($options['langcode'] != 'en' && function_exists('locale')) {
    $string = locale($string, $options['context'], $options['langcode']);
  }
  if (empty($args)) {
    return $string;
  }
  else {
    // Transform arguments before inserting them.
    foreach ($args as $key => $value) {
      switch ($key[0]) {
        case '@':
          // Escaped only.
          $args[$key] = check_plain($value);
          break;

        case '%':
        default:
          // Escaped and placeholder.
          $args[$key] = drupal_placeholder($value);
          break;

        case '!':
          // Pass-through.
      }
    }
    return strtr($string, $args);
  }
}

/**
 * Encode special characters in a plain-text string for display as HTML.
 *
 * Also validates strings as UTF-8 to prevent cross site scripting attacks on
 * Internet Explorer 6.
 *
 * @param $text
 *   The text to be checked or processed.
 *
 * @return
 *   An HTML safe version of $text, or an empty string if $text is not
 *   valid UTF-8.
 *
 * @see drupal_validate_utf8()
 * @ingroup sanitization
 */
function check_plain($text) {
  return htmlspecialchars($text, ENT_QUOTES, 'UTF-8');
}

/**
 * Checks whether a string is valid UTF-8.
 *
 * All functions designed to filter input should use drupal_validate_utf8
 * to ensure they operate on valid UTF-8 strings to prevent bypass of the
 * filter.
 *
 * When text containing an invalid UTF-8 lead byte (0xC0 - 0xFF) is presented
 * as UTF-8 to Internet Explorer 6, the program may misinterpret subsequent
 * bytes. When these subsequent bytes are HTML control characters such as
 * quotes or angle brackets, parts of the text that were deemed safe by filters
 * end up in locations that are potentially unsafe; An onerror attribute that
 * is outside of a tag, and thus deemed safe by a filter, can be interpreted
 * by the browser as if it were inside the tag.
 *
 * The function does not return FALSE for strings containing character codes
 * above U+10FFFF, even though these are prohibited by RFC 3629.
 *
 * @param $text
 *   The text to check.
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the text is valid UTF-8, FALSE if not.
 */
function drupal_validate_utf8($text) {
  if (strlen($text) == 0) {
    return TRUE;
  }
  // With the PCRE_UTF8 modifier 'u', preg_match() fails silently on strings
  // containing invalid UTF-8 byte sequences. It does not reject character
  // codes above U+10FFFF (represented by 4 or more octets), though.
  return (preg_match('/^./us', $text) == 1);
}

/**
 * Since $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'] is only available on Apache, we
 * generate an equivalent using other environment variables.
 */
function request_uri() {

  if (isset($_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'])) {
    $uri = $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'];
  }
  else {
    if (isset($_SERVER['argv'])) {
      $uri = $_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'] . '?' . $_SERVER['argv'][0];
    }
    elseif (isset($_SERVER['QUERY_STRING'])) {
      $uri = $_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'] . '?' . $_SERVER['QUERY_STRING'];
    }
    else {
      $uri = $_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME'];
    }
  }
  // Prevent multiple slashes to avoid cross site requests via the Form API.
  $uri = '/' . ltrim($uri, '/');

  return $uri;
}

/**
 * Log an exception.
 *
 * This is a wrapper function for watchdog() which automatically decodes an
 * exception.
 *
 * @param $type
 *   The category to which this message belongs.
 * @param $exception
 *   The exception that is going to be logged.
 * @param $message
 *   The message to store in the log. If empty, a text that contains all useful
 *   information about the passed in exception is used.
 * @param $variables
 *   Array of variables to replace in the message on display. Defaults to the
 *   return value of drupal_decode_exception().
 * @param $severity
 *   The severity of the message, as per RFC 3164.
 * @param $link
 *   A link to associate with the message.
 *
 * @see watchdog()
 * @see drupal_decode_exception()
 */
function watchdog_exception($type, Exception $exception, $message = NULL, $variables = array(), $severity = WATCHDOG_ERROR, $link = NULL) {

   // Use a default value if $message is not set.
   if (empty($message)) {
     // The exception message is run through check_plain() by _drupal_decode_exception().
     $message = '%type: !message in %function (line %line of %file).';
   }
   // $variables must be an array so that we can add the exception information.
   if (!is_array($variables)) {
     $variables = array();
   }

   require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/errors.inc';
   $variables += _drupal_decode_exception($exception);
   watchdog($type, $message, $variables, $severity, $link);
}

/**
 * Log a system message.
 *
 * @param $type
 *   The category to which this message belongs. Can be any string, but the
 *   general practice is to use the name of the module calling watchdog().
 * @param $message
 *   The message to store in the log. Keep $message translatable
 *   by not concatenating dynamic values into it! Variables in the
 *   message should be added by using placeholder strings alongside
 *   the variables argument to declare the value of the placeholders.
 *   See t() for documentation on how $message and $variables interact.
 * @param $variables
 *   Array of variables to replace in the message on display or
 *   NULL if message is already translated or not possible to
 *   translate.
 * @param $severity
 *   The severity of the message, as per RFC 3164. Possible values are
 *   WATCHDOG_ERROR, WATCHDOG_WARNING, etc.
 * @param $link
 *   A link to associate with the message.
 *
 * @see watchdog_severity_levels()
 * @see hook_watchdog()
 */
function watchdog($type, $message, $variables = array(), $severity = WATCHDOG_NOTICE, $link = NULL) {
  global $user, $base_root;

  static $in_error_state = FALSE;

  // It is possible that the error handling will itself trigger an error. In that case, we could
  // end up in an infinite loop. To avoid that, we implement a simple static semaphore.
  if (!$in_error_state && function_exists('module_implements')) {
    $in_error_state = TRUE;

    // Prepare the fields to be logged
    $log_entry = array(
      'type'        => $type,
      'message'     => $message,
      'variables'   => $variables,
      'severity'    => $severity,
      'link'        => $link,
      'user'        => $user,
      'request_uri' => $base_root . request_uri(),
      'referer'     => isset($_SERVER['HTTP_REFERER']) ? $_SERVER['HTTP_REFERER'] : '',
      'ip'          => ip_address(),
      'timestamp'   => REQUEST_TIME,
    );

    // Call the logging hooks to log/process the message
    foreach (module_implements('watchdog') as $module) {
      module_invoke($module, 'watchdog', $log_entry);
    }

    // It is critical that the semaphore is only cleared here, in the parent
    // watchdog() call (not outside the loop), to prevent recursive execution.
    $in_error_state = FALSE;
  }
}

