PERLTOC

NAME
DESCRIPTION
BASIC DOCUMENTATION
PRAGMA DOCUMENTATION
MODULE DOCUMENTATION
AUXILIARY DOCUMENTATION
AUTHOR

NAME

perltoc − perl documentation table of contents

DESCRIPTION

This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped through to locate the proper section you’re looking for.

BASIC DOCUMENTATION

perl − Practical Extraction and Report Language

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Many usability enhancements, Simplified grammar, Lexical scoping, Arbitrarily nested data structures, Modularity and reusability, Object-oriented programming, Embeddable and Extensible, POSIX compliant, Package constructors and destructors, Multiple simultaneous DBM implementations, Subroutine definitions may now be autoloaded, Regular expression enhancements, Innumerable Unbundled Modules, Compilability

ENVIRONMENT

AUTHOR

FILES

SEE ALSO

DIAGNOSTICS

BUGS

NOTES

perlfaq − frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 1998/07/20 23:12:17 $)

DESCRIPTION

perlfaq: Structural overview of the FAQ , the perlfaq1 manpage: General Questions About Perl, the perlfaq2 manpage: Obtaining and Learning about Perl, the perlfaq3 manpage: Programming Tools, the perlfaq4 manpage: Data Manipulation, the perlfaq5 manpage: Files and Formats, the perlfaq6 manpage: Regexps, the perlfaq7 manpage: General Perl Language Issues, the perlfaq8 manpage: System Interaction, the perlfaq9 manpage: Networking

Where to get this document

How to contribute to this document

What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the authors

Credits

Author and Copyright Information

Bundled Distributions

Disclaimer

Changes

24/April/97, 23/April/97, 25/March/97, 18/March/97, 17/March/97 Version, Initial Release: 11/March/97

perlfaq1 − General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.14 $, $Date: 1998/06/14 22:15:25 $)

DESCRIPTION

What is Perl?

Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?

Which version of Perl should I use?

What are perl4 and perl5?

How stable is Perl?

Is Perl difficult to learn?

How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX , Scheme, or Tcl?

Can I do [task] in Perl?

When shouldn’t I program in Perl?

What’s the difference between """"perl"""" and """"Perl""""?

Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?

What is a JAPH ?

Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?

How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version (5/5.004/Perl instead of some other language)?

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq2 − Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.24 $, $Date: 1998/07/20 23:40:28 $)

DESCRIPTION

What machines support Perl? Where do I get it?

How can I get a binary version of Perl?

I don’t have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl?

I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts don’t work.

I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?

What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN ? What does CPAN/ src/... mean?

Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?

Where can I get information on Perl?

What are the Perl newsgroups on USENET ? Where do I post questions?

Where should I post source code?

Perl Books

References, Tutorials *Learning Perl [2nd edition] by Randal L. Schwartz and Tom Christiansen, Task-Oriented, Special Topics

Perl in Magazines

Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access

What mailing lists are there for perl?

MacPerl, Perl5-Porters, NTPerl, Perl-Packrats

Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc

Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?

Where do I send bug reports?

What is perl.com? perl.org? The Perl Institute?

How do I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq3 − Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.28 $, $Date: 1998/07/16 22:08:49 $)

DESCRIPTION

How do I do (anything)?

How can I use Perl interactively?

Is there a Perl shell?

How do I debug my Perl programs?

How do I profile my Perl programs?

How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?

Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?

Is there a ctags for Perl?

Where can I get Perl macros for vi?

Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?

How can I use curses with Perl?

How can I use X or Tk with Perl?

How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?

What is undump?

How can I make my Perl program run faster?

How can I make my Perl program take less memory?

Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data?

How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?

How can I make my CGI script more efficient?

How can I hide the source for my Perl program?

How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?

How can I get #!perl to work on [ MSDOS , NT ,...]?

Can I write useful perl programs on the command line?

Why don’t perl one-liners work on my DOS/ Mac/ VMS system?

Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?

Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?

Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp]

I’ve read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can’t embed perl in my C program, what am I doing wrong?

When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it mean?

What’s MakeMaker?

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq4 − Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.25 $, $Date: 1998/07/16 22:49:55 $)

DESCRIPTION

Data: Numbers

Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?

Why isn’t my octal data interpreted correctly?

Does perl have a round function?

What about ceil() and floor()? Trig functions?

How do I convert bits into ints?

How do I multiply matrices?

How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?

How can I output Roman numerals?

Why aren’t my random numbers random?

Data: Dates

How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year?

How can I compare two dates and find the difference?

How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?

How can I find the Julian Day?

Does Perl have a year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?

Data: Strings

How do I validate input?

How do I unescape a string?

How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?

How do I expand function calls in a string?

How do I find matching/nesting anything?

How do I reverse a string?

How do I expand tabs in a string?

How do I reformat a paragraph?

How can I access/change the first N letters of a string?

How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?

How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a string?

How do I capitalize all the words on one line?

How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside [character]? (Comma-separated files)

How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?

How do I extract selected columns from a string?

How do I find the soundex value of a string?

How can I expand variables in text strings?

What’s wrong with always quoting """"$vars""""?

Why don’t my << HERE documents work?

1. There must be no space after the << part, 2. There (probably) should be a semicolon at the end, 3. You can’t (easily) have any space in front of the tag

Data: Arrays

What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?

How can I extract just the unique elements of an array?

a) If @in is sorted, and you want @out to be sorted:(this assumes all true values in the array), b) If you don’t know whether @in is sorted:, c) Like (b), but @in contains only small integers:, d) A way to do (b) without any loops or greps:, e) Like (d), but @in contains only small positive integers:

How can I tell whether a list or array contains a certain element?

How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the intersection of two arrays?

How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?

How do I handle linked lists?

How do I handle circular lists?

How do I shuffle an array randomly?

How do I process/modify each element of an array?

How do I select a random element from an array?

How do I permute N elements of a list?

How do I sort an array by (anything)?

How do I manipulate arrays of bits?

Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?

Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)

How do I process an entire hash?

What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over it?

How do I look up a hash element by value?

How can I know how many entries are in a hash?

How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?

How can I always keep my hash sorted?

What’s the difference between """"delete"""" and """"undef"""" with hashes?

Why don’t my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?

How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?

How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?

How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?

How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?

Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create it?

How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C ++ class/hash or array of hashes or arrays?

How can I use a reference as a hash key?

Data: Misc

How do I handle binary data correctly?

How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?

How do I keep persistent data across program calls?

How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?

How do I define methods for every class/object?

How do I verify a credit card checksum?

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq5 − Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.24 $, $Date: 1998/07/05 15:07:20 $)

DESCRIPTION

How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?

How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?

How do I count the number of lines in a file?

How do I make a temporary file name?

How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?

How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?

How can I use a filehandle indirectly?

How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?

How can I write() into a string?

How can I output my numbers with commas added?

How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?

How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?

Why do I sometimes get an """"Argument list too long"""" when I use <*>?

Is there a leak/bug in glob()?

How can I open a file with a leading """">"""" or trailing blanks?

How can I reliably rename a file?

How can I lock a file?

What can’t I just open( FH , """">file.lock")?

I still don’t get locking. I just want to increment the number in the file. How can I do this?

How do I randomly update a binary file?

How do I get a file’s timestamp in perl?

How do I set a file’s timestamp in perl?

How do I print to more than one file at once?

How can I read in a file by paragraphs?

How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?

How can I tell if there’s a character waiting on a filehandle?

How do I do a tail -f in perl?

How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?

How do I close a file descriptor by number?

Why can’t I use """"C:\temp\foo"""" in DOS paths? What doesn’t ‘C:\temp\foo.exe‘ work?

Why doesn’t glob’*.*’ get all the files?

Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does -i clobber protected files? Isn’t this a bug in Perl?

How do I select a random line from a file?

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq6 − Regexps ($Revision: 1.22 $, $Date: 1998/07/16 14:01:07 $)

DESCRIPTION

How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible and unmaintainable code?

Comments Outside the Regexp, Comments Inside the Regexp, Different Delimiters

I’m having trouble matching over more than one line. What’s wrong?

How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on different lines?

I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn’t work. What’s wrong?

How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS , but preserving case on the RHS ?

How can I make \w match national character sets?

How can I match a locale-smart version of /[a-zA-Z]/?

How can I quote a variable to use in a regexp?

What is /o really for?

How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a file?

Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?

What does it mean that regexps are greedy? How can I get around it?

How do I process each word on each line?

How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?

How can I do approximate matching?

How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?

Why don’t word-boundary searches with \b work for me?

Why does using $&, $‘, or $’ slow my program down?

What good is \G in a regular expression?

Are Perl regexps DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant?

What’s wrong with using grep or map in a void context?

How can I match strings with multibyte characters?

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq7 − Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.21 $, $Date: 1998/06/22 15:20:07 $)

DESCRIPTION

Can I get a BNF/ yacc/ RE for the Perl language?

What are all these $@%* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to use them?

Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and commas?

How do I skip some return values?

