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Commons IO example source code file (IOUtils.java)

This example Commons IO source code file (IOUtils.java) is included in the DevDaily.com "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM.

Java - Commons IO tags/keywords

bufferedreader, bytearrayoutputstream, chararraywriter, deprecated, inputstreamreader, io, ioexception, ioexception, net, network, outputstream, outputstream, string, string, stringbuilderwriter, util, writer, writer

The Commons IO IOUtils.java source code

/*
 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
 * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 * 
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 * 
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */
package org.apache.commons.io;

import java.io.BufferedInputStream;
import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.ByteArrayInputStream;
import java.io.CharArrayWriter;
import java.io.Closeable;
import java.io.EOFException;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.io.Reader;
import java.io.Writer;
import java.net.Socket;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.List;

import org.apache.commons.io.output.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import org.apache.commons.io.output.StringBuilderWriter;

/**
 * General IO stream manipulation utilities.
 * <p>
 * This class provides static utility methods for input/output operations.
 * <ul>
 * <li>closeQuietly - these methods close a stream ignoring nulls and exceptions
 * <li>toXxx/read - these methods read data from a stream
 * <li>write - these methods write data to a stream
 * <li>copy - these methods copy all the data from one stream to another
 * <li>contentEquals - these methods compare the content of two streams
 * </ul>
 * <p>
 * The byte-to-char methods and char-to-byte methods involve a conversion step.
 * Two methods are provided in each case, one that uses the platform default
 * encoding and the other which allows you to specify an encoding. You are
 * encouraged to always specify an encoding because relying on the platform
 * default can lead to unexpected results, for example when moving from
 * development to production.
 * <p>
 * All the methods in this class that read a stream are buffered internally.
 * This means that there is no cause to use a <code>BufferedInputStream
 * or <code>BufferedReader. The default buffer size of 4K has been shown
 * to be efficient in tests.
 * <p>
 * Wherever possible, the methods in this class do <em>not flush or close
 * the stream. This is to avoid making non-portable assumptions about the
 * streams' origin and further use. Thus the caller is still responsible for
 * closing streams after use.
 * <p>
 * Origin of code: Excalibur.
 *
 * @author Peter Donald
 * @author Jeff Turner
 * @author Matthew Hawthorne
 * @author Stephen Colebourne
 * @author Gareth Davis
 * @author Ian Springer
 * @author Niall Pemberton
 * @author Sandy McArthur
 * @version $Id: IOUtils.java 1003721 2010-10-02 00:42:31Z niallp $
 */
public class IOUtils {
    // NOTE: This class is focussed on InputStream, OutputStream, Reader and
    // Writer. Each method should take at least one of these as a parameter,
    // or return one of them.

    /**
     * The Unix directory separator character.
     */
    public static final char DIR_SEPARATOR_UNIX = '/';
    /**
     * The Windows directory separator character.
     */
    public static final char DIR_SEPARATOR_WINDOWS = '\\';
    /**
     * The system directory separator character.
     */
    public static final char DIR_SEPARATOR = File.separatorChar;
    /**
     * The Unix line separator string.
     */
    public static final String LINE_SEPARATOR_UNIX = "\n";
    /**
     * The Windows line separator string.
     */
    public static final String LINE_SEPARATOR_WINDOWS = "\r\n";
    /**
     * The system line separator string.
     */
    public static final String LINE_SEPARATOR;
    static {
        // avoid security issues
        StringBuilderWriter buf = new StringBuilderWriter(4);
        PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(buf);
        out.println();
        LINE_SEPARATOR = buf.toString();
        out.close();
    }

    /**
     * The default buffer size to use for 
     * {@link #copyLarge(InputStream, OutputStream)}
     * and
     * {@link #copyLarge(Reader, Writer)}
     */
    private static final int DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE = 1024 * 4;

    /**
     * The default buffer size to use for the skip() methods.
     */
    private static final int SKIP_BUFFER_SIZE = 2048;
    
    // Allocated in the skip method if necessary.
    private static char[] SKIP_CHAR_BUFFER;
    private static byte[] SKIP_BYTE_BUFFER;
    
    /**
     * Instances should NOT be constructed in standard programming.
     */
    public IOUtils() {
        super();
    }