/**
 * Set a message which reflects the status of the performed operation.
 *
 * If the function is called with no arguments, this function returns all set
 * messages without clearing them.
 *
 * @param $message
 *   The message should begin with a capital letter and always ends with a
 *   period '.'.
 * @param $type
 *   The type of the message. One of the following values are possible:
 *   - 'status'
 *   - 'warning'
 *   - 'error'
 * @param $repeat
 *   If this is FALSE and the message is already set, then the message won't
 *   be repeated.
 */
function drupal_set_message($message = NULL, $type = 'status', $repeat = TRUE) {
  if ($message) {
    if (!isset($_SESSION['messages'][$type])) {
      $_SESSION['messages'][$type] = array();
    }

    if ($repeat || !in_array($message, $_SESSION['messages'][$type])) {
      $_SESSION['messages'][$type][] = $message;
    }

    // Mark this page as being uncacheable.
    drupal_page_is_cacheable(FALSE);
  }

  // Messages not set when DB connection fails.
  return isset($_SESSION['messages']) ? $_SESSION['messages'] : NULL;
}

/**
 * Return all messages that have been set.
 *
 * @param $type
 *   (optional) Only return messages of this type.
 * @param $clear_queue
 *   (optional) Set to FALSE if you do not want to clear the messages queue
 * @return
 *   An associative array, the key is the message type, the value an array
 *   of messages. If the $type parameter is passed, you get only that type,
 *   or an empty array if there are no such messages. If $type is not passed,
 *   all message types are returned, or an empty array if none exist.
 */
function drupal_get_messages($type = NULL, $clear_queue = TRUE) {
  if ($messages = drupal_set_message()) {
    if ($type) {
      if ($clear_queue) {
        unset($_SESSION['messages'][$type]);
      }
      if (isset($messages[$type])) {
        return array($type => $messages[$type]);
      }
    }
    else {
      if ($clear_queue) {
        unset($_SESSION['messages']);
      }
      return $messages;
    }
  }
  return array();
}

/**
 * Get the title of the current page, for display on the page and in the title bar.
 *
 * @return
 *   The current page's title.
 */
function drupal_get_title() {
  $title = drupal_set_title();

  // During a bootstrap, menu.inc is not included and thus we cannot provide a title.
  if (!isset($title) && function_exists('menu_get_active_title')) {
    $title = check_plain(menu_get_active_title());
  }

  return $title;
}

/**
 * Set the title of the current page, for display on the page and in the title bar.
 *
 * @param $title
 *   Optional string value to assign to the page title; or if set to NULL
 *   (default), leaves the current title unchanged.
 * @param $output
 *   Optional flag - normally should be left as CHECK_PLAIN. Only set to
 *   PASS_THROUGH if you have already removed any possibly dangerous code
 *   from $title using a function like check_plain() or filter_xss(). With this
 *   flag the string will be passed through unchanged.
 *
 * @return
 *   The updated title of the current page.
 */
function drupal_set_title($title = NULL, $output = CHECK_PLAIN) {
  $stored_title = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);

  if (isset($title)) {
    $stored_title = ($output == PASS_THROUGH) ? $title : check_plain($title);
  }

  return $stored_title;
}

/**
 * Check to see if an IP address has been blocked.
 *
 * Blocked IP addresses are stored in the database by default. However for
 * performance reasons we allow an override in settings.php. This allows us
 * to avoid querying the database at this critical stage of the bootstrap if
 * an administrative interface for IP address blocking is not required.
 *
 * @param $ip
 *   IP address to check.
 * @return bool
 *   TRUE if access is denied, FALSE if access is allowed.
 */
function drupal_is_denied($ip) {
  // Because this function is called on every page request, we first check
  // for an array of IP addresses in settings.php before querying the
  // database.
  $blocked_ips = variable_get('blocked_ips');
  $denied = FALSE;
  if (isset($blocked_ips) && is_array($blocked_ips)) {
    $denied = in_array($ip, $blocked_ips);
  }
  // Only check if database.inc is loaded already. If
  // $conf['page_cache_without_database'] = TRUE; is set in settings.php,
  // then the database won't be loaded here so the IPs in the database
  // won't be denied. However the user asked explicitly not to use the
  // database and also in this case it's quite likely that the user relies
  // on higher performance solutions like a firewall.
  elseif (class_exists('Database', FALSE)) {
    $denied = (bool)db_query("SELECT 1 FROM {blocked_ips} WHERE ip = :ip", array(':ip' => $ip))->fetchField();
  }
  return $denied;
}

/**
 * Handle denied users.
 *
 * @param $ip
 *   IP address to check. Prints a message and exits if access is denied.
 */
function drupal_block_denied($ip) {
  // Deny access to blocked IP addresses - t() is not yet available.
  if (drupal_is_denied($ip)) {
    header($_SERVER['SERVER_PROTOCOL'] . ' 403 Forbidden');
    print 'Sorry, ' . check_plain(ip_address()) . ' has been banned.';
    exit();
  }
}

/**
 * Returns a string of highly randomized bytes (over the full 8-bit range).
 *
 * This function is better than simply calling mt_rand() or any other built-in
 * PHP function because it can return a long string of bytes (compared to < 4
 * bytes normally from mt_rand()) and uses the best available pseudo-random source.
 *
 * @param $count
 *   The number of characters (bytes) to return in the string.
 */
function drupal_random_bytes($count)  {
  // $random_state does not use drupal_static as it stores random bytes.
  static $random_state, $bytes;
  // Initialize on the first call. The contents of $_SERVER includes a mix of
  // user-specific and system information that varies a little with each page.
  if (!isset($random_state)) {
    $random_state = print_r($_SERVER, TRUE);
    if (function_exists('getmypid')) {
      // Further initialize with the somewhat random PHP process ID.
      $random_state .= getmypid();
    }
    $bytes = '';
  }
  if (strlen($bytes) < $count) {
    // /dev/urandom is available on many *nix systems and is considered the
    // best commonly available pseudo-random source.
    if ($fh = @fopen('/dev/urandom', 'rb')) {
      // PHP only performs buffered reads, so in reality it will always read
      // at least 4096 bytes. Thus, it costs nothing extra to read and store
      // that much so as to speed any additional invocations.
      $bytes .= fread($fh, max(4096, $count));
      fclose($fh);
    }
    // If /dev/urandom is not available or returns no bytes, this loop will
    // generate a good set of pseudo-random bytes on any system.
    // Note that it may be important that our $random_state is passed
    // through hash() prior to being rolled into $output, that the two hash()
    // invocations are different, and that the extra input into the first one -
    // the microtime() - is prepended rather than appended. This is to avoid
    // directly leaking $random_state via the $output stream, which could
    // allow for trivial prediction of further "random" numbers.
    while (strlen($bytes) < $count) {
      $random_state = hash('sha256', microtime() . mt_rand() . $random_state);
      $bytes .= hash('sha256', mt_rand() . $random_state, TRUE);
    }
  }
  $output = substr($bytes, 0, $count);
  $bytes = substr($bytes, $count);
  return $output;
}