How do I temporarily block warnings?

What’s an extension?

Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?

How do I declare/create a structure?

How do I create a module?

How do I create a class?

How can I tell if a variable is tainted?

What’s a closure?

What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?

How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method, Regexp}?

Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing Regexps, Passing Methods

How do I create a static variable?

What’s the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping? Between local() and my()?

How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical is in scope?

What’s the difference between deep and shallow binding?

Why doesn’t """"my($foo) = < FILE >;"""" work right?

How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?

What’s the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?

How do I create a switch or case statement?

How can I catch accesses to undefined variables/functions/methods?

Why can’t a method included in this same file be found?

How can I find out my current package?

How can I comment out a large block of perl code?

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq8 − System Interaction ($Revision: 1.25 $, $Date: 1998/07/05 15:07:20 $)

DESCRIPTION

How do I find out which operating system I’m running under?

How come exec() doesn’t return?

How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?

Keyboard, Screen, Mouse

How do I print something out in color?

How do I read just one key without waiting for a return key?

How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard?

How do I clear the screen?

How do I get the screen size?

How do I ask the user for a password?

How do I read and write the serial port?

lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-blocking input

How do I decode encrypted password files?

How do I start a process in the background?

STDIN , STDOUT , and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies

How do I trap control characters/signals?

How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?

How do I set the time and date?

How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?

How can I measure time under a second?

How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling)

Why doesn’t my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What does the error message """"Protocol not supported"""" mean?

How can I call my system’s unique C functions from Perl?

Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?

Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?

How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?

Why can’t I get the output of a command with system()?

How can I capture STDERR from an external command?

Why doesn’t open() return an error when a pipe open fails?

What’s wrong with using backticks in a void context?

How can I call backticks without shell processing?

Why can’t my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix, ^Z on MSDOS )?

How can I convert my shell script to perl?

Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?

How can I write expect in Perl?

Is there a way to hide perl’s command line from programs such as """"ps""""?

I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script.

How come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my changes to be visible?

Unix

How do I close a process’s filehandle without waiting for it to complete?

How do I fork a daemon process?

How do I make my program run with sh and csh?

How do I find out if I’m running interactively or not?

How do I timeout a slow event?

How do I set CPU limits?

How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?

How do I use an SQL database?

How do I make a system() exit on control-C?

How do I open a file without blocking?

How do I install a CPAN module?

What’s the difference between require and use?

How do I keep my own module/library directory?

How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library search path?

How do I add a directory to my include path at runtime?

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq9 − Networking ($Revision: 1.20 $, $Date: 1998/06/22 18:31:09 $)

DESCRIPTION

My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser. (500 Server Error)

How can I get better error messages from a CGI program?

How do I remove HTML from a string?

How do I extract URLs?

How do I download a file from the user’s machine? How do I open a file on another machine?

How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML ?

How do I fetch an HTML file?

How do I automate an HTML form submission?

How do I decode or create those %−encodings on the web?

How do I redirect to another page?

How do I put a password on my web pages?

How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl?

How do I make sure users can’t enter values into a form that cause my CGI script to do bad things?

How do I parse a mail header?

How do I decode a CGI form?

How do I check a valid mail address?

How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?

How do I return the user’s mail address?

How do I send mail?

How do I read mail?

How do I find out my hostname/domainname/ IP address?

How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups?

How do I fetch/put an FTP file?

How can I do RPC in Perl?

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perldelta − what’s new for perl5.005

DESCRIPTION

About the new versioning system

Incompatible Changes

WARNING : This version is not binary compatible with Perl 5.004.

Default installation structure has changed

Perl Source Compatibility

C Source Compatibility

Core sources now require ANSI C compiler, All Perl global variables must now be referenced with an explicit prefix, Enabling threads has source compatibility issues

Binary Compatibility

Security fixes may affect compatibility

Relaxed new mandatory warnings introduced in 5.004

Licensing

Core Changes

Threads

Compiler

Regular Expressions

Many new and improved optimizations, Many bug fixes, New regular expression constructs, New operator for precompiled regular expressions, Other improvements, Incompatible changes

Improved malloc()

Quicksort is internally implemented

Reliable signals

Reliable stack pointers

More generous treatment of carriage returns

Memory leaks

Better support for multiple interpreters

Behavior of local() on array and hash elements is now well-defined

%! is transparently tied to the the Errno manpage module

Pseudo-hashes are supported

EXPR foreach EXPR is supported

Keywords can be globally overridden

$^E is meaningful on Win32

foreach (1..1000000) optimized

Foo:: can be used as implicitly quoted package name

exists $Foo::{Bar::} tests existence of a package

Better locale support

Experimental support for 64-bit platforms

prototype() returns useful results on builtins

Extended support for exception handling

Re-blessing in DESTROY () supported for chaining DESTROY () methods

All printf format conversions are handled internally

New INIT keyword

New lock keyword

New qr// operator

our is now a reserved word

Tied arrays are now fully supported

Tied handles support is better

4th argument to substr

Negative LENGTH argument to splice

Magic lvalues are now more magical

<> now reads in records

Supported Platforms

New Platforms

Changes in existing support

Modules and Pragmata

New Modules

B, Data::Dumper, Errno, File::Spec, ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Packlist, Fatal, IPC:: SysV, Test, Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Thread, attrs, fields, re

Changes in existing modules

CGI , POSIX , DB_File, MakeMaker, CPAN , Cwd, Benchmark

Utility Changes

Documentation Changes

New Diagnostics

Ambiguous call resolved as CORE ::%s(), qualify as such or use &, Bad index while coercing array into hash, Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package, Can’t call method "%s" on an undefined value, Can’t coerce array into hash, Can’t goto subroutine from an eval-string, Can’t localize pseudo-hash element, Can’t use %%! because Errno.pm is not available, Cannot find an opnumber for "%s", Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions, %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression, %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re ’eval’, %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time, Explicit blessing to ’’ (assuming package main), Illegal hex digit ignored, No such array field, No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s, Out of memory during ridiculously large request, Range iterator outside integer range, Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method ’%s’ in package ’%s’, Reference found where even-sized list expected, Undefined value assigned to typeglob, Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated, perl: warning: Setting locale failed

Obsolete Diagnostics

Can’t mktemp(), Can’t write to temp file for −e: %s, Cannot open temporary file

BUGS

SEE ALSO

HISTORY

perldata − Perl data types

DESCRIPTION

Variable names

Context

Scalar values

Scalar value constructors

List value constructors

Typeglobs and Filehandles

perlsyn − Perl syntax

DESCRIPTION

Declarations

Simple statements

Compound statements

Loop Control

For Loops

Foreach Loops

Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements

Goto

PODs: Embedded Documentation

Plain Old Comments (Not!)

perlop − Perl operators and precedence

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Terms and List Operators (Leftward)

The Arrow Operator

Auto-increment and Auto-decrement

Exponentiation

Symbolic Unary Operators

Binding Operators

Multiplicative Operators

Additive Operators

Shift Operators

Named Unary Operators

Relational Operators

Equality Operators

Bitwise And

Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or

C−style Logical And

C−style Logical Or

Range Operators

Conditional Operator

Assignment Operators

Comma Operator

List Operators (Rightward)

Logical Not

Logical And

Logical or and Exclusive Or

C Operators Missing From Perl

unary &, unary *, ( TYPE )

Quote and Quote-like Operators

Regexp Quote-Like Operators

? PATTERN ?, m/ PATTERN/ cgimosx, / PATTERN/ cgimosx, q/ STRING /, ’STRING’, qq/ STRING /, " STRING ", qr/ STRING/ imosx, qx/ STRING /, ‘ STRING ‘, qw/ STRING /, s/ PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/ egimosx, tr/ SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/ cds, y/ SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/ cds

Gory details of parsing quoted constructs

Finding the end, Removal of backslashes before delimiters, Interpolation, <<’EOF’, m’’, s’’’, tr///, y///, ’’, q//, "", ‘‘, qq//, qx//, <file*glob>, ?RE?, /RE/, m/RE/, s/RE/foo/,, Interpolation of regular expressions, Optimization of regular expressions

I/O Operators

Constant Folding

Bitwise String Operators

Integer Arithmetic

Floating-point Arithmetic

Bigger Numbers

perlre − Perl regular expressions

DESCRIPTION

i, m, s, x

Regular Expressions

(?#text), (?:pattern), (?imsx-imsx:pattern), (?=pattern), (?!pattern), (?<=pattern), (?<!pattern), (?{ code }), (?>pattern), (?(condition)yes-pattern│no-pattern), (?(condition)yes-pattern), (?imsx-imsx)