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Unconditionally close an <code>Reader.
     * <p>
     * Equivalent to {@link Reader#close()}, except any exceptions will be ignored.
     * This is typically used in finally blocks.
     * <p>
     * Example code:
     * <pre>
     *   char[] data = new char[1024];
     *   Reader in = null;
     *   try {
     *       in = new FileReader("foo.txt");
     *       in.read(data);
     *       in.close(); //close errors are handled
     *   } catch (Exception e) {
     *       // error handling
     *   } finally {
     *       IOUtils.closeQuietly(in);
     *   }
     * </pre>
     * 
     * @param input  the Reader to close, may be null or already closed
     */
    public static void closeQuietly(Reader input) {
        closeQuietly((Closeable)input);
    }

    /**
     * Unconditionally close a <code>Writer.
     * <p>
     * Equivalent to {@link Writer#close()}, except any exceptions will be ignored.
     * This is typically used in finally blocks.
     * <p>
     * Example code:
     * <pre>
     *   Writer out = null;
     *   try {
     *       out = new StringWriter();
     *       out.write("Hello World");
     *       out.close(); //close errors are handled
     *   } catch (Exception e) {
     *       // error handling
     *   } finally {
     *       IOUtils.closeQuietly(out);
     *   }
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param output  the Writer to close, may be null or already closed
     */
    public static void closeQuietly(Writer output) {
        closeQuietly((Closeable)output);
    }

    /**
     * Unconditionally close an <code>InputStream.
     * <p>
     * Equivalent to {@link InputStream#close()}, except any exceptions will be ignored.
     * This is typically used in finally blocks.
     * <p>
     * Example code:
     * <pre>
     *   byte[] data = new byte[1024];
     *   InputStream in = null;
     *   try {
     *       in = new FileInputStream("foo.txt");
     *       in.read(data);
     *       in.close(); //close errors are handled
     *   } catch (Exception e) {
     *       // error handling
     *   } finally {
     *       IOUtils.closeQuietly(in);
     *   }
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param input  the InputStream to close, may be null or already closed
     */
    public static void closeQuietly(InputStream input) {
        closeQuietly((Closeable)input);
    }

    /**
     * Unconditionally close an <code>OutputStream.
     * <p>
     * Equivalent to {@link OutputStream#close()}, except any exceptions will be ignored.
     * This is typically used in finally blocks.
     * <p>
     * Example code:
     * <pre>
     * byte[] data = "Hello, World".getBytes();
     *
     * OutputStream out = null;
     * try {
     *     out = new FileOutputStream("foo.txt");
     *     out.write(data);
     *     out.close(); //close errors are handled
     * } catch (IOException e) {
     *     // error handling
     * } finally {
     *     IOUtils.closeQuietly(out);
     * }
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param output  the OutputStream to close, may be null or already closed
     */
    public static void closeQuietly(OutputStream output) {
        closeQuietly((Closeable)output);
    }
    
    /**
     * Unconditionally close a <code>Closeable.
     * <p>
     * Equivalent to {@link Closeable#close()}, except any exceptions will be ignored.
     * This is typically used in finally blocks.
     * <p>
     * Example code:
     * <pre>
     *   Closeable closeable = null;
     *   try {
     *       closeable = new FileReader("foo.txt");
     *       // process closeable
     *       closeable.close();
     *   } catch (Exception e) {
     *       // error handling
     *   } finally {
     *       IOUtils.closeQuietly(closeable);
     *   }
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param closeable the object to close, may be null or already closed
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static void closeQuietly(Closeable closeable) {
        try {
            if (closeable != null) {
                closeable.close();
            }
        } catch (IOException ioe) {
            // ignore
        }
    }

    /**
     * Unconditionally close a <code>Socket.
     * <p>
     * Equivalent to {@link Socket#close()}, except any exceptions will be ignored.
     * This is typically used in finally blocks.
     * <p>
     * Example code:
     * <pre>
     *   Socket socket = null;
     *   try {
     *       socket = new Socket("http://www.foo.com/", 80);
     *       // process socket
     *       socket.close();
     *   } catch (Exception e) {
     *       // error handling
     *   } finally {
     *       IOUtils.closeQuietly(socket);
     *   }
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param sock the Socket to close, may be null or already closed
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static void closeQuietly(Socket sock){
        if (sock != null){
            try {
                sock.close();
            } catch (IOException ioe) {
                // ignored
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Fetches entire contents of an <code>InputStream and represent
     * same data as result InputStream.
     * <p>
     * This method is useful where,
     * <ul>
     * <li>Source InputStream is slow.
     * <li>It has network resources associated, so we cannot keep it open for
     * long time.</li>
     * <li>It has network timeout associated.
     * </ul>
     * It can be used in favor of {@link #toByteArray(InputStream)}, since it
     * avoids unnecessary allocation and copy of byte[].<br>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     * 
     * @param input Stream to be fully buffered.
     * @return A fully buffered stream.
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static InputStream toBufferedInputStream(InputStream input) throws IOException {
        return ByteArrayOutputStream.toBufferedInputStream(input);
    }