/**
 * Calculate a base-64 encoded, URL-safe sha-256 hmac.
 *
 * @param $data
 *   String to be validated with the hmac.
 * @param $key
 *   A secret string key.
 *
 * @return
 *   A base-64 encoded sha-256 hmac, with + replaced with -, / with _ and
 *   any = padding characters removed.
 */
function drupal_hmac_base64($data, $key) {
  $hmac = base64_encode(hash_hmac('sha256', $data, $key, TRUE));
  // Modify the hmac so it's safe to use in URLs.
  return strtr($hmac, array('+' => '-', '/' => '_', '=' => ''));
}

/**
 * Calculate a base-64 encoded, URL-safe sha-256 hash.
 *
 * @param $data
 *   String to be hashed.
 *
 * @return
 *   A base-64 encoded sha-256 hash, with + replaced with -, / with _ and
 *   any = padding characters removed.
 */
function drupal_hash_base64($data) {
  $hash = base64_encode(hash('sha256', $data, TRUE));
  // Modify the hash so it's safe to use in URLs.
  return strtr($hash, array('+' => '-', '/' => '_', '=' => ''));
}

/**
 * Merges multiple arrays, recursively, and returns the merged array.
 *
 * This function is similar to PHP's array_merge_recursive() function, but it
 * handles non-array values differently. When merging values that are not both
 * arrays, the latter value replaces the former rather than merging with it.
 *
 * Example:
 * @code
 * $link_options_1 = array('fragment' => 'x', 'attributes' => array('title' => t('X'), 'class' => array('a', 'b')));
 * $link_options_2 = array('fragment' => 'y', 'attributes' => array('title' => t('Y'), 'class' => array('c', 'd')));
 *
 * // This results in array('fragment' => array('x', 'y'), 'attributes' => array('title' => array(t('X'), t('Y')), 'class' => array('a', 'b', 'c', 'd'))).
 * $incorrect = array_merge_recursive($link_options_1, $link_options_2);
 *
 * // This results in array('fragment' => 'y', 'attributes' => array('title' => t('Y'), 'class' => array('a', 'b', 'c', 'd'))).
 * $correct = drupal_array_merge_deep($link_options_1, $link_options_2);
 * @endcode
 *
 * @param ...
 *   Arrays to merge.
 *
 * @return
 *   The merged array.
 *
 * @see drupal_array_merge_deep_array()
 */
function drupal_array_merge_deep() {
  return drupal_array_merge_deep_array(func_get_args());
}

/**
 * Merges multiple arrays, recursively, and returns the merged array.
 *
 * This function is equivalent to drupal_array_merge_deep(), except the
 * input arrays are passed as a single array parameter rather than a variable
 * parameter list.
 *
 * The following are equivalent:
 * - drupal_array_merge_deep($a, $b);
 * - drupal_array_merge_deep_array(array($a, $b));
 *
 * The following are also equivalent:
 * - call_user_func_array('drupal_array_merge_deep', $arrays_to_merge);
 * - drupal_array_merge_deep_array($arrays_to_merge);
 *
 * @see drupal_array_merge_deep()
 */
function drupal_array_merge_deep_array($arrays) {
  $result = array();

  foreach ($arrays as $array) {
    foreach ($array as $key => $value) {
      // Renumber integer keys as array_merge_recursive() does. Note that PHP
      // automatically converts array keys that are integer strings (e.g., '1')
      // to integers.
      if (is_integer($key)) {
        $result[] = $value;
      }
      // Recurse when both values are arrays.
      elseif (isset($result[$key]) && is_array($result[$key]) && is_array($value)) {
        $result[$key] = drupal_array_merge_deep_array(array($result[$key], $value));
      }
      // Otherwise, use the latter value, overriding any previous value.
      else {
        $result[$key] = $value;
      }
    }
  }

  return $result;
}

/**
 * Generates a default anonymous $user object.
 *
 * @return Object - the user object.
 */
function drupal_anonymous_user() {
  $user = new stdClass();
  $user->uid = 0;
  $user->hostname = ip_address();
  $user->roles = array();
  $user->roles[DRUPAL_ANONYMOUS_RID] = 'anonymous user';
  $user->cache = 0;
  return $user;
}

/**
 * A string describing a phase of Drupal to load. Each phase adds to the
 * previous one, so invoking a later phase automatically runs the earlier
 * phases too. The most important usage is that if you want to access the
 * Drupal database from a script without loading anything else, you can
 * include bootstrap.inc, and call drupal_bootstrap(DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_DATABASE).
 *
 * @param $phase
 *   A constant. Allowed values are the DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_* constants.
 * @param $new_phase
 *   A boolean, set to FALSE if calling drupal_bootstrap from inside a
 *   function called from drupal_bootstrap (recursion).
 * @return
 *   The most recently completed phase.
 *
 */
function drupal_bootstrap($phase = NULL, $new_phase = TRUE) {
  // Not drupal_static(), because does not depend on any run-time information.
  static $phases = array(
    DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_CONFIGURATION,
    DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_PAGE_CACHE,
    DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_DATABASE,
    DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_VARIABLES,
    DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_SESSION,
    DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_PAGE_HEADER,
    DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_LANGUAGE,
    DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_FULL,
  );
  // Not drupal_static(), because the only legitimate API to control this is to
  // call drupal_bootstrap() with a new phase parameter.
  static $final_phase;
  // Not drupal_static(), because it's impossible to roll back to an earlier
  // bootstrap state.
  static $stored_phase = -1;

  // When not recursing, store the phase name so it's not forgotten while
  // recursing.
  if ($new_phase) {
    $final_phase = $phase;
  }
  if (isset($phase)) {
    // Call a phase if it has not been called before and is below the requested
    // phase.
    while ($phases && $phase > $stored_phase && $final_phase > $stored_phase) {
      $current_phase = array_shift($phases);