Backtracking

Version 8 Regular Expressions

WARNING on \1 vs $1

Repeated patterns matching zero-length substring

Creating custom RE engines

SEE ALSO

perlrun − how to execute the Perl interpreter

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

#! and quoting on non-Unix systems

OS/2 , MSDOS , Win95/ NT , Macintosh

Location of Perl

Switches

−0[digits], −a, −c, −d, −d:foo, −Dletters, −Dnumber, −e commandline, −Fpattern, −h, −i[extension], −Idirectory, −l[octnum], −m[]module, −M[]module, −M[]’module ...’, −[mM][]module=arg[,arg]..., −n, −p, −P, −s, −S, −T, −u, −U, −v, −V, −V:name, −w, −x directory

ENVIRONMENT

HOME , LOGDIR , PATH , PERL5LIB , PERL5OPT , PERLLIB , PERL5DB , PERL5SHELL (specific to WIN32 port), PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS , PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL

perlfunc − Perl builtin functions

DESCRIPTION

Perl Functions by Category

Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pattern matching, Numeric functions, Functions for real @ARRAYs, Functions for list data, Functions for real %HASHes, Input and output functions, Functions for fixed length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories, Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords related to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process groups, Keywords related to perl modules, Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness, Low-level socket functions, System V interprocess communication functions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network info, Time-related functions, Functions new in perl5, Functions obsoleted in perl5

Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions

−X FILEHANDLE , −X EXPR , −X, abs VALUE , abs, accept NEWSOCKET , GENERICSOCKET , alarm SECONDS , alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind SOCKET , NAME , binmode FILEHANDLE , bless REF , CLASSNAME , bless REF , caller EXPR , caller, chdir EXPR , chmod LIST , chomp VARIABLE , chomp LIST , chomp, chop VARIABLE , chop LIST , chop, chown LIST , chr NUMBER , chr, chroot FILENAME , chroot, close FILEHANDLE , close, closedir DIRHANDLE , connect SOCKET , NAME , continue BLOCK , cos EXPR , crypt PLAINTEXT , SALT , dbmclose HASH , dbmopen HASH , DBNAME , MODE , defined EXPR , defined, delete EXPR , die LIST , do BLOCK , do SUBROUTINE ( LIST ), do EXPR , dump LABEL , each HASH , eof FILEHANDLE , eof (), eof, eval EXPR , eval BLOCK , exec LIST , exec PROGRAM LIST , exists EXPR , exit EXPR , exp EXPR , exp, fcntl FILEHANDLE , FUNCTION , SCALAR , fileno FILEHANDLE , flock FILEHANDLE , OPERATION , fork, format, formline PICTURE , LIST , getc FILEHANDLE , getc, getlogin, getpeername SOCKET , getpgrp PID , getppid, getpriority WHICH , WHO , getpwnam NAME , getgrnam NAME , gethostbyname NAME , getnetbyname NAME , getprotobyname NAME , getpwuid UID , getgrgid GID , getservbyname NAME , PROTO , gethostbyaddr ADDR , ADDRTYPE , getnetbyaddr ADDR , ADDRTYPE , getprotobynumber NUMBER , getservbyport PORT , PROTO , getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN , setnetent STAYOPEN , setprotoent STAYOPEN , setservent STAYOPEN , endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockname SOCKET , getsockopt SOCKET , LEVEL , OPTNAME , glob EXPR , glob, gmtime EXPR , goto LABEL , goto EXPR , goto & NAME , grep BLOCK LIST , grep EXPR , LIST , hex EXPR , hex, import, index STR , SUBSTR , POSITION , index STR , SUBSTR , int EXPR , int, ioctl FILEHANDLE , FUNCTION , SCALAR , join EXPR , LIST , keys HASH , kill LIST , last LABEL , last, lc EXPR , lc, lcfirst EXPR , lcfirst, length EXPR , length, link OLDFILE , NEWFILE , listen SOCKET , QUEUESIZE , local EXPR , localtime EXPR , log EXPR , log, lstat FILEHANDLE , lstat EXPR , lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST , map EXPR , LIST , mkdir FILENAME , MODE , msgctl ID , CMD , ARG , msgget KEY , FLAGS , msgsnd ID , MSG , FLAGS , msgrcv ID , VAR , SIZE , TYPE , FLAGS , my EXPR , next LABEL , next, no Module LIST , oct EXPR , oct, open FILEHANDLE , EXPR , open FILEHANDLE , opendir DIRHANDLE , EXPR , ord EXPR , ord, pack TEMPLATE , LIST , package, package NAMESPACE , pipe READHANDLE , WRITEHANDLE , pop ARRAY , pop, pos SCALAR , pos, print FILEHANDLE LIST , print LIST , print, printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT , LIST , printf FORMAT , LIST , prototype FUNCTION , push ARRAY , LIST , q/ STRING /, qq/ STRING /, qr/ STRING /, qx/ STRING /, qw/ STRING /, quotemeta EXPR , quotemeta, rand EXPR , rand, read FILEHANDLE , SCALAR , LENGTH , OFFSET , read FILEHANDLE , SCALAR , LENGTH , readdir DIRHANDLE , readline EXPR , readlink EXPR , readlink, readpipe EXPR , recv SOCKET , SCALAR , LEN , FLAGS , redo LABEL , redo, ref EXPR , ref, rename OLDNAME , NEWNAME , require EXPR , require, reset EXPR , reset, return EXPR , return, reverse LIST , rewinddir DIRHANDLE , rindex STR , SUBSTR , POSITION , rindex STR , SUBSTR , rmdir FILENAME , rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR , seek FILEHANDLE , POSITION , WHENCE , seekdir DIRHANDLE , POS , select FILEHANDLE , select, select RBITS , WBITS , EBITS , TIMEOUT , semctl ID , SEMNUM , CMD , ARG , semget KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS , semop KEY , OPSTRING , send SOCKET , MSG , FLAGS , TO , send SOCKET , MSG , FLAGS , setpgrp PID , PGRP , setpriority WHICH , WHO , PRIORITY , setsockopt SOCKET , LEVEL , OPTNAME , OPTVAL , shift ARRAY , shift, shmctl ID , CMD , ARG , shmget KEY , SIZE , FLAGS , shmread ID , VAR , POS , SIZE , shmwrite ID , STRING , POS , SIZE , shutdown SOCKET , HOW , sin EXPR , sin, sleep EXPR , sleep, socket SOCKET , DOMAIN , TYPE , PROTOCOL , socketpair SOCKET1 , SOCKET2 , DOMAIN , TYPE , PROTOCOL , sort SUBNAME LIST , sort BLOCK LIST , sort LIST , splice ARRAY , OFFSET , LENGTH , LIST , splice ARRAY , OFFSET , LENGTH , splice ARRAY , OFFSET , split / PATTERN /, EXPR , LIMIT , split / PATTERN /, EXPR , split / PATTERN /, split, sprintf FORMAT , LIST , sqrt EXPR , sqrt, srand EXPR , srand, stat FILEHANDLE , stat EXPR , stat, study SCALAR , study, sub BLOCK , sub NAME , sub NAME BLOCK , substr EXPR , OFFSET , LEN , REPLACEMENT , substr EXPR , OFFSET , LEN , substr EXPR , OFFSET , symlink OLDFILE , NEWFILE , syscall LIST , sysopen FILEHANDLE , FILENAME , MODE , sysopen FILEHANDLE , FILENAME , MODE , PERMS , sysread FILEHANDLE , SCALAR , LENGTH , OFFSET , sysread FILEHANDLE , SCALAR , LENGTH , sysseek FILEHANDLE , POSITION , WHENCE , system LIST , system PROGRAM LIST , syswrite FILEHANDLE , SCALAR , LENGTH , OFFSET , syswrite FILEHANDLE , SCALAR , LENGTH , tell FILEHANDLE , tell, telldir DIRHANDLE , tie VARIABLE , CLASSNAME , LIST , tied VARIABLE , time, times, tr///, truncate FILEHANDLE , LENGTH , truncate EXPR , LENGTH , uc EXPR , uc, ucfirst EXPR , ucfirst, umask EXPR , umask, undef EXPR , undef, unlink LIST , unlink, unpack TEMPLATE , EXPR , untie VARIABLE , unshift ARRAY , LIST , use Module LIST , use Module, use Module VERSION LIST , use VERSION , utime LIST , values HASH , vec EXPR , OFFSET , BITS , wait, waitpid PID , FLAGS , wantarray, warn LIST , write FILEHANDLE , write EXPR , write, y///

perlvar − Perl predefined variables

DESCRIPTION

Predefined Names

$ ARG , $_, $<digits>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $‘, $POSTMATCH, $’, $LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $MULTILINE_MATCHING, $*, input_line_number HANDLE EXPR , $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $, input_record_separator HANDLE EXPR , $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/, autoflush HANDLE EXPR , $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $│, output_field_separator HANDLE EXPR , $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,, output_record_separator HANDLE EXPR , $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS, $\, $LIST_SEPARATOR, $", $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $OFMT, $#, format_page_number HANDLE EXPR , $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%, format_lines_per_page HANDLE EXPR , $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=, format_lines_left HANDLE EXPR , $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $−, format_name HANDLE EXPR , $FORMAT_NAME, $~, format_top_name HANDLE EXPR , $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^, format_line_break_characters HANDLE EXPR , $FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $:, format_formfeed HANDLE EXPR , $FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A, $CHILD_ERROR, $?, $OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E, $EVAL_ERROR, $@, $PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<, $EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID, $>, $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(, $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $), $PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $PERL_VERSION, $], $DEBUGGING, $^D, $SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M, $OSNAME, $^O, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, $^R, $^S, $BASETIME, $^T, $WARNING, $^W, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, $ARGV, @ARGV, @INC, @_, %INC, %ENV $ENV{expr}, %SIG $SIG{expr}

