CHMOD

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
AUTHOR
REPORTING BUGS
COPYRIGHT
SEE ALSO

NAME

chmod − change file access permissions

SYNOPSIS

chmod [OPTION]... MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
chmod
[OPTION]... OCTAL-MODE FILE...
chmod
[OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

DESCRIPTION

This manual page documents the GNU version of chmod. chmod changes the permissions of each given file according to mode, which can be either a symbolic representation of changes to make, or an octal number representing the bit pattern for the new permissions.

The format of a symbolic mode is ‘[ugoa...][[+-=][rwxXstugo...]...][,...]’. Multiple symbolic operations can be given, separated by commas.

A combination of the letters ‘ugoa’ controls which users’ access to the file will be changed: the user who owns it (u), other users in the file’s group (g), other users not in the file’s group (o), or all users (a). If none of these are given, the effect is as if ‘a’ were given, but bits that are set in the umask are not affected.

The operator ‘+’ causes the permissions selected to be added to the existing permissions of each file; ‘-’ causes them to be removed; and ‘=’ causes them to be the only permissions that the file has.

The letters ‘rwxXstugo’ select the new permissions for the affected users: read (r), write (w), execute (or access for directories) (x), execute only if the file is a directory or already has execute permission for some user (X), set user or group ID on execution (s), save program text on swap device (t), the permissions that the user who owns the file currently has for it (u), the permissions that other users in the file’s group have for it (g), and the permissions that other users not in the file’s group have for it (o).

A numeric mode is from one to four octal digits (0-7), derived by adding up the bits with values 4, 2, and 1. Any omitted digits are assumed to be leading zeros. The first digit selects the set user ID (4) and set group ID (2) and save text image (1) attributes. The second digit selects permissions for the user who owns the file: read (4), write (2), and execute (1); the third selects permissions for other users in the file’s group, with the same values; and the fourth for other users not in the file’s group, with the same values.

chmod never changes the permissions of symbolic links; the chmod system call cannot change their permissions. This is not a problem since the permissions of symbolic links are never used. However, for each symbolic link listed on the command line, chmod changes the permissions of the pointed-to file. In contrast, chmod ignores symbolic links encountered during recursive directory traversals.

OPTIONS

Change the mode of each FILE to MODE.

−c, −−changes

like verbose but report only when a change is made

−f, −−silent, −−quiet

suppress most error messages

−v, −−verbose

output a diagnostic for every file processed

−−reference=RFILE

use RFILE’s mode instead of MODE values

−R, −−recursive

change files and directories recursively

−−help

display this help and exit

−−version

output version information and exit

Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols +-= and one or more of the letters rwxXstugo.

AUTHOR

Written by David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS

Report bugs to <bug-fileutils@gnu.org>.

COPYRIGHT

Copyright © 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

SEE ALSO

The full documentation for chmod is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and chmod programs are properly installed at your site, the command

info chmod

should give you access to the complete manual.