      // This function is re-entrant. Only update the completed phase when the
      // current call actually resulted in a progress in the bootstrap process.
      if ($current_phase > $stored_phase) {
        $stored_phase = $current_phase;
      }

      switch ($current_phase) {
        case DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_CONFIGURATION:
          _drupal_bootstrap_configuration();
          break;

        case DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_PAGE_CACHE:
          _drupal_bootstrap_page_cache();
          break;

        case DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_DATABASE:
          _drupal_bootstrap_database();
          break;

        case DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_VARIABLES:
          _drupal_bootstrap_variables();
          break;

        case DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_SESSION:
          require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . variable_get('session_inc', 'includes/session.inc');
          drupal_session_initialize();
          break;

        case DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_PAGE_HEADER:
          _drupal_bootstrap_page_header();
          break;

        case DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_LANGUAGE:
          drupal_language_initialize();
          break;

        case DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_FULL:
          require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/common.inc';
          _drupal_bootstrap_full();
          break;
      }
    }
  }
  return $stored_phase;
}

/**
 * Return the time zone of the current user.
 */
function drupal_get_user_timezone() {
  global $user;
  if (variable_get('configurable_timezones', 1) && $user->uid && $user->timezone) {
    return $user->timezone;
  }
  else {
    // Ignore PHP strict notice if time zone has not yet been set in the php.ini
    // configuration.
    return variable_get('date_default_timezone', @date_default_timezone_get());
  }
}

/**
 * Custom PHP error handler.
 *
 * @param $error_level
 *   The level of the error raised.
 * @param $message
 *   The error message.
 * @param $filename
 *   The filename that the error was raised in.
 * @param $line
 *   The line number the error was raised at.
 * @param $context
 *   An array that points to the active symbol table at the point the error occurred.
 */
function _drupal_error_handler($error_level, $message, $filename, $line, $context) {
  require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/errors.inc';
  _drupal_error_handler_real($error_level, $message, $filename, $line, $context);
}

/**
 * Custom PHP exception handler.
 *
 * Uncaught exceptions are those not enclosed in a try/catch block. They are
 * always fatal: the execution of the script will stop as soon as the exception
 * handler exits.
 *
 * @param $exception
 *   The exception object that was thrown.
 */
function _drupal_exception_handler($exception) {
  require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/errors.inc';

  try {
    // Log the message to the watchdog and return an error page to the user.
    _drupal_log_error(_drupal_decode_exception($exception), TRUE);
  }
  catch (Exception $exception2) {
    // Another uncaught exception was thrown while handling the first one.
    // If we are displaying errors, then do so with no possibility of a further uncaught exception being thrown.
    if (error_displayable()) {
      print '<h1>Additional uncaught exception thrown while handling exception.</h1>';
      print '<h2>Original</h2><p>' . _drupal_render_exception_safe($exception) . '</p>';
      print '<h2>Additional</h2><p>' . _drupal_render_exception_safe($exception2) . '</p><hr />';
    }
  }
}

/**
 * Bootstrap configuration: Setup script environment and load settings.php.
 */
function _drupal_bootstrap_configuration() {
  // Set the Drupal custom error handler.
  set_error_handler('_drupal_error_handler');
  set_exception_handler('_drupal_exception_handler');

  drupal_environment_initialize();
  // Start a page timer:
  timer_start('page');
  // Initialize the configuration, including variables from settings.php.
  drupal_settings_initialize();
}

/**
 * Bootstrap page cache: Try to serve a page from cache.
 */
function _drupal_bootstrap_page_cache() {
  global $user;

  // Allow specifying special cache handlers in settings.php, like
  // using memcached or files for storing cache information.
  require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/cache.inc';
  foreach (variable_get('cache_backends', array()) as $include) {
    require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . $include;
  }
  // Check for a cache mode force from settings.php.
  if (variable_get('page_cache_without_database')) {
    $cache_enabled = TRUE;
  }
  else {
    drupal_bootstrap(DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_VARIABLES, FALSE);
    $cache_enabled = variable_get('cache');
  }
  drupal_block_denied(ip_address());
  // If there is no session cookie and cache is enabled (or forced), try
  // to serve a cached page.
  if (!isset($_COOKIE[session_name()]) && $cache_enabled) {
    // Make sure there is a user object because its timestamp will be
    // checked, hook_boot might check for anonymous user etc.
    $user = drupal_anonymous_user();
    // Get the page from the cache.
    $cache = drupal_page_get_cache();
    // If there is a cached page, display it.
    if (is_object($cache)) {
      header('X-Drupal-Cache: HIT');
      // Restore the metadata cached with the page.
      $_GET['q'] = $cache->data['path'];
      drupal_set_title($cache->data['title'], PASS_THROUGH);
      date_default_timezone_set(drupal_get_user_timezone());
      // If the skipping of the bootstrap hooks is not enforced, call
      // hook_boot.
      if (variable_get('page_cache_invoke_hooks', TRUE)) {
        bootstrap_invoke_all('boot');
      }
      drupal_serve_page_from_cache($cache);
      // If the skipping of the bootstrap hooks is not enforced, call
      // hook_exit.
      if (variable_get('page_cache_invoke_hooks', TRUE)) {
        bootstrap_invoke_all('exit');
      }
      // We are done.
      exit;
    }
    else {
      header('X-Drupal-Cache: MISS');
    }
  }
}

/**
 * Bootstrap database: Initialize database system and register autoload functions.
 */
function _drupal_bootstrap_database() {
  // Redirect the user to the installation script if Drupal has not been
  // installed yet (i.e., if no $databases array has been defined in the
  // settings.php file) and we are not already installing.
  if (empty($GLOBALS['databases']) && !drupal_installation_attempted()) {
    include_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/install.inc';
    install_goto('install.php');
  }

  // The user agent header is used to pass a database prefix in the request when
  // running tests. However, for security reasons, it is imperative that we
  // validate we ourselves made the request.
  if ($test_prefix = drupal_valid_test_ua()) {
    // Set the test run id for use in other parts of Drupal.
    $test_info = &$GLOBALS['drupal_test_info'];
    $test_info['test_run_id'] = $test_prefix;
    $test_info['in_child_site'] = TRUE;

    foreach ($GLOBALS['databases']['default'] as &$value) {
      // Extract the current default database prefix.
      if (!isset($value['prefix'])) {
        $current_prefix = '';
      }
      elseif (is_array($value['prefix'])) {
        $current_prefix = $value['prefix']['default'];
      }
      else {
        $current_prefix = $value['prefix'];
      }

      // Remove the current database prefix and replace it by our own.
      $value['prefix'] = array(
        'default' => $current_prefix . $test_prefix,
      );
    }
  }

  // Initialize the database system. Note that the connection
  // won't be initialized until it is actually requested.
  require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/database/database.inc';

  // Register autoload functions so that we can access classes and interfaces.
  // The database autoload routine comes first so that we can load the database
  // system without hitting the database. That is especially important during
  // the install or upgrade process.
  spl_autoload_register('drupal_autoload_class');
  spl_autoload_register('drupal_autoload_interface');
}