Error Indicators

perlsub − Perl subroutines

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Private Variables via my()

Persistent Private Variables

Temporary Values via local()

Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)

When to Still Use local()

1. You need to give a global variable a temporary value, especially $_, 2. You need to create a local file or directory handle or a local function, 3. You want to temporarily change just one element of an array or hash

Pass by Reference

Prototypes

Constant Functions

Overriding Builtin Functions

Autoloading

SEE ALSO

perlmod − Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)

DESCRIPTION

Packages

Symbol Tables

Package Constructors and Destructors

Perl Classes

Perl Modules

SEE ALSO

perlmodlib − constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones

DESCRIPTION

THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY

Pragmatic Modules

use autouse MODULE => qw(sub1 sub2 sub3), blib, diagnostics, integer, less, lib, locale, ops, overload, re, sigtrap, strict, subs, vmsish, vars

Standard Modules

AnyDBM_File, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, Benchmark, CPAN , CPAN:: FirstTime, CPAN:: Nox, Carp, Class::Struct, Config, Cwd, DB_File, Devel::SelfStubber, DirHandle, DynaLoader, English, Env, Exporter, ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::Liblist, ExtUtils:: MM_OS2 , ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils:: MM_VMS , ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest, ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists, ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal, Fcntl, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare, File::Copy, File::Find, File::Path, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle, FindBin, GDBM_File, Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, I18N::Collate, IO , IO:: File, IO:: Handle, IO:: Pipe, IO:: Seekable, IO:: Select, IO:: Socket, IPC:: Open2, IPC:: Open3, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, NDBM_File, Net::Ping, Net::hostent, Net::netent, Net::protoent, Net::servent, Opcode, Pod::Text, POSIX , SDBM_File, Safe, Search::Dict, SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell, Socket, Symbol, Sys::Hostname, Sys::Syslog, Term::Cap, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test::Harness, Text::Abbrev, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs, Text::Wrap, Tie::Hash, Tie::RefHash, Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::Local, Time::gmtime, Time::localtime, Time::tm, UNIVERSAL , User::grent, User::pwent

Extension Modules

CPAN

Language Extensions and Documentation Tools, Development Support, Operating System Interfaces, Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess Communication, Data Types and Data Type Utilities, Database Interfaces, User Interfaces, Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages, File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles), String Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching, Option, Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing, Internationalization and Locale, Authentication, Security, and Encryption, World Wide Web, HTML , HTTP , CGI , MIME , Server and Daemon Utilities, Archiving and Compression, Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing, and Graphing, Mail and Usenet News, Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and exceptions etc), File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities, Miscellaneous Modules, Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America, South America

Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse

Guidelines for Module Creation

Do similar modules already exist in some form?, Try to design the new module to be easy to extend and reuse, Some simple style guidelines, Select what to export, Select a name for the module, Have you got it right?, README and other Additional Files, A description of the module/package/extension etc, A copyright notice − see below, Prerequisites − what else you may need to have, How to build it − possible changes to Makefile. PL etc, How to install it, Recent changes in this release, especially incompatibilities, Changes / enhancements you plan to make in the future, Adding a Copyright Notice, Give the module a version/issue/release number, How to release and distribute a module, Take care when changing a released module

Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules

There is no requirement to convert anything, Consider the implications, Make the most of the opportunity, The pl2pm utility will get you started, Adds the standard Module prologue lines, Converts package specifiers from ’ to ::, Converts die(...) to croak(...), Several other minor changes

Guidelines for Reusing Application Code

Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library, Many applications contain some Perl code that could be reused, Break-out the reusable code into one or more separate module files, Take the opportunity to reconsider and redesign the interfaces, In some cases the ’application’ can then be reduced to a small

NOTE

perlmodinstall − Installing CPAN Modules

DESCRIPTION

PREAMBLE

DECOMPRESS the file, UNPACK the file into a directory, BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary), INSTALL the module

HEY

AUTHOR

COPYRIGHT

perlform − Perl formats

DESCRIPTION

Format Variables

NOTES

Footers

Accessing Formatting Internals

WARNINGS

perllocale − Perl locale handling (internationalization and localization)

DESCRIPTION

PREPARING TO USE LOCALES

USING LOCALES

The use locale pragma

The setlocale function

Finding locales

LOCALE PROBLEMS

Temporarily fixing locale problems

Permanently fixing locale problems

Permanently fixing your locale configuration

Permanently fixing system locale configuration

The localeconv function

LOCALE CATEGORIES

Category LC_COLLATE : Collation

Category LC_CTYPE : Character Types

Category LC_NUMERIC : Numeric Formatting

Category LC_MONETARY : Formatting of monetary amounts

LC_TIME

Other categories

SECURITY

Comparison operators (lt, le, ge, gt and cmp):, Case-mapping interpolation (with \l, \L, \u or \U), Matching operator (m//):, Substitution operator (s///):, In-memory formatting function (sprintf()):, Output formatting functions (printf() and write()):, Case-mapping functions (lc(), lcfirst(), uc(), ucfirst()):, POSIX locale-dependent functions (localeconv(), strcoll(),strftime(), strxfrm()):, POSIX character class tests (isalnum(), isalpha(), isdigit(),isgraph(), islower(), isprint(), ispunct(), isspace(), isupper(), isxdigit()):

ENVIRONMENT

PERL_BADLANG , LC_ALL , LC_CTYPE , LC_COLLATE , LC_MONETARY , LC_NUMERIC , LC_TIME , LANG

NOTES

Backward compatibility

I18N:Collate obsolete

Sort speed and memory use impacts

write() and LC_NUMERIC

Freely available locale definitions

I18n and l10n

An imperfect standard

BUGS

Broken systems

SEE ALSO

HISTORY

perlref − Perl references and nested data structures

DESCRIPTION

Making References

Using References

Symbolic references

Not-so-symbolic references

Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash

Function Templates

WARNING

SEE ALSO

perldsc − Perl Data Structures Cookbook

DESCRIPTION

arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes, more elaborate constructs

REFERENCES

COMMON MISTAKES

CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE

WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS use strict

DEBUGGING

CODE EXAMPLES

LISTS OF LISTS

Declaration of a LIST OF LISTS

Generation of a LIST OF LISTS

Access and Printing of a LIST OF LISTS

HASHES OF LISTS

Declaration of a HASH OF LISTS

Generation of a HASH OF LISTS

Access and Printing of a HASH OF LISTS

LISTS OF HASHES

Declaration of a LIST OF HASHES

Generation of a LIST OF HASHES

Access and Printing of a LIST OF HASHES

HASHES OF HASHES

Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES

Generation of a HASH OF HASHES

Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES

MORE ELABORATE RECORDS

Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS

Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS

Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS

Database Ties

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

perllol, perlLoL − Manipulating Lists of Lists in Perl

DESCRIPTION

Declaration and Access of Lists of Lists

Growing Your Own

Access and Printing

Slices

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

perltoot − Tom’s object-oriented tutorial for perl

DESCRIPTION

Creating a Class

Object Representation

Class Interface

Constructors and Instance Methods

Planning for the Future: Better Constructors

Destructors

Other Object Methods

Class Data

Accessing Class Data

Debugging Methods

Class Destructors

Documenting the Interface

Aggregation

Inheritance

Overridden Methods

Multiple Inheritance

UNIVERSAL : The Root of All Objects

Alternate Object Representations

Arrays as Objects

Closures as Objects

AUTOLOAD : Proxy Methods

Autoloaded Data Methods

Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods

Metaclassical Tools

Class::Struct

Data Members as Variables

NOTES

Object Terminology

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

COPYRIGHT

Acknowledgments

perlobj − Perl objects

DESCRIPTION

An Object is Simply a Reference

A Class is Simply a Package

A Method is Simply a Subroutine

Method Invocation

Default UNIVERSAL methods

isa( CLASS ), can( METHOD ), VERSION ( [ NEED ] )

Destructors

WARNING

Summary

Two-Phased Garbage Collection

SEE ALSO

perltie − how to hide an object class in a simple variable

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Tying Scalars

TIESCALAR classname, LIST , FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY this

Tying Arrays

TIEARRAY classname, LIST , FETCH this, index, STORE this, index, value, DESTROY this

Tying Hashes

USER , HOME , CLOBBER , LIST , TIEHASH classname, LIST , FETCH this, key, STORE this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, DESTROY this