    // read toByteArray
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Get the contents of an <code>InputStream as a byte[].
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     * 
     * @param input  the <code>InputStream to read from
     * @return the requested byte array
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     */
    public static byte[] toByteArray(InputStream input) throws IOException {
        ByteArrayOutputStream output = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        copy(input, output);
        return output.toByteArray();
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of a <code>Reader as a byte[]
     * using the default character encoding of the platform.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedReader.
     * 
     * @param input  the <code>Reader to read from
     * @return the requested byte array
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     */
    public static byte[] toByteArray(Reader input) throws IOException {
        ByteArrayOutputStream output = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        copy(input, output);
        return output.toByteArray();
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of a <code>Reader as a byte[]
     * using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedReader.
     * 
     * @param input  the <code>Reader to read from
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @return the requested byte array
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static byte[] toByteArray(Reader input, String encoding)
            throws IOException {
        ByteArrayOutputStream output = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        copy(input, output, encoding);
        return output.toByteArray();
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of a <code>String as a byte[]
     * using the default character encoding of the platform.
     * <p>
     * This is the same as {@link String#getBytes()}.
     * 
     * @param input  the <code>String to convert
     * @return the requested byte array
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs (never occurs)
     * @deprecated Use {@link String#getBytes()}
     */
    @Deprecated
    public static byte[] toByteArray(String input) throws IOException {
        return input.getBytes();
    }

    // read char[]
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Get the contents of an <code>InputStream as a character array
     * using the default character encoding of the platform.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     * 
     * @param is  the <code>InputStream to read from
     * @return the requested character array
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static char[] toCharArray(InputStream is) throws IOException {
        CharArrayWriter output = new CharArrayWriter();
        copy(is, output);
        return output.toCharArray();
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of an <code>InputStream as a character array
     * using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     * 
     * @param is  the <code>InputStream to read from
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @return the requested character array
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static char[] toCharArray(InputStream is, String encoding)
            throws IOException {
        CharArrayWriter output = new CharArrayWriter();
        copy(is, output, encoding);
        return output.toCharArray();
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of a <code>Reader as a character array.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedReader.
     * 
     * @param input  the <code>Reader to read from
     * @return the requested character array
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static char[] toCharArray(Reader input) throws IOException {
        CharArrayWriter sw = new CharArrayWriter();
        copy(input, sw);
        return sw.toCharArray();
    }

    // read toString
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Get the contents of an <code>InputStream as a String
     * using the default character encoding of the platform.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     * 
     * @param input  the <code>InputStream to read from
     * @return the requested String
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     */
    public static String toString(InputStream input) throws IOException {
        StringBuilderWriter sw = new StringBuilderWriter();
        copy(input, sw);
        return sw.toString();
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of an <code>InputStream as a String
     * using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     * 
     * @param input  the <code>InputStream to read from
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @return the requested String
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     */
    public static String toString(InputStream input, String encoding)
            throws IOException {
        StringBuilderWriter sw = new StringBuilderWriter();
        copy(input, sw, encoding);
        return sw.toString();
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of a <code>Reader as a String.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedReader.
     * 
     * @param input  the <code>Reader to read from
     * @return the requested String
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     */
    public static String toString(Reader input) throws IOException {
        StringBuilderWriter sw = new StringBuilderWriter();
        copy(input, sw);
        return sw.toString();
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of a <code>byte[] as a String
     * using the default character encoding of the platform.
     * 
     * @param input the byte array to read from
     * @return the requested String
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs (never occurs)
     * @deprecated Use {@link String#String(byte[])}
     */
    @Deprecated
    public static String toString(byte[] input) throws IOException {
        return new String(input);
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of a <code>byte[] as a String
     * using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * 
     * @param input the byte array to read from
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @return the requested String
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs (never occurs)
     * @deprecated Use {@link String#String(byte[],String)}
     */
    @Deprecated
    public static String toString(byte[] input, String encoding)
            throws IOException {
        if (encoding == null) {
            return new String(input);
        } else {
            return new String(input, encoding);
        }
    }