/**
 * Bootstrap variables: Load system variables and all enabled bootstrap modules.
 */
function _drupal_bootstrap_variables() {
  global $conf;

  // Initialize the lock system.
  require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . variable_get('lock_inc', 'includes/lock.inc');
  lock_initialize();

  // Load variables from the database, but do not overwrite variables set in settings.php.
  $conf = variable_initialize(isset($conf) ? $conf : array());
  // Load bootstrap modules.
  require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/module.inc';
  module_load_all(TRUE);
}

/**
 * Bootstrap page header: Invoke hook_boot(), initialize locking system, and send default HTTP headers.
 */
function _drupal_bootstrap_page_header() {
  bootstrap_invoke_all('boot');

  if (!drupal_is_cli()) {
    ob_start();
    drupal_page_header();
  }
}

/**
 * Returns the current bootstrap phase for this Drupal process.
 *
 * The current phase is the one most recently completed by drupal_bootstrap().
 *
 * @see drupal_bootstrap()
 */
function drupal_get_bootstrap_phase() {
  return drupal_bootstrap();
}

/**
 * Checks the current User-Agent string to see if this is an internal request
 * from SimpleTest. If so, returns the test prefix for this test.
 *
 * @return
 *   Either the simpletest prefix (the string "simpletest" followed by any
 *   number of digits) or FALSE if the user agent does not contain a valid
 *   HMAC and timestamp.
 */
function drupal_valid_test_ua() {
  global $drupal_hash_salt;
  // No reason to reset this.
  static $test_prefix;

  if (isset($test_prefix)) {
    return $test_prefix;
  }

  if (isset($_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT']) && preg_match("/^(simpletest\d+);(.+);(.+);(.+)$/", $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'], $matches)) {
    list(, $prefix, $time, $salt, $hmac) = $matches;
    $check_string =  $prefix . ';' . $time . ';' . $salt;
    // We use the salt from settings.php to make the HMAC key, since
    // the database is not yet initialized and we can't access any Drupal variables.
    // The file properties add more entropy not easily accessible to others.
    $key = $drupal_hash_salt . filectime(__FILE__) . fileinode(__FILE__);
    $time_diff = REQUEST_TIME - $time;
    // Since we are making a local request a 5 second time window is allowed,
    // and the HMAC must match.
    if ($time_diff >= 0 && $time_diff <= 5 && $hmac == drupal_hmac_base64($check_string, $key)) {
      $test_prefix = $prefix;
      return $test_prefix;
    }
  }

  return FALSE;
}

/**
 * Generate a user agent string with a HMAC and timestamp for simpletest.
 */
function drupal_generate_test_ua($prefix) {
  global $drupal_hash_salt;
  static $key;

  if (!isset($key)) {
    // We use the salt from settings.php to make the HMAC key, since
    // the database is not yet initialized and we can't access any Drupal variables.
    // The file properties add more entropy not easily accessible to others.
    $key = $drupal_hash_salt . filectime(__FILE__) . fileinode(__FILE__);
  }
  // Generate a moderately secure HMAC based on the database credentials.
  $salt = uniqid('', TRUE);
  $check_string = $prefix . ';' . time() . ';' . $salt;
  return $check_string . ';' . drupal_hmac_base64($check_string, $key);
}

/**
 * Enables use of the theme system without requiring database access.
 *
 * Loads and initializes the theme system for site installs, updates and when
 * the site is in maintenance mode. This also applies when the database fails.
 *
 * @see _drupal_maintenance_theme()
 */
function drupal_maintenance_theme() {
  require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/theme.maintenance.inc';
  _drupal_maintenance_theme();
}

/**
 * Return TRUE if a Drupal installation is currently being attempted.
 */
function drupal_installation_attempted() {
  return defined('MAINTENANCE_MODE') && MAINTENANCE_MODE == 'install';
}

/**
 * Return the name of the localization function. Use in code that needs to
 * run both during installation and normal operation.
 */
function get_t() {
  static $t;
  // This is not converted to drupal_static because there is no point in
  // resetting this as it can not change in the course of a request.
  if (!isset($t)) {
    $t = drupal_installation_attempted() ? 'st' : 't';
  }
  return $t;
}

/**
 * Initialize all the defined language types.
 */
function drupal_language_initialize() {
  $types = language_types();

  // Ensure the language is correctly returned, even without multilanguage
  // support. Also make sure we have a $language fallback, in case a language
  // negotiation callback needs to do a full bootstrap.
  // Useful for eg. XML/HTML 'lang' attributes.
  $default = language_default();
  foreach ($types as $type) {
    $GLOBALS[$type] = $default;
  }
  if (drupal_multilingual()) {
    include_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/language.inc';
    foreach ($types as $type) {
      $GLOBALS[$type] = language_initialize($type);
    }
    // Allow modules to react on language system initialization in multilingual
    // environments.
    bootstrap_invoke_all('language_init');
  }
}

/**
 * The built-in language types.
 *
 * @return
 *   An array of key-values pairs where the key is the language type and the
 *   value is its configurability.
 */
function drupal_language_types() {
  return array(
    LANGUAGE_TYPE_INTERFACE => TRUE,
    LANGUAGE_TYPE_CONTENT => FALSE,
    LANGUAGE_TYPE_URL => FALSE,
  );
}

/**
 * Return true if there is more than one language enabled.
 */
function drupal_multilingual() {
  return variable_get('language_count', 1) > 1;
}

/**
 * Return an array of the available language types.
 */
function language_types() {
  return array_keys(variable_get('language_types', drupal_language_types()));
}

/**
 * Get a list of languages set up indexed by the specified key
 *
 * @param $field The field to index the list with.
 */
function language_list($field = 'language') {
  $languages = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);
  // Init language list
  if (!isset($languages)) {
    if (drupal_multilingual() || module_exists('locale')) {
      $languages['language'] = db_query('SELECT * FROM {languages} ORDER BY weight ASC, name ASC')->fetchAllAssoc('language');
      // Users cannot uninstall the native English language. However, we allow
      // it to be hidden from the installed languages. Therefore, at least one
      // other language must be enabled then.
      if (!$languages['language']['en']->enabled && !variable_get('language_native_enabled', TRUE)) {
        unset($languages['language']['en']);
      }
    }
    else {
      // No locale module, so use the default language only.
      $default = language_default();
      $languages['language'][$default->language] = $default;
    }
  }