Tying FileHandles

TIEHANDLE classname, LIST , WRITE this, LIST , PRINT this, LIST , PRINTF this, LIST , READ this, LIST , READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, DESTROY this

The untie Gotcha

SEE ALSO

BUGS

AUTHOR

perlbot − Bag’o Object Tricks (the BOT )

DESCRIPTION

OO SCALING TIPS

INSTANCE VARIABLES

SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES

INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE

OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS

OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS

USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM

THINKING OF CODE REUSE

CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT

INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR

DELEGATION

perlipc − Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes, safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)

DESCRIPTION

Signals

Named Pipes

WARNING

Using open() for IPC

Filehandles

Background Processes

Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent

Safe Pipe Opens

Bidirectional Communication with Another Process

Bidirectional Communication with Yourself

Sockets: Client/Server Communication

Internet Line Terminators

Internet TCP Clients and Servers

Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers

TCP Clients with IO:: Socket

A Simple Client

Proto, PeerAddr, PeerPort

A Webget Client

Interactive Client with IO:: Socket

TCP Servers with IO:: Socket

Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse

UDP : Message Passing

SysV IPC

NOTES

BUGS

AUTHOR

SEE ALSO

perldebug − Perl debugging

DESCRIPTION

The Perl Debugger

Debugger Commands

h [command], p expr, x expr, V [pkg [vars]], X [vars], T, s [expr], n [expr], < CR >, c [line│sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l subname, −, w [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L, S [[!]pattern], t, t expr, b [line] [condition], b subname [condition], b postpone subname [condition], b load filename, b compile subname, d [line], D, a [line] command, A, W [expr], W, O [opt[=val]] [opt"val"] [opt?].., recallCommand, ShellBang, pager, tkRunning, signalLevel, warnLevel, dieLevel, AutoTrace, LineInfo, inhibit_exit, PrintRet, ornaments, frame, maxTraceLen, arrayDepth, hashDepth, compactDump, veryCompact, globPrint, DumpDBFiles, DumpPackages, DumpReused, quote, HighBit, undefPrint, UsageOnly, TTY, noTTY, ReadLine, NonStop, < [ command ], << command, > command, >> command, { [ command ], {{ command, ! number, ! −number, ! pattern, !! cmd, H −number, q or ^D, R, │dbcmd, ││dbcmd, command, m expr, m package

Debugger input/output

Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Listing, Frame listing

Debugging compile-time statements

Debugger Customization

Readline Support

Editor Support for Debugging

The Perl Profiler

Debugger support in perl

Debugger Internals

Other resources

BUGS

Debugging Perl memory usage

Using $ENV{PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS}

buckets SMALLEST(APPROX)..GREATEST(APPROX), Free/Used, Total sbrk(): SBRKed/SBRKs:CONTINUOUS, pad: 0, heads: 2192, chain: 0, tail: 6144

Example of using DL switch

717, 002, 054, 602, 702, 704

DL details

!!!, !!, !

Limitations of DL statistic

Debugging regular expressions

Compile-time output

anchored STRING at POS , floating STRING at POS1 .. POS2 , matching floating/anchored, minlen, stclass TYPE , noscan, isall, GPOS, plus, implicit, with eval, anchored(TYPE)

Types of nodes

Run-time output

perldiag − various Perl diagnostics

DESCRIPTION

perlsec − Perl security

DESCRIPTION

Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data

Switches On the """"#!"""" Line

Cleaning Up Your Path

Security Bugs

Protecting Your Programs

SEE ALSO

perltrap − Perl traps for the unwary

DESCRIPTION

Awk Traps

C Traps

Sed Traps

Shell Traps

Perl Traps

Perl4 to Perl5 Traps

Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps − scalar, list contexts, Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc, Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps

Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps

Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance

Parsing Traps

Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing

Numerical Traps

Numerical, Numerical, Numerical

General data type traps

(Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Globs), (Scalar String), (Constants), (Scalars), (Variable Suicide)

Context Traps − scalar, list contexts

(list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list, builtin)

Precedence Traps

Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence

General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.

Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression

Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps

(Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won’t let you specify a filehandle

OS Traps

(SysV), (SysV)

Interpolation Traps

Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation

DBM Traps

DBM , DBM

Unclassified Traps

require/do trap using returned value, split on empty string with LIMIT specified

perlport − Writing portable Perl

DESCRIPTION

Not all Perl programs have to be portable, The vast majority of Perl is portable

ISSUES

Newlines

File Paths

System Interaction

Interprocess Communication ( IPC )

External Subroutines ( XS )

Standard Modules

Time and Date

System Resources

Security

Style

CPAN TESTERS

Mailing list: cpan-testers@perl.org, Testing results: http://www.connect.net/gbarr/cpan-test/

PLATFORMS

Unix

DOS and Derivatives

The djgpp environment for DOS , http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/, The EMX environment for DOS , OS/2 , etc. emx@iaehv.nl,http://www.leo.org/pub/comp/os/os2/leo/gnu/emx+gcc/index.html, ftp://hobbes.nmsu.edu/pub/os2/dev/emx. Build instructions for Win32, the perlwin32 manpage, The ActiveState Pages, http://www.activestate.com/

MacPerl

The MacPerl Pages, http://www.ptf.com/macperl/, The MacPerl mailing list, mac-perl-request@iis.ee.ethz.ch

VMS

the perlvms.pod manpage, vmsperl list, vmsperl-request@newman.upenn.edu, vmsperl on the web, http://www.sidhe.org/vmsperl/index.html

EBCDIC Platforms

perl-mvs list, AS/400 Perl information at http://as400.rochester.ibm.com

Other perls

Atari, Guido Flohr’s page http://stud.uni-sb.de/~gufl0000/, HP 300 MPE/ iX http://www.cccd.edu/~markb/perlix.html, Novell Netware

FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS

Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions

-X FILEHANDLE , −X EXPR , −X, binmode FILEHANDLE , chmod LIST , chown LIST , chroot FILENAME , chroot, crypt PLAINTEXT , SALT , dbmclose HASH , dbmopen HASH , DBNAME , MODE , dump LABEL , exec LIST , fcntl FILEHANDLE , FUNCTION , SCALAR , flock FILEHANDLE , OPERATION , fork, getlogin, getpgrp PID , getppid, getpriority WHICH , WHO , getpwnam NAME , getgrnam NAME , getnetbyname NAME , getpwuid UID , getgrgid GID , getnetbyaddr ADDR , ADDRTYPE , getprotobynumber NUMBER , getservbyport PORT , PROTO , getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN , setnetent STAYOPEN , setprotoent STAYOPEN , setservent STAYOPEN , endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockopt SOCKET , LEVEL , OPTNAME , glob EXPR , glob, ioctl FILEHANDLE , FUNCTION , SCALAR , kill LIST , link OLDFILE , NEWFILE , lstat FILEHANDLE , lstat EXPR , lstat, msgctl ID , CMD , ARG , msgget KEY , FLAGS , msgsnd ID , MSG , FLAGS , msgrcv ID , VAR , SIZE , TYPE , FLAGS , open FILEHANDLE , EXPR , open FILEHANDLE , pipe READHANDLE , WRITEHANDLE , readlink EXPR , readlink, select RBITS , WBITS , EBITS , TIMEOUT , semctl ID , SEMNUM , CMD , ARG , semget KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS , semop KEY , OPSTRING , setpgrp PID , PGRP , setpriority WHICH , WHO , PRIORITY , setsockopt SOCKET , LEVEL , OPTNAME , OPTVAL , shmctl ID , CMD , ARG , shmget KEY , SIZE , FLAGS , shmread ID , VAR , POS , SIZE , shmwrite ID , STRING , POS , SIZE , socketpair SOCKET1 , SOCKET2 , DOMAIN , TYPE , PROTOCOL , stat FILEHANDLE , stat EXPR , stat, symlink OLDFILE , NEWFILE , syscall LIST , system LIST , times, truncate FILEHANDLE , LENGTH , truncate EXPR , LENGTH , umask EXPR , umask, utime LIST , wait, waitpid PID , FLAGS

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS

VERSION

perlstyle − Perl style guide

DESCRIPTION

perlpod − plain old documentation

DESCRIPTION

Verbatim Paragraph

Command Paragraph

Ordinary Block of Text

The Intent

Embedding Pods in Perl Modules

Common Pod Pitfalls

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

perlbook − Perl book information

DESCRIPTION

perlembed − how to embed perl in your C program

DESCRIPTION

PREAMBLE

Use C from Perl?, Use a Unix program from Perl?, Use Perl from Perl?, Use C from C?, Use Perl from C?

ROADMAP

Compiling your C program

Adding a Perl interpreter to your C program

Calling a Perl subroutine from your C program

Evaluating a Perl statement from your C program

Performing Perl pattern matches and substitutions from your C program

Fiddling with the Perl stack from your C program

Maintaining a persistent interpreter

Maintaining multiple interpreter instances

Using Perl modules, which themselves use C libraries, from your C program

Embedding Perl under Win32

MORAL

AUTHOR

COPYRIGHT

perlapio − perl’s IO abstraction interface.