    // readLines
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Get the contents of an <code>InputStream as a list of Strings,
     * one entry per line, using the default character encoding of the platform.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     *
     * @param input  the <code>InputStream to read from, not null
     * @return the list of Strings, never null
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static List<String> readLines(InputStream input) throws IOException {
        InputStreamReader reader = new InputStreamReader(input);
        return readLines(reader);
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of an <code>InputStream as a list of Strings,
     * one entry per line, using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     *
     * @param input  the <code>InputStream to read from, not null
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @return the list of Strings, never null
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static List<String> readLines(InputStream input, String encoding) throws IOException {
        if (encoding == null) {
            return readLines(input);
        } else {
            InputStreamReader reader = new InputStreamReader(input, encoding);
            return readLines(reader);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Get the contents of a <code>Reader as a list of Strings,
     * one entry per line.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedReader.
     *
     * @param input  the <code>Reader to read from, not null
     * @return the list of Strings, never null
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static List<String> readLines(Reader input) throws IOException {
        BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(input);
        List<String> list = new ArrayList();
        String line = reader.readLine();
        while (line != null) {
            list.add(line);
            line = reader.readLine();
        }
        return list;
    }

    // lineIterator
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Return an Iterator for the lines in a <code>Reader.
     * <p>
     * <code>LineIterator holds a reference to the open
     * <code>Reader specified here. When you have finished with the
     * iterator you should close the reader to free internal resources.
     * This can be done by closing the reader directly, or by calling
     * {@link LineIterator#close()} or {@link LineIterator#closeQuietly(LineIterator)}.
     * <p>
     * The recommended usage pattern is:
     * <pre>
     * try {
     *   LineIterator it = IOUtils.lineIterator(reader);
     *   while (it.hasNext()) {
     *     String line = it.nextLine();
     *     /// do something with line
     *   }
     * } finally {
     *   IOUtils.closeQuietly(reader);
     * }
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param reader  the <code>Reader to read from, not null
     * @return an Iterator of the lines in the reader, never null
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the reader is null
     * @since Commons IO 1.2
     */
    public static LineIterator lineIterator(Reader reader) {
        return new LineIterator(reader);
    }

    /**
     * Return an Iterator for the lines in an <code>InputStream, using
     * the character encoding specified (or default encoding if null).
     * <p>
     * <code>LineIterator holds a reference to the open
     * <code>InputStream specified here. When you have finished with
     * the iterator you should close the stream to free internal resources.
     * This can be done by closing the stream directly, or by calling
     * {@link LineIterator#close()} or {@link LineIterator#closeQuietly(LineIterator)}.
     * <p>
     * The recommended usage pattern is:
     * <pre>
     * try {
     *   LineIterator it = IOUtils.lineIterator(stream, "UTF-8");
     *   while (it.hasNext()) {
     *     String line = it.nextLine();
     *     /// do something with line
     *   }
     * } finally {
     *   IOUtils.closeQuietly(stream);
     * }
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param input  the <code>InputStream to read from, not null
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @return an Iterator of the lines in the reader, never null
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs, such as if the encoding is invalid
     * @since Commons IO 1.2
     */
    public static LineIterator lineIterator(InputStream input, String encoding) 
                     throws IOException {
        Reader reader = null;
        if (encoding == null) {
            reader = new InputStreamReader(input);
        } else {
            reader = new InputStreamReader(input, encoding);
        }
        return new LineIterator(reader);
    }

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Convert the specified CharSequence to an input stream, encoded as bytes
     * using the default character encoding of the platform.
     *
     * @param input the CharSequence to convert
     * @return an input stream
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static InputStream toInputStream(CharSequence input) {
        return toInputStream(input.toString());
    }

    /**
     * Convert the specified CharSequence to an input stream, encoded as bytes
     * using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     *
     * @param input the CharSequence to convert
     * @param encoding the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @throws IOException if the encoding is invalid
     * @return an input stream
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static InputStream toInputStream(CharSequence input, String encoding) throws IOException {
        return toInputStream(input.toString(), encoding);
    }

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Convert the specified string to an input stream, encoded as bytes
     * using the default character encoding of the platform.
     *
     * @param input the string to convert
     * @return an input stream
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static InputStream toInputStream(String input) {
        byte[] bytes = input.getBytes();
        return new ByteArrayInputStream(bytes);
    }

    /**
     * Convert the specified string to an input stream, encoded as bytes
     * using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     *
     * @param input the string to convert
     * @param encoding the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @throws IOException if the encoding is invalid
     * @return an input stream
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static InputStream toInputStream(String input, String encoding) throws IOException {
        byte[] bytes = encoding != null ? input.getBytes(encoding) : input.getBytes();
        return new ByteArrayInputStream(bytes);
    }