  // Return the array indexed by the right field
  if (!isset($languages[$field])) {
    $languages[$field] = array();
    foreach ($languages['language'] as $lang) {
      // Some values should be collected into an array
      if (in_array($field, array('enabled', 'weight'))) {
        $languages[$field][$lang->$field][$lang->language] = $lang;
      }
      else {
        $languages[$field][$lang->$field] = $lang;
      }
    }
  }
  return $languages[$field];
}

/**
 * Default language used on the site
 *
 * @param $property
 *   Optional property of the language object to return
 */
function language_default($property = NULL) {
  $language = variable_get('language_default', (object) array('language' => 'en', 'name' => 'English', 'native' => 'English', 'direction' => 0, 'enabled' => 1, 'plurals' => 0, 'formula' => '', 'domain' => '', 'prefix' => '', 'weight' => 0, 'javascript' => ''));
  return $property ? $language->$property : $language;
}

/**
 * Returns the requested URL path of the page being viewed.
 *
 * Examples:
 * - http://example.com/node/306 returns "node/306".
 * - http://example.com/drupalfolder/node/306 returns "node/306" while
 *   base_path() returns "/drupalfolder/".
 * - http://example.com/path/alias (which is a path alias for node/306) returns
 *   "path/alias" as opposed to the internal path.
 *
 * @return
 *   The requested Drupal URL path.
 *
 * @see current_path()
 */
function request_path() {
  static $path;

  if (isset($path)) {
    return $path;
  }

  if (isset($_GET['q'])) {
    // This is a request with a ?q=foo/bar query string. $_GET['q'] is
    // overwritten in drupal_path_initialize(), but request_path() is called
    // very early in the bootstrap process, so the original value is saved in
    // $path and returned in later calls.
    $path = $_GET['q'];
  }
  elseif (isset($_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'])) {
    // This is a request using a clean URL. Extract the path from REQUEST_URI.
    $request_path = strtok($_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'], '?');
    $base_path_len = strlen(rtrim(dirname($_SERVER['SCRIPT_NAME']), '\/'));
    // Unescape and strip $base_path prefix, leaving q without a leading slash.
    $path = substr(urldecode($request_path), $base_path_len + 1);
  }
  else {
    // This is the front page.
    $path = '';
  }

  // Under certain conditions Apache's RewriteRule directive prepends the value
  // assigned to $_GET['q'] with a slash. Moreover we can always have a trailing
  // slash in place, hence we need to normalize $_GET['q'].
  $path = trim($path, '/');

  return $path;
}

/**
 * Return a component of the current Drupal path.
 *
 * When viewing a page at the path "admin/structure/types", for example, arg(0)
 * returns "admin", arg(1) returns "structure", and arg(2) returns "types".
 *
 * Avoid use of this function where possible, as resulting code is hard to read.
 * In menu callback functions, attempt to use named arguments. See the explanation
 * in menu.inc for how to construct callbacks that take arguments. When attempting
 * to use this function to load an element from the current path, e.g. loading the
 * node on a node page, please use menu_get_object() instead.
 *
 * @param $index
 *   The index of the component, where each component is separated by a '/'
 *   (forward-slash), and where the first component has an index of 0 (zero).
 * @param $path
 *   A path to break into components. Defaults to the path of the current page.
 *
 * @return
 *   The component specified by $index, or NULL if the specified component was
 *   not found. If called without arguments, it returns an array containing all
 *   the components of the current path.
 */
function arg($index = NULL, $path = NULL) {
  // Even though $arguments doesn't need to be resettable for any functional
  // reasons (the result of explode() does not depend on any run-time
  // information), it should be resettable anyway in case a module needs to
  // free up the memory used by it.
  // Use the advanced drupal_static() pattern, since this is called very often.
  static $drupal_static_fast;
  if (!isset($drupal_static_fast)) {
    $drupal_static_fast['arguments'] = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);
  }
  $arguments = &$drupal_static_fast['arguments'];

  if (!isset($path)) {
    $path = $_GET['q'];
  }
  if (!isset($arguments[$path])) {
    $arguments[$path] = explode('/', $path);
  }
  if (!isset($index)) {
    return $arguments[$path];
  }
  if (isset($arguments[$path][$index])) {
    return $arguments[$path][$index];
  }
}

/**
 * If Drupal is behind a reverse proxy, we use the X-Forwarded-For header
 * instead of $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'], which would be the IP address of
 * the proxy server, and not the client's. The actual header name can be
 * configured by the reverse_proxy_header variable.
 *
 * @return
 *   IP address of client machine, adjusted for reverse proxy and/or cluster
 *   environments.
 */
function ip_address() {
  $ip_address = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);

  if (!isset($ip_address)) {
    $ip_address = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];

    if (variable_get('reverse_proxy', 0)) {
      $reverse_proxy_header = variable_get('reverse_proxy_header', 'HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR');
      if (!empty($_SERVER[$reverse_proxy_header])) {
        // If an array of known reverse proxy IPs is provided, then trust
        // the XFF header if request really comes from one of them.
        $reverse_proxy_addresses = variable_get('reverse_proxy_addresses', array());

        // Turn XFF header into an array.
        $forwarded = explode(',', $_SERVER[$reverse_proxy_header]);

        // Trim the forwarded IPs; they may have been delimited by commas and spaces.
        $forwarded = array_map('trim', $forwarded);

        // Tack direct client IP onto end of forwarded array.
        $forwarded[] = $ip_address;

        // Eliminate all trusted IPs.
        $untrusted = array_diff($forwarded, $reverse_proxy_addresses);

        // The right-most IP is the most specific we can trust.
        $ip_address = array_pop($untrusted);
      }
    }
  }

  return $ip_address;
}

/**
 * @ingroup schemaapi
 * @{
 */

/**
 * Get the schema definition of a table, or the whole database schema.
 *
 * The returned schema will include any modifications made by any
 * module that implements hook_schema_alter().
 *
 * @param $table
 *   The name of the table. If not given, the schema of all tables is returned.
 * @param $rebuild
 *   If true, the schema will be rebuilt instead of retrieved from the cache.
 */
function drupal_get_schema($table = NULL, $rebuild = FALSE) {
  static $schema = array();

  if (empty($schema) || $rebuild) {
    // Try to load the schema from cache.
    if (!$rebuild && $cached = cache_get('schema')) {
      $schema = $cached->data;
    }
    // Otherwise, rebuild the schema cache.
    else {
      $schema = array();
      // Load the .install files to get hook_schema.
      // On some databases this function may be called before bootstrap has
      // been completed, so we force the functions we need to load just in case.
      if (function_exists('module_load_all_includes')) {
        // This function can be called very early in the bootstrap process, so
        // we force the module_list() cache to be refreshed to ensure that it
        // contains the complete list of modules before we go on to call
        // module_load_all_includes().
        module_list(TRUE);
        module_load_all_includes('install');
      }