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

PerlIO *, PerlIO_stdin(), PerlIO_stdout(), PerlIO_stderr(), PerlIO_open(path, mode), PerlIO_fdopen(fd,mode), PerlIO_printf(f,fmt,...), PerlIO_vprintf(f,fmt,a), PerlIO_stdoutf(fmt,...), PerlIO_read(f,buf,count), PerlIO_write(f,buf,count), PerlIO_close(f), PerlIO_puts(f,s), PerlIO_putc(f,c), PerlIO_ungetc(f,c), PerlIO_getc(f), PerlIO_eof(f), PerlIO_error(f), PerlIO_fileno(f), PerlIO_clearerr(f), PerlIO_flush(f), PerlIO_tell(f), PerlIO_seek(f,o,w), PerlIO_getpos(f,p), PerlIO_setpos(f,p), PerlIO_rewind(f), PerlIO_tmpfile()

Co-existence with stdio

PerlIO_importFILE(f,flags), PerlIO_exportFILE(f,flags), PerlIO_findFILE(f), PerlIO_releaseFILE(p,f), PerlIO_setlinebuf(f), PerlIO_has_cntptr(f), PerlIO_get_ptr(f), PerlIO_get_cnt(f), PerlIO_canset_cnt(f), PerlIO_fast_gets(f), PerlIO_set_ptrcnt(f,p,c), PerlIO_set_cnt(f,c), PerlIO_has_base(f), PerlIO_get_base(f), PerlIO_get_bufsiz(f)

perlxs − XS language reference manual

DESCRIPTION

Introduction

On The Road

The Anatomy of an XSUB

The Argument Stack

The RETVAL Variable

The MODULE Keyword

The PACKAGE Keyword

The PREFIX Keyword

The OUTPUT : Keyword

The CODE : Keyword

The INIT : Keyword

The NO_INIT Keyword

Initializing Function Parameters

Default Parameter Values

The PREINIT : Keyword

The SCOPE : Keyword

The INPUT : Keyword

Variable-length Parameter Lists

The C_ARGS: Keyword

The PPCODE : Keyword

Returning Undef And Empty Lists

The REQUIRE : Keyword

The CLEANUP : Keyword

The BOOT : Keyword

The VERSIONCHECK : Keyword

The PROTOTYPES : Keyword

The PROTOTYPE : Keyword

The ALIAS : Keyword

The INTERFACE : Keyword

The INTERFACE_MACRO : Keyword

The INCLUDE : Keyword

The CASE : Keyword

The & Unary Operator

Inserting Comments and C Preprocessor Directives

Using XS With C ++

Interface Strategy

Perl Objects And C Structures

The Typemap

EXAMPLES

XS VERSION

AUTHOR

perlxstut, perlXStut − Tutorial for XSUBs

DESCRIPTION

VERSION CAVEAT

DYNAMIC VERSUS STATIC

EXAMPLE 1

EXAMPLE 2

WHAT HAS GONE ON ?

WRITING GOOD TEST SCRIPTS

EXAMPLE 3

WHAT ’S NEW HERE ?

INPUT AND OUTPUT PARAMETERS

THE XSUBPP COMPILER

THE TYPEMAP FILE

WARNING

EXAMPLE 4

WHAT HAS HAPPENED HERE ?

SPECIFYING ARGUMENTS TO XSUBPP

THE ARGUMENT STACK

EXTENDING YOUR EXTENSION

DOCUMENTING YOUR EXTENSION

INSTALLING YOUR EXTENSION

SEE ALSO

Author

Last Changed

perlguts − Perl’s Internal Functions

DESCRIPTION

Variables

Datatypes

What is an """" IV """"?

Working with SVs

What’s Really Stored in an SV ?

Working with AVs

Working with HVs

Hash API Extensions

References

Blessed References and Class Objects

Creating New Variables

Reference Counts and Mortality

Stashes and Globs

Double-Typed SVs

Magic Variables

Assigning Magic

Magic Virtual Tables

Finding Magic

Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays

Localizing changes

SAVEINT(int i), SAVEIV(IV i), SAVEI32(I32 i), SAVELONG(long i), SAVESPTR(s), SAVEPPTR(p), SAVEFREESV(SV *sv), SAVEFREEOP(OP *op), SAVEFREEPV(p), SAVECLEARSV(SV *sv), SAVEDELETE(HV *hv, char *key, I32 length), SAVEDESTRUCTOR(f,p), SAVESTACK_POS(), SV* save_scalar(GV *gv), AV* save_ary(GV *gv), HV* save_hash(GV *gv), void save_item(SV *item), void save_list(SV **sarg, I32 maxsarg), SV* save_svref(SV **sptr), void save_aptr(AV **aptr), void save_hptr(HV **hptr)

Subroutines

XSUBs and the Argument Stack

Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs

Memory Allocation

PerlIO

Putting a C value on Perl stack

Scratchpads

Scratchpads and recursion

Compiled code

Code tree

Examining the tree

Compile pass 1: check routines

Compile pass 1a: constant folding

Compile pass 2: context propagation

Compile pass 3: peephole optimization

API LISTING

av_clear, av_extend, av_fetch, AvFILL, av_len, av_make, av_pop, av_push, av_shift, av_store, av_undef, av_unshift, CLASS , Copy, croak, CvSTASH, PL_DBsingle, PL_DBsub, PL_DBtrace, dMARK, dORIGMARK, PL_dowarn, dSP, dXSARGS, dXSI32, do_binmode, ENTER , EXTEND , fbm_compile, fbm_instr, FREETMPS , G_ARRAY, G_DISCARD, G_EVAL, GIMME , GIMME_V , G_NOARGS, G_SCALAR, gv_fetchmeth, gv_fetchmethod, gv_fetchmethod_autoload, G_VOID, gv_stashpv, gv_stashsv, GvSV, HEf_SVKEY, HeHASH, HeKEY, HeKLEN, HePV, HeSVKEY, HeSVKEY_force, HeSVKEY_set, HeVAL, hv_clear, hv_delayfree_ent, hv_delete, hv_delete_ent, hv_exists, hv_exists_ent, hv_fetch, hv_fetch_ent, hv_free_ent, hv_iterinit, hv_iterkey, hv_iterkeysv, hv_iternext, hv_iternextsv, hv_iterval, hv_magic, HvNAME, hv_store, hv_store_ent, hv_undef, isALNUM, isALPHA, isDIGIT, isLOWER, isSPACE, isUPPER, items, ix, LEAVE , looks_like_number, MARK , mg_clear, mg_copy, mg_find, mg_free, mg_get, mg_len, mg_magical, mg_set, Move, PL_na, New, newAV, Newc, newCONSTSUB, newHV, newRV_inc, newRV_noinc, NEWSV , newSViv, newSVnv, newSVpv, newSVpvf, newSVpvn, newSVrv, newSVsv, newXS, newXSproto, Newz, Nullav, Nullch, Nullcv, Nullhv, Nullsv, ORIGMARK , perl_alloc, perl_call_argv, perl_call_method, perl_call_pv, perl_call_sv, perl_construct, perl_destruct, perl_eval_sv, perl_eval_pv, perl_free, perl_get_av, perl_get_cv, perl_get_hv, perl_get_sv, perl_parse, perl_require_pv, perl_run, POPi, POPl, POPp, POPn, POPs, PUSHMARK , PUSHi, PUSHn, PUSHp, PUSHs, PUSHu, PUTBACK , Renew, Renewc, RETVAL , safefree, safemalloc, saferealloc, savepv, savepvn, SAVETMPS , SP , SPAGAIN , ST , strEQ, strGE, strGT, strLE, strLT, strNE, strnEQ, strnNE, sv_2mortal, sv_bless, sv_catpv, sv_catpv_mg, sv_catpvn, sv_catpvn_mg, sv_catpvf, sv_catpvf_mg, sv_catsv, sv_catsv_mg, sv_chop, sv_cmp, SvCUR, SvCUR_set, sv_dec, sv_derived_from, sv_derived_from, SvEND, sv_eq, SvGETMAGIC, SvGROW, sv_grow, sv_inc, sv_insert, SvIOK, SvIOK_off, SvIOK_on, SvIOK_only, SvIOKp, sv_isa, sv_isobject, SvIV, SvIVX, SvLEN, sv_len, sv_magic, sv_mortalcopy, sv_newmortal, SvNIOK, SvNIOK_off, SvNIOKp, PL_sv_no, SvNOK, SvNOK_off, SvNOK_on, SvNOK_only, SvNOKp, SvNV, SvNVX, SvOK, SvOOK, SvPOK, SvPOK_off, SvPOK_on, SvPOK_only, SvPOKp, SvPV, SvPV_force, SvPVX, SvREFCNT, SvREFCNT_dec, SvREFCNT_inc, SvROK, SvROK_off, SvROK_on, SvRV, SvSETMAGIC, sv_setiv, sv_setiv_mg, sv_setnv, sv_setnv_mg, sv_setpv, sv_setpv_mg, sv_setpviv, sv_setpviv_mg, sv_setpvn, sv_setpvn_mg, sv_setpvf, sv_setpvf_mg, sv_setref_iv, sv_setref_nv, sv_setref_pv, sv_setref_pvn, SvSetSV, SvSetSV_nosteal, sv_setsv, sv_setsv_mg, sv_setuv, sv_setuv_mg, SvSTASH, SvTAINT, SvTAINTED, SvTAINTED_off, SvTAINTED_on, SVt_IV, SVt_PV, SVt_PVAV, SVt_PVCV, SVt_PVHV, SVt_PVMG, SVt_NV, SvTRUE, SvTYPE, svtype, PL_sv_undef, sv_unref, SvUPGRADE, sv_upgrade, sv_usepvn, sv_usepvn_mg, sv_vcatpvfn(sv, pat, patlen, args, svargs, svmax, used_locale), sv_vsetpvfn(sv, pat, patlen, args, svargs, svmax, used_locale), SvUV, SvUVX, PL_sv_yes, THIS , toLOWER, toUPPER, warn, XPUSHi, XPUSHn, XPUSHp, XPUSHs, XPUSHu, XS , XSRETURN , XSRETURN_EMPTY , XSRETURN_IV , XSRETURN_NO , XSRETURN_NV , XSRETURN_PV , XSRETURN_UNDEF , XSRETURN_YES , XST_mIV, XST_mNV, XST_mNO, XST_mPV, XST_mUNDEF, XST_mYES, XS_VERSION , XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK , Zero