    // write byte[]
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Writes bytes from a <code>byte[] to an OutputStream.
     * 
     * @param data  the byte array to write, do not modify during output,
     * null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void write(byte[] data, OutputStream output)
            throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            output.write(data);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes bytes from a <code>byte[] to chars on a Writer
     * using the default character encoding of the platform.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link String#String(byte[])}.
     * 
     * @param data  the byte array to write, do not modify during output,
     * null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>Writer to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void write(byte[] data, Writer output) throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            output.write(new String(data));
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes bytes from a <code>byte[] to chars on a Writer
     * using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link String#String(byte[], String)}.
     * 
     * @param data  the byte array to write, do not modify during output,
     * null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>Writer to write to
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void write(byte[] data, Writer output, String encoding)
            throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            if (encoding == null) {
                write(data, output);
            } else {
                output.write(new String(data, encoding));
            }
        }
    }

    // write char[]
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>char[] to a Writer
     * using the default character encoding of the platform.
     * 
     * @param data  the char array to write, do not modify during output,
     * null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>Writer to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void write(char[] data, Writer output) throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            output.write(data);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>char[] to bytes on an
     * <code>OutputStream.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link String#String(char[])} and
     * {@link String#getBytes()}.
     * 
     * @param data  the char array to write, do not modify during output,
     * null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void write(char[] data, OutputStream output)
            throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            output.write(new String(data).getBytes());
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>char[] to bytes on an
     * <code>OutputStream using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link String#String(char[])} and
     * {@link String#getBytes(String)}.
     * 
     * @param data  the char array to write, do not modify during output,
     * null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void write(char[] data, OutputStream output, String encoding)
            throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            if (encoding == null) {
                write(data, output);
            } else {
                output.write(new String(data).getBytes(encoding));
            }
        }
    }

    // write CharSequence
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>CharSequence to a Writer.
     * 
     * @param data  the <code>CharSequence to write, null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>Writer to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static void write(CharSequence data, Writer output) throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            write(data.toString(), output);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>CharSequence to bytes on an
     * <code>OutputStream using the default character encoding of the
     * platform.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link String#getBytes()}.
     * 
     * @param data  the <code>CharSequence to write, null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static void write(CharSequence data, OutputStream output)
            throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            write(data.toString(), output);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>CharSequence to bytes on an
     * <code>OutputStream using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link String#getBytes(String)}.
     * 
     * @param data  the <code>CharSequence to write, null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static void write(CharSequence data, OutputStream output, String encoding)
            throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            write(data.toString(), output, encoding);
        }
    }

    // write String
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>String to a Writer.
     * 
     * @param data  the <code>String to write, null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>Writer to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void write(String data, Writer output) throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            output.write(data);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>String to bytes on an
     * <code>OutputStream using the default character encoding of the
     * platform.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link String#getBytes()}.
     * 
     * @param data  the <code>String to write, null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void write(String data, OutputStream output)
            throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            output.write(data.getBytes());
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>String to bytes on an
     * <code>OutputStream using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link String#getBytes(String)}.
     * 
     * @param data  the <code>String to write, null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void write(String data, OutputStream output, String encoding)
            throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            if (encoding == null) {
                write(data, output);
            } else {
                output.write(data.getBytes(encoding));
            }
        }
    }

    // write StringBuffer
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>StringBuffer to a Writer.
     * 
     * @param data  the <code>StringBuffer to write, null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>Writer to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     * @deprecated replaced by write(CharSequence, Writer)
     */
    @Deprecated
    public static void write(StringBuffer data, Writer output)
            throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            output.write(data.toString());
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>StringBuffer to bytes on an
     * <code>OutputStream using the default character encoding of the
     * platform.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link String#getBytes()}.
     * 
     * @param data  the <code>StringBuffer to write, null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     * @deprecated replaced by write(CharSequence, OutputStream)
     */
    @Deprecated
    public static void write(StringBuffer data, OutputStream output)
            throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            output.write(data.toString().getBytes());
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes chars from a <code>StringBuffer to bytes on an
     * <code>OutputStream using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link String#getBytes(String)}.
     * 
     * @param data  the <code>StringBuffer to write, null ignored
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @throws NullPointerException if output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     * @deprecated replaced by write(CharSequence, OutputStream, String)
     */
    @Deprecated
    public static void write(StringBuffer data, OutputStream output,
            String encoding) throws IOException {
        if (data != null) {
            if (encoding == null) {
                write(data, output);
            } else {
                output.write(data.toString().getBytes(encoding));
            }
        }
    }