      require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/common.inc';
      // Invoke hook_schema for all modules.
      foreach (module_implements('schema') as $module) {
        // Cast the result of hook_schema() to an array, as a NULL return value
        // would cause array_merge() to set the $schema variable to NULL as well.
        // That would break modules which use $schema further down the line.
        $current = (array) module_invoke($module, 'schema');
        // Set 'module' and 'name' keys for each table, and remove descriptions,
        // as they needlessly slow down cache_get() for every single request.
        _drupal_schema_initialize($current, $module);
        $schema = array_merge($schema, $current);
      }

      drupal_alter('schema', $schema);
      // If the schema is empty, avoid saving it: some database engines require
      // the schema to perform queries, and this could lead to infinite loops.
      if (!empty($schema) && (drupal_get_bootstrap_phase() == DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_FULL)) {
        cache_set('schema', $schema);
      }
    }
  }

  if (!isset($table)) {
    return $schema;
  }
  elseif (isset($schema[$table])) {
    return $schema[$table];
  }
  else {
    return FALSE;
  }
}

/**
 * @} End of "ingroup schemaapi".
 */


/**
 * @ingroup registry
 * @{
 */

/**
 * Confirm that an interface is available.
 *
 * This function is rarely called directly. Instead, it is registered as an
 * spl_autoload()  handler, and PHP calls it for us when necessary.
 *
 * @param $interface
 *   The name of the interface to check or load.
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the interface is currently available, FALSE otherwise.
 */
function drupal_autoload_interface($interface) {
  return _registry_check_code('interface', $interface);
}

/**
 * Confirm that a class is available.
 *
 * This function is rarely called directly. Instead, it is registered as an
 * spl_autoload()  handler, and PHP calls it for us when necessary.
 *
 * @param $class
 *   The name of the class to check or load.
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the class is currently available, FALSE otherwise.
 */
function drupal_autoload_class($class) {
  return _registry_check_code('class', $class);
}

/**
 * Helper to check for a resource in the registry.
 *
 * @param $type
 *   The type of resource we are looking up, or one of the constants
 *   REGISTRY_RESET_LOOKUP_CACHE or REGISTRY_WRITE_LOOKUP_CACHE, which
 *   signal that we should reset or write the cache, respectively.
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the resource, or NULL if either of the REGISTRY_* constants
 *   is passed in.
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the resource was found, FALSE if not.
 *   NULL if either of the REGISTRY_* constants is passed in as $type.
 */
function _registry_check_code($type, $name = NULL) {
  static $lookup_cache, $cache_update_needed;

  if ($type == 'class' && class_exists($name) || $type == 'interface' && interface_exists($name)) {
    return TRUE;
  }

  if (!isset($lookup_cache)) {
    $lookup_cache = array();
    if ($cache = cache_get('lookup_cache', 'cache_bootstrap')) {
      $lookup_cache = $cache->data;
    }
  }

  // When we rebuild the registry, we need to reset this cache so
  // we don't keep lookups for resources that changed during the rebuild.
  if ($type == REGISTRY_RESET_LOOKUP_CACHE) {
    $cache_update_needed = TRUE;
    $lookup_cache = NULL;
    return;
  }

  // Called from drupal_page_footer, we write to permanent storage if there
  // changes to the lookup cache for this request.
  if ($type == REGISTRY_WRITE_LOOKUP_CACHE) {
    if ($cache_update_needed) {
      cache_set('lookup_cache', $lookup_cache, 'cache_bootstrap');
    }
    return;
  }

  // $type is either 'interface' or 'class', so we only need the first letter to
  // keep the cache key unique.
  $cache_key = $type[0] . $name;
  if (isset($lookup_cache[$cache_key])) {
    if ($lookup_cache[$cache_key]) {
      require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . $lookup_cache[$cache_key];
    }
    return (bool) $lookup_cache[$cache_key];
  }

  // This function may get called when the default database is not active, but
  // there is no reason we'd ever want to not use the default database for
  // this query.
  $file = Database::getConnection('default', 'default')->query("SELECT filename FROM {registry} WHERE name = :name AND type = :type", array(
      ':name' => $name,
      ':type' => $type,
    ))
    ->fetchField();

  // Flag that we've run a lookup query and need to update the cache.
  $cache_update_needed = TRUE;

  // Misses are valuable information worth caching, so cache even if
  // $file is FALSE.
  $lookup_cache[$cache_key] = $file;

  if ($file) {
    require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . $file;
    return TRUE;
  }
  else {
    return FALSE;
  }
}

/**
 * Rescan all enabled modules and rebuild the registry.
 *
 * Rescans all code in modules or includes directories, storing the location of
 * each interface or class in the database.
 */
function registry_rebuild() {
  system_rebuild_module_data();
  registry_update();
}

/**
 * Update the registry based on the latest files listed in the database.
 *
 * This function should be used when system_rebuild_module_data() does not need
 * to be called, because it is already known that the list of files in the
 * {system} table matches those in the file system.
 *
 * @see registry_rebuild()
 */
function registry_update() {
  require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/registry.inc';
  _registry_update();
}