AUTHORS

perlcall − Perl calling conventions from C

DESCRIPTION

An Error Handler, An Event Driven Program

THE PERL_CALL FUNCTIONS

perl_call_sv, perl_call_pv, perl_call_method, perl_call_argv

FLAG VALUES

G_VOID

G_SCALAR

G_ARRAY

G_DISCARD

G_NOARGS

G_EVAL

G_KEEPERR

Determining the Context

KNOWN PROBLEMS

EXAMPLES

No Parameters, Nothing returned

Passing Parameters

Returning a Scalar

Returning a list of values

Returning a list in a scalar context

Returning Data from Perl via the parameter list

Using G_EVAL

Using G_KEEPERR

Using perl_call_sv

Using perl_call_argv

Using perl_call_method

Using GIMME_V

Using Perl to dispose of temporaries

Strategies for storing Callback Context Information

1. Ignore the problem − Allow only 1 callback, 2. Create a sequence of callbacks − hard wired limit, 3. Use a parameter to map to the Perl callback

Alternate Stack Manipulation

Creating and calling an anonymous subroutine in C

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

DATE

perlhist − the Perl history records

DESCRIPTION

INTRODUCTION

THE KEEPERS OF THE PUMPKIN

PUMPKIN ?

THE RECORDS

SELECTED RELEASE SIZES

SELECTED PATCH SIZES

THE KEEPERS OF THE RECORDS

PRAGMA DOCUMENTATION

attrs − set/get attributes of a subroutine

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

method, locked

re − Perl pragma to alter regular expression behaviour

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

autouse − postpone load of modules until a function is used

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

WARNING

AUTHOR

SEE ALSO

base − Establish IS −A relationship with base class at compile time

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

SEE ALSO

blib − Use MakeMaker’s uninstalled version of a package

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

BUGS

AUTHOR

constant − Perl pragma to declare constants

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTES

TECHNICAL NOTE

BUGS

AUTHOR

COPYRIGHT

diagnostics − Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

The diagnostics Pragma

The splain Program

EXAMPLES

INTERNALS

BUGS

AUTHOR

fields − compile-time class fields

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

SEE ALSO

integer − Perl pragma to compute arithmetic in integer instead of double

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

less − perl pragma to request less of something from the compiler

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

lib − manipulate @INC at compile time

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

ADDING DIRECTORIES TO @ INC

DELETING DIRECTORIES FROM @ INC

RESTORING ORIGINAL @ INC

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

locale − Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

overload − Package for overloading perl operations

SYNOPSIS

CAVEAT SCRIPTOR

DESCRIPTION

Declaration of overloaded functions

Calling Conventions for Binary Operations

FALSE , TRUE , undef

Calling Conventions for Unary Operations

Overloadable Operations

Arithmetic operations, Comparison operations, Bit operations, Increment and decrement, Transcendental functions, Boolean, string and numeric conversion, Special

Inheritance and overloading

Strings as values of use overload directive, Overloading of an operation is inherited by derived classes

SPECIAL SYMBOLS FOR use overload

Last Resort

Fallback

undef, TRUE , defined, but FALSE

Copy Constructor

Example

MAGIC AUTOGENERATION

Assignment forms of arithmetic operations, Conversion operations, Increment and decrement, abs($a), Unary minus, Negation, Concatenation, Comparison operations, Copy operator

WARNING

Run-time Overloading

Public functions

overload::StrVal(arg), overload::Overloaded(arg), overload::Method(obj,op)

Overloading constants

integer, float, binary, q, qr

IMPLEMENTATION

AUTHOR

DIAGNOSTICS

BUGS

sigtrap − Perl pragma to enable simple signal handling

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OPTIONS

SIGNAL HANDLERS

stack-trace, die, handler your-handler

SIGNAL LISTS

normal-signals, error-signals, old-interface-signals

OTHER

untrapped, any, signal, number

EXAMPLES

strict − Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

strict refs, strict vars, strict subs

subs − Perl pragma to predeclare sub names

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

vars − Perl pragma to predeclare global variable names

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

MODULE DOCUMENTATION

AnyDBM_File − provide framework for multiple DBMs

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

DBM Comparisons

[0], [1], [2], [3]

SEE ALSO

AutoLoader − load subroutines only on demand

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Subroutine Stubs

Using AutoLoader’s AUTOLOAD Subroutine

Overriding AutoLoader’s AUTOLOAD Subroutine

Package Lexicals

AutoLoader vs. SelfLoader

CAVEATS

SEE ALSO

AutoSplit − split a package for autoloading

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

$keep, $check, $modtime

Multiple packages

DIAGNOSTICS

B − The Perl Compiler

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OVERVIEW OF CLASSES

SVRELATED CLASSES

B:: SV METHODS

REFCNT , FLAGS

B:: IV METHODS

IV , IVX , needs64bits, packiv

B:: NV METHODS

NV , NVX

B:: RV METHODS

RV

B:: PV METHODS

PV

B:: PVMG METHODS

MAGIC , SvSTASH

B:: MAGIC METHODS

MOREMAGIC , PRIVATE , TYPE , FLAGS , OBJ , PTR

B:: PVLV METHODS

TARGOFF , TARGLEN , TYPE , TARG

B:: BM METHODS

USEFUL , PREVIOUS , RARE , TABLE

B:: GV METHODS

NAME , STASH , SV , IO , FORM , AV , HV , EGV , CV , CVGEN , LINE , FILEGV , GvREFCNT, FLAGS

B:: IO METHODS

LINES , PAGE , PAGE_LEN , LINES_LEFT , TOP_NAME , TOP_GV , FMT_NAME , FMT_GV , BOTTOM_NAME , BOTTOM_GV , SUBPROCESS , IoTYPE, IoFLAGS

B:: AV METHODS

FILL , MAX , OFF , ARRAY , AvFLAGS

B:: CV METHODS

STASH , START , ROOT , GV , FILEGV , DEPTH , PADLIST , OUTSIDE , XSUB , XSUBANY

B:: HV METHODS

FILL , MAX , KEYS , RITER , NAME , PMROOT , ARRAY

OPRELATED CLASSES

B:: OP METHODS

next, sibling, ppaddr, desc, targ, type, seq, flags, private

B:: UNOP METHOD

first

B:: BINOP METHOD

last

B:: LOGOP METHOD

other

B:: CONDOP METHODS

true, false

B:: LISTOP METHOD

children

B:: PMOP METHODS

pmreplroot, pmreplstart, pmnext, pmregexp, pmflags, pmpermflags, precomp

B:: SVOP METHOD

sv

B:: GVOP METHOD

gv

B:: PVOP METHOD

pv

B:: LOOP METHODS

redoop, nextop, lastop

B:: COP METHODS

label, stash, filegv, cop_seq, arybase, line

FUNCTIONS EXPORTED BY B

main_cv, main_root, main_start, comppadlist, sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no, walkoptree( OP , METHOD ), walkoptree_debug( DEBUG ), walksymtable( SYMREF , METHOD , RECURSE ), svref_2object( SV ), ppname( OPNUM ), hash( STR ), cast_I32(I), minus_c, cstring( STR ), class( OBJ ), threadsv_names, byteload_fh( FILEHANDLE )

AUTHOR

B::Asmdata − Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate bytecode

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

B::Assembler − Assemble Perl bytecode

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

B::Bblock − Walk basic blocks

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

B::Bytecode − Perl compiler’s bytecode backend

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OPTIONS

−ofilename, --, −f, −fcompress-nullops, −fomit-sequence-numbers, −fbypass-nullops, −fstrip-syntax-tree, −On, −D, −Do, −Db, −Da, DC , −S, −m

BUGS

AUTHOR

B::C − Perl compiler’s C backend

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OPTIONS

−ofilename, −v, --, −uPackname, −D, −Do, −Dc, DA , DC , DM , −f, −fcog, −fno-cog, −On

EXAMPLES

BUGS

AUTHOR

B:: CC − Perl compiler’s optimized C translation backend

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OPTIONS

−ofilename, −v, --, −uPackname, −mModulename, −D, −Dr, DO , −Ds, −Dp, −Dq, −Dl, −Dt, −f, −ffreetmps-each-bblock, −ffreetmps-each-loop, −fomit-taint, −On

EXAMPLES

BUGS

DIFFERENCES

Loops

Context of """"..""""