    // writeLines
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Writes the <code>toString() value of each item in a collection to
     * an <code>OutputStream line by line, using the default character
     * encoding of the platform and the specified line ending.
     *
     * @param lines  the lines to write, null entries produce blank lines
     * @param lineEnding  the line separator to use, null is system default
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to, not null, not closed
     * @throws NullPointerException if the output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void writeLines(Collection<?> lines, String lineEnding,
            OutputStream output) throws IOException {
        if (lines == null) {
            return;
        }
        if (lineEnding == null) {
            lineEnding = LINE_SEPARATOR;
        }
        for (Object line : lines) {
            if (line != null) {
                output.write(line.toString().getBytes());
            }
            output.write(lineEnding.getBytes());
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes the <code>toString() value of each item in a collection to
     * an <code>OutputStream line by line, using the specified character
     * encoding and the specified line ending.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     *
     * @param lines  the lines to write, null entries produce blank lines
     * @param lineEnding  the line separator to use, null is system default
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to, not null, not closed
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @throws NullPointerException if the output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void writeLines(Collection<?> lines, String lineEnding,
            OutputStream output, String encoding) throws IOException {
        if (encoding == null) {
            writeLines(lines, lineEnding, output);
        } else {
            if (lines == null) {
                return;
            }
            if (lineEnding == null) {
                lineEnding = LINE_SEPARATOR;
            }
            for (Object line : lines) {
                if (line != null) {
                    output.write(line.toString().getBytes(encoding));
                }
                output.write(lineEnding.getBytes(encoding));
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Writes the <code>toString() value of each item in a collection to
     * a <code>Writer line by line, using the specified line ending.
     *
     * @param lines  the lines to write, null entries produce blank lines
     * @param lineEnding  the line separator to use, null is system default
     * @param writer  the <code>Writer to write to, not null, not closed
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void writeLines(Collection<?> lines, String lineEnding,
            Writer writer) throws IOException {
        if (lines == null) {
            return;
        }
        if (lineEnding == null) {
            lineEnding = LINE_SEPARATOR;
        }
        for (Object line : lines) {
            if (line != null) {
                writer.write(line.toString());
            }
            writer.write(lineEnding);
        }
    }

    // copy from InputStream
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Copy bytes from an <code>InputStream to an
     * <code>OutputStream.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     * <p>
     * Large streams (over 2GB) will return a bytes copied value of
     * <code>-1 after the copy has completed since the correct
     * number of bytes cannot be returned as an int. For large streams
     * use the <code>copyLarge(InputStream, OutputStream) method.
     * 
     * @param input  the <code>InputStream to read from
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @return the number of bytes copied, or -1 if > Integer.MAX_VALUE
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input or output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static int copy(InputStream input, OutputStream output) throws IOException {
        long count = copyLarge(input, output);
        if (count > Integer.MAX_VALUE) {
            return -1;
        }
        return (int) count;
    }

    /**
     * Copy bytes from a large (over 2GB) <code>InputStream to an
     * <code>OutputStream.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     * 
     * @param input  the <code>InputStream to read from
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @return the number of bytes copied
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input or output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.3
     */
    public static long copyLarge(InputStream input, OutputStream output)
            throws IOException {
        byte[] buffer = new byte[DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE];
        long count = 0;
        int n = 0;
        while (-1 != (n = input.read(buffer))) {
            output.write(buffer, 0, n);
            count += n;
        }
        return count;
    }

    /**
     * Copy bytes from an <code>InputStream to chars on a
     * <code>Writer using the default character encoding of the platform.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link InputStreamReader}.
     *
     * @param input  the <code>InputStream to read from
     * @param output  the <code>Writer to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input or output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void copy(InputStream input, Writer output)
            throws IOException {
        InputStreamReader in = new InputStreamReader(input);
        copy(in, output);
    }

    /**
     * Copy bytes from an <code>InputStream to chars on a
     * <code>Writer using the specified character encoding.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedInputStream.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link InputStreamReader}.
     *
     * @param input  the <code>InputStream to read from
     * @param output  the <code>Writer to write to
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input or output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void copy(InputStream input, Writer output, String encoding)
            throws IOException {
        if (encoding == null) {
            copy(input, output);
        } else {
            InputStreamReader in = new InputStreamReader(input, encoding);
            copy(in, output);
        }
    }