/**
 * @} End of "ingroup registry".
 */

/**
 * Central static variable storage.
 *
 * All functions requiring a static variable to persist or cache data within
 * a single page request are encouraged to use this function unless it is
 * absolutely certain that the static variable will not need to be reset during
 * the page request. By centralizing static variable storage through this
 * function, other functions can rely on a consistent API for resetting any
 * other function's static variables.
 *
 * Example:
 * @code
 * function language_list($field = 'language') {
 *   $languages = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);
 *   if (!isset($languages)) {
 *     // If this function is being called for the first time after a reset,
 *     // query the database and execute any other code needed to retrieve
 *     // information about the supported languages.
 *     ...
 *   }
 *   if (!isset($languages[$field])) {
 *     // If this function is being called for the first time for a particular
 *     // index field, then execute code needed to index the information already
 *     // available in $languages by the desired field.
 *     ...
 *   }
 *   // Subsequent invocations of this function for a particular index field
 *   // skip the above two code blocks and quickly return the already indexed
 *   // information.
 *   return $languages[$field];
 * }
 * function locale_translate_overview_screen() {
 *   // When building the content for the translations overview page, make
 *   // sure to get completely fresh information about the supported languages.
 *   drupal_static_reset('language_list');
 *   ...
 * }
 * @endcode
 *
 * In a few cases, a function can have certainty that there is no legitimate
 * use-case for resetting that function's static variable. This is rare,
 * because when writing a function, it's hard to forecast all the situations in
 * which it will be used. A guideline is that if a function's static variable
 * does not depend on any information outside of the function that might change
 * during a single page request, then it's ok to use the "static" keyword
 * instead of the drupal_static() function.
 *
 * Example:
 * @code
 * function actions_do(...) {
 *   // $stack tracks the number of recursive calls.
 *   static $stack;
 *   $stack++;
 *   if ($stack > variable_get('actions_max_stack', 35)) {
 *     ...
 *     return;
 *   }
 *   ...
 *   $stack--;
 * }
 * @endcode
 *
 * In a few cases, a function needs a resettable static variable, but the
 * function is called many times (100+) during a single page request, so
 * every microsecond of execution time that can be removed from the function
 * counts. These functions can use a more cumbersome, but faster variant of
 * calling drupal_static(). It works by storing the reference returned by
 * drupal_static() in the calling function's own static variable, thereby
 * removing the need to call drupal_static() for each iteration of the function.
 * Conceptually, it replaces:
 * @code
 * $foo = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);
 * @endcode
 * with:
 * @code
 * // Unfortunately, this does not work.
 * static $foo = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);
 * @endcode
 * However, the above line of code does not work, because PHP only allows static
 * variables to be initializied by literal values, and does not allow static
 * variables to be assigned to references.
 * - http://php.net/manual/en/language.variables.scope.php#language.variables.scope.static
 * - http://php.net/manual/en/language.variables.scope.php#language.variables.scope.references
 * The example below shows the syntax needed to work around both limitations.
 * For benchmarks and more information, see http://drupal.org/node/619666.
 *
 * Example:
 * @code
 * function user_access($string, $account = NULL) {
 *   // Use the advanced drupal_static() pattern, since this is called very often.
 *   static $drupal_static_fast;
 *   if (!isset($drupal_static_fast)) {
 *     $drupal_static_fast['perm'] = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);
 *   }
 *   $perm = &$drupal_static_fast['perm'];
 *   ...
 * }
 * @endcode
 *
 * @param $name
 *   Globally unique name for the variable. For a function with only one static,
 *   variable, the function name (e.g. via the PHP magic __FUNCTION__ constant)
 *   is recommended. For a function with multiple static variables add a
 *   distinguishing suffix to the function name for each one.
 * @param $default_value
 *   Optional default value.
 * @param $reset
 *   TRUE to reset a specific named variable, or all variables if $name is NULL.
 *   Resetting every variable should only be used, for example, for running
 *   unit tests with a clean environment. Should be used only though via
 *   function drupal_static_reset() and the return value should not be used in
 *   this case.
 *
 * @return
 *   Returns a variable by reference.
 *
 * @see drupal_static_reset()
 */
function &drupal_static($name, $default_value = NULL, $reset = FALSE) {
  static $data = array(), $default = array();
  // First check if dealing with a previously defined static variable.
  if (isset($data[$name]) || array_key_exists($name, $data)) {
    // Non-NULL $name and both $data[$name] and $default[$name] statics exist.
    if ($reset) {
      // Reset pre-existing static variable to its default value.
      $data[$name] = $default[$name];
    }
    return $data[$name];
  }
  // Neither $data[$name] nor $default[$name] static variables exist.
  if (isset($name)) {
    if ($reset) {
      // Reset was called before a default is set and yet a variable must be
      // returned.
      return $data;
    }
    // First call with new non-NULL $name. Initialize a new static variable.
    $default[$name] = $data[$name] = $default_value;
    return $data[$name];
  }
  // Reset all: ($name == NULL). This needs to be done one at a time so that
  // references returned by earlier invocations of drupal_static() also get
  // reset.
  foreach ($default as $name => $value) {
    $data[$name] = $value;
  }
  // As the function returns a reference, the return should always be a
  // variable.
  return $data;
}

/**
 * Reset one or all centrally stored static variable(s).
 *
 * @param $name
 *   Name of the static variable to reset. Omit to reset all variables.
 */
function drupal_static_reset($name = NULL) {
  drupal_static($name, NULL, TRUE);
}

/**
 * Detect whether the current script is running in a command-line environment.
 */
function drupal_is_cli() {
  return (!isset($_SERVER['SERVER_SOFTWARE']) && (php_sapi_name() == 'cli' || (is_numeric($_SERVER['argc']) && $_SERVER['argc'] > 0)));
}

/**
 * Formats text for emphasized display in a placeholder inside a sentence.
 * Used automatically by t().
 *
 * @param $text
 *   The text to format (plain-text).
 *
 * @return
 *   The formatted text (html).
 */
function drupal_placeholder($text) {
  return '<em class="placeholder">' . check_plain($text) . '</em>';
}

/**
 * Register a function for execution on shutdown.
 *
 * Wrapper for register_shutdown_function() that catches thrown exceptions to
 * avoid "Exception thrown without a stack frame in Unknown".
 *
 * @param $callback
 *   The shutdown function to register.
 * @param ...
 *   Additional arguments to pass to the shutdown function.
 *
 * @return
 *   Array of shutdown functions to be executed.
 *
 * @see register_shutdown_function()
 * @ingroup php_wrappers
 */
function &drupal_register_shutdown_function($callback = NULL) {
  // We cannot use drupal_static() here because the static cache is reset during
  // batch processing, which breaks batch handling.
  static $callbacks = array();

  if (isset($callback)) {
    // Only register the internal shutdown function once.
    if (empty($callbacks)) {
      register_shutdown_function('_drupal_shutdown_function');
    }
    $args = func_get_args();
    array_shift($args);
    // Save callback and arguments
    $callbacks[] = array('callback' => $callback, 'arguments' => $args);
  }
  return $callbacks;
}

/**
 * Internal function used to execute registered shutdown functions.
 */
function _drupal_shutdown_function() {
  $callbacks = &drupal_register_shutdown_function();

  // Set the CWD to DRUPAL_ROOT as it is not guaranteed to be the same as it
  // was in the normal context of execution.
  chdir(DRUPAL_ROOT);

  try {
    while (list($key, $callback) = each($callbacks)) {
      call_user_func_array($callback['callback'], $callback['arguments']);
    }
  }
  catch (Exception $exception) {
    // If we are displaying errors, then do so with no possibility of a further uncaught exception being thrown.
   require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/errors.inc';
   if (error_displayable()) {
      print '<h1>Uncaught exception thrown in shutdown function.</h1>';
      print '<p>' . _drupal_render_exception_safe($exception) . '</p><hr />';
    }
  }
}

Other Drupal examples (source code examples)

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