    // copy from Reader
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Copy chars from a <code>Reader to a Writer.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedReader.
     * <p>
     * Large streams (over 2GB) will return a chars copied value of
     * <code>-1 after the copy has completed since the correct
     * number of chars cannot be returned as an int. For large streams
     * use the <code>copyLarge(Reader, Writer) method.
     *
     * @param input  the <code>Reader to read from
     * @param output  the <code>Writer to write to
     * @return the number of characters copied, or -1 if > Integer.MAX_VALUE
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input or output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static int copy(Reader input, Writer output) throws IOException {
        long count = copyLarge(input, output);
        if (count > Integer.MAX_VALUE) {
            return -1;
        }
        return (int) count;
    }

    /**
     * Copy chars from a large (over 2GB) <code>Reader to a Writer.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedReader.
     *
     * @param input  the <code>Reader to read from
     * @param output  the <code>Writer to write to
     * @return the number of characters copied
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input or output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.3
     */
    public static long copyLarge(Reader input, Writer output) throws IOException {
        char[] buffer = new char[DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE];
        long count = 0;
        int n = 0;
        while (-1 != (n = input.read(buffer))) {
            output.write(buffer, 0, n);
            count += n;
        }
        return count;
    }

    /**
     * Copy chars from a <code>Reader to bytes on an
     * <code>OutputStream using the default character encoding of the
     * platform, and calling flush.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedReader.
     * <p>
     * Due to the implementation of OutputStreamWriter, this method performs a
     * flush.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link OutputStreamWriter}.
     *
     * @param input  the <code>Reader to read from
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input or output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void copy(Reader input, OutputStream output)
            throws IOException {
        OutputStreamWriter out = new OutputStreamWriter(output);
        copy(input, out);
        // XXX Unless anyone is planning on rewriting OutputStreamWriter, we
        // have to flush here.
        out.flush();
    }

    /**
     * Copy chars from a <code>Reader to bytes on an
     * <code>OutputStream using the specified character encoding, and
     * calling flush.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally, so there is no need to use a
     * <code>BufferedReader.
     * <p>
     * Character encoding names can be found at
     * <a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA.
     * <p>
     * Due to the implementation of OutputStreamWriter, this method performs a
     * flush.
     * <p>
     * This method uses {@link OutputStreamWriter}.
     *
     * @param input  the <code>Reader to read from
     * @param output  the <code>OutputStream to write to
     * @param encoding  the encoding to use, null means platform default
     * @throws NullPointerException if the input or output is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static void copy(Reader input, OutputStream output, String encoding)
            throws IOException {
        if (encoding == null) {
            copy(input, output);
        } else {
            OutputStreamWriter out = new OutputStreamWriter(output, encoding);
            copy(input, out);
            // XXX Unless anyone is planning on rewriting OutputStreamWriter,
            // we have to flush here.
            out.flush();
        }
    }

    // content equals
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    /**
     * Compare the contents of two Streams to determine if they are equal or
     * not.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally using
     * <code>BufferedInputStream if they are not already buffered.
     *
     * @param input1  the first stream
     * @param input2  the second stream
     * @return true if the content of the streams are equal or they both don't
     * exist, false otherwise
     * @throws NullPointerException if either input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     */
    public static boolean contentEquals(InputStream input1, InputStream input2)
            throws IOException {
        if (!(input1 instanceof BufferedInputStream)) {
            input1 = new BufferedInputStream(input1);
        }
        if (!(input2 instanceof BufferedInputStream)) {
            input2 = new BufferedInputStream(input2);
        }

        int ch = input1.read();
        while (-1 != ch) {
            int ch2 = input2.read();
            if (ch != ch2) {
                return false;
            }
            ch = input1.read();
        }

        int ch2 = input2.read();
        return (ch2 == -1);
    }

    /**
     * Compare the contents of two Readers to determine if they are equal or
     * not.
     * <p>
     * This method buffers the input internally using
     * <code>BufferedReader if they are not already buffered.
     *
     * @param input1  the first reader
     * @param input2  the second reader
     * @return true if the content of the readers are equal or they both don't
     * exist, false otherwise
     * @throws NullPointerException if either input is null
     * @throws IOException if an I/O error occurs
     * @since Commons IO 1.1
     */
    public static boolean contentEquals(Reader input1, Reader input2)
            throws IOException {
        if (!(input1 instanceof BufferedReader)) {
            input1 = new BufferedReader(input1);
        }
        if (!(input2 instanceof BufferedReader)) {
            input2 = new BufferedReader(input2);
        }

        int ch = input1.read();
        while (-1 != ch) {
            int ch2 = input2.read();
            if (ch != ch2) {
                return false;
            }
            ch = input1.read();
        }

        int ch2 = input2.read();
        return (ch2 == -1);
    }

    /**
     * Skip bytes from an input byte stream.
     * This implementation guarantees that it will read as many bytes
     * as possible before giving up; this may not always be the case for
     * subclasses of {@link Reader}.
     *   
     * @param input byte stream to skip
     * @param toSkip number of bytes to skip.
     * @return number of bytes actually skipped.
     * 
     * @see InputStream#skip(long)
     * 
     * @throws IOException if there is a problem reading the file
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if toSkip is negative
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static long skip(InputStream input, long toSkip) throws IOException {
        if (toSkip < 0) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Skip count must be non-negative, actual: "+toSkip);
        }
        /*
         * N.B. no need to synchronize this because:
         * - we don't care if the buffer is created multiple times (the data is ignored)
         * - we always use the same size buffer, so if it it is recreated it will still be OK
         * (if the buffer size were variable, we would need to synch. to ensure some other thread
         * did not create a smaller one)
         */
        if (SKIP_BYTE_BUFFER == null){
            SKIP_BYTE_BUFFER = new byte[SKIP_BUFFER_SIZE];
        }
        long remain=toSkip;
        while(remain > 0) {
            long n = input.read(SKIP_BYTE_BUFFER, 0, (int) Math.min(remain, SKIP_BUFFER_SIZE));
            if (n < 0) { // EOF
                break;
            }
            remain -= n;
        }
        return toSkip - remain;   
    }

    /**
     * Skip characters from an input character stream.
     * This implementation guarantees that it will read as many characters
     * as possible before giving up; this may not always be the case for
     * subclasses of {@link Reader}.
     *   
     * @param input character stream to skip
     * @param toSkip number of characters to skip.
     * @return number of characters actually skipped.
     * 
     * @see Reader#skip(long)
     * 
     * @throws IOException if there is a problem reading the file
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if toSkip is negative
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static long skip(Reader input, long toSkip) throws IOException {
        if (toSkip < 0) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Skip count must be non-negative, actual: "+toSkip);
        }
        /*
         * N.B. no need to synchronize this because:
         * - we don't care if the buffer is created multiple times (the data is ignored)
         * - we always use the same size buffer, so if it it is recreated it will still be OK
         * (if the buffer size were variable, we would need to synch. to ensure some other thread
         * did not create a smaller one)
         */
        if (SKIP_CHAR_BUFFER == null){
            SKIP_CHAR_BUFFER = new char[SKIP_BUFFER_SIZE];
        }
        long remain=toSkip;
        while(remain > 0) {
            long n = input.read(SKIP_CHAR_BUFFER, 0, (int) Math.min(remain, SKIP_BUFFER_SIZE));
            if (n < 0) { // EOF
                break;
            }
            remain -= n;
        }
        return toSkip - remain;   
    }

    /**
     * Skip the requested number of bytes or fail if there are not enough left.
     * <p>
     * This allows for the possibility that {@link InputStream#skip(long)} may
     * not skip as many bytes as requested (most likely because of reaching EOF).
     * 
     * @param input stream to skip
     * @param toSkip the number of bytes to skip
     * @see InputStream#skip(long)
     * 
     * @throws IOException if there is a problem reading the file
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if toSkip is negative
     * @throws EOFException if the number of bytes skipped was incorrect 
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static void skipFully(InputStream input, long toSkip) throws IOException {
        if (toSkip < 0){
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Bytes to skip must not be negative: "+toSkip);
        }
        long skipped = skip(input, toSkip);
        if (skipped != toSkip) {
            throw new EOFException("Bytes to skip: "+toSkip+" actual: "+skipped);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Skip the requested number of characters or fail if there are not enough left.
     * <p>
     * This allows for the possibility that {@link Reader#skip(long)} may
     * not skip as many characters as requested (most likely because of reaching EOF).
     * 
     * @param input stream to skip
     * @param toSkip the number of characters to skip
     * @see Reader#skip(long)
     * 
     * @throws IOException if there is a problem reading the file
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if toSkip is negative
     * @throws EOFException if the number of characters skipped was incorrect
     * @since Commons IO 2.0
     */
    public static void skipFully(Reader input, long toSkip) throws IOException {
        long skipped = skip(input, toSkip);
        if (skipped != toSkip) {
            throw new EOFException("Bytes to skip: "+toSkip+" actual: "+skipped);
        }
    }
}

Other Commons IO examples (source code examples)

Here is a short list of links related to this Commons IO IOUtils.java source code file:



my book on functional programming

 

new blog posts

 

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