Arithmetic

Deprecated features

AUTHOR

B::Debug − Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

B::Deparse − Perl compiler backend to produce perl code

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OPTIONS

−p, −u PACKAGE , −l, −s LETTERS , C

BUGS

AUTHOR

B::Disassembler − Disassemble Perl bytecode

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

B::Lint − Perl lint

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OPTIONS AND LINT CHECKS

context, implicit-read and implicit-write, dollar-underscore, private-names, undefined-subs, regexp-variables, all, none

NON LINTCHECK OPTIONS

−u Package

BUGS

AUTHOR

B::O, O − Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

CONVENTIONS

IMPLEMENTATION

AUTHOR

B::Showlex − Show lexical variables used in functions or files

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

B::Stackobj − Helper module for CC backend

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

B::Terse − Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

B::Xref − Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OPTIONS

-oFILENAME, -r, -D[tO]

BUGS

AUTHOR

Benchmark − benchmark running times of code

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Methods

new, debug

Standard Exports

timeit( COUNT , CODE ), timethis ( COUNT , CODE , [ TITLE , [ STYLE ]] ), timethese ( COUNT , CODEHASHREF , [ STYLE ] ), timediff ( T1, T2 ), timestr ( TIMEDIFF , [ STYLE , [ FORMAT ] ] )

Optional Exports

clearcache ( COUNT ), clearallcache ( ), disablecache ( ), enablecache ( )

NOTES

INHERITANCE

CAVEATS

AUTHORS

MODIFICATION HISTORY

CGI − Simple Common Gateway Interface Class

SYNOPSIS

ABSTRACT

DESCRIPTION

PROGRAMMING STYLE

CALLING CGI . PM ROUTINES

1. Use another name for the argument, if one is available. Forexample, −value is an alias for −values, 2. Change the capitalization, e.g. −Values, 3. Put quotes around the argument name, e.g. ’−values’

CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT ( OBJECTORIENTED STYLE ):

CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT FROM AN INPUT FILE

FETCHING A LIST OF KEYWORDS FROM THE QUERY :

FETCHING THE NAMES OF ALL THE PARAMETERS PASSED TO YOUR SCRIPT :

FETCHING THE VALUE OR VALUES OF A SINGLE NAMED PARAMETER :

SETTING THE VALUE (S) OF A NAMED PARAMETER :

APPENDING ADDITIONAL VALUES TO A NAMED PARAMETER :

IMPORTING ALL PARAMETERS INTO A NAMESPACE :

DELETING A PARAMETER COMPLETELY :

DELETING ALL PARAMETERS :

DIRECT ACCESS TO THE PARAMETER LIST :

SAVING THE STATE OF THE SCRIPT TO A FILE :

USING THE FUNCTIONORIENTED INTERFACE

:cgi, :form, :html2, :html3, :netscape, :html, :standard, :all

PRAGMAS

-any, −compile, −nph, −autoload, −no_debug, −private_tempfiles

GENERATING DYNAMIC DOCUMENTS

CREATING A STANDARD HTTP HEADER :

GENERATING A REDIRECTION HEADER

CREATING THE HTML DOCUMENT HEADER

Parameters:, 4, 5, 6..

ENDING THE HTML DOCUMENT :

CREATING A SELFREFERENCING URL THAT PRESERVES STATE INFORMATION :

OBTAINING THE SCRIPT ’S URL

−absolute, −relative, −full, −path (−path_info), −query (−query_string)

CREATING STANDARD HTML ELEMENTS :

PROVIDING ARGUMENTS TO HTML SHORTCUTS

THE DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY OF HTML SHORTCUTS

HTML SHORTCUTS AND LIST INTERPOLATION

NONSTANDARD HTML SHORTCUTS

CREATING FILLOUT FORMS :

CREATING AN ISINDEX TAG

STARTING AND ENDING A FORM

application/x-www-form-urlencoded, multipart/form-data

CREATING A TEXT FIELD

Parameters

CREATING A BIG TEXT FIELD

CREATING A PASSWORD FIELD

CREATING A FILE UPLOAD FIELD

Parameters

CREATING A POPUP MENU

CREATING A SCROLLING LIST

Parameters:

CREATING A GROUP OF RELATED CHECKBOXES

Parameters:

CREATING A STANDALONE CHECKBOX

Parameters:

CREATING A RADIO BUTTON GROUP

Parameters:

CREATING A SUBMIT BUTTON

Parameters:

CREATING A RESET BUTTON

CREATING A DEFAULT BUTTON

CREATING A HIDDEN FIELD

Parameters:

CREATING A CLICKABLE IMAGE BUTTON

Parameters:, 3.The third option (−align, optional) is an alignment type, and may be TOP , BOTTOM or MIDDLE

CREATING A JAVASCRIPT ACTION BUTTON

NETSCAPE COOKIES

1. an expiration time, 2. a domain, 3. a path, 4. a "secure" flag, −name, −value, −path, −domain, −expires, −secure

WORKING WITH NETSCAPE FRAMES

1. Create a <Frameset> document, 2. Specify the destination for the document in the HTTP header, 3. Specify the destination for the document in the < FORM > tag

LIMITED SUPPORT FOR CASCADING STYLE SHEETS

DEBUGGING

DUMPING OUT ALL THE NAME/VALUE PAIRS

FETCHING ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

accept(), raw_cookie(), user_agent(), path_info(), path_translated(), remote_host(), script_name()Return the script name as a partial URL , for self-refering scripts, referer(), auth_type (), server_name (), virtual_host (), server_software (), remote_user (), user_name (), request_method()

USING NPH SCRIPTS

In the use statement, By calling the nph() method:, By using −nph parameters in the header() and redirect() statements:

Server Push

multipart_init() multipart_init(−boundary=>$boundary);, multipart_start(), multipart_end()

Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks

$ CGI::POST_MAX , $ CGI::DISABLE_UPLOADS , 1. On a script-by-script basis, 2. Globally for all scripts

COMPATIBILITY WITH CGILIB . PL

AUTHOR INFORMATION

CREDITS

Matt Heffron (heffron@falstaff.css.beckman.com), James Taylor (james.taylor@srs.gov), Scott Anguish <sanguish@digifix.com>, Mike Jewell (mlj3u@virginia.edu), Timothy Shimmin (tes@kbs.citri.edu.au), Joergen Haegg (jh@axis.se), Laurent Delfosse (delfosse@csgrad1.cs.wvu.edu), Richard Resnick (applepi1@aol.com), Craig Bishop (csb@barwonwater.vic.gov.au), Tony Curtis (tc@vcpc.univie.ac.at), Tim Bunce (Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk), Tom Christiansen (tchrist@convex.com), Andreas Koenig (k@franz.ww. TU −Berlin. DE ), Tim MacKenzie (Tim.MacKenzie@fulcrum.com.au), Kevin B. Hendricks (kbhend@dogwood.tyler.wm.edu), Stephen Dahmen (joyfire@inxpress.net), Ed Jordan (ed@fidalgo.net), David Alan Pisoni (david@cnation.com), Doug MacEachern (dougm@opengroup.org), Robin Houston (robin@oneworld.org), ...and many many more..

A COMPLETE EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLE FORMBASED SCRIPT

BUGS

SEE ALSO

CGI:: Apache − Make things work with CGI .pm against Perl-Apache API

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTE 1

NOTE 2

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

CGI:: Carp, CGI:: CarpCGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

REDIRECTING ERROR MESSAGES

MAKING PERL ERRORS APPEAR IN THE BROWSER WINDOW

Changing the default message

CHANGE LOG

AUTHORS

SEE ALSO

CGI:: Cookie − Interface to Netscape Cookies

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

USING CGI:: Cookie

1. expiration date, 2. domain, 3. path, 4. secure flag

Creating New Cookies

Sending the Cookie to the Browser

Recovering Previous Cookies

Manipulating Cookies

name(), value(), domain(), path(), expires()

AUTHOR INFORMATION

BUGS

SEE ALSO

CGI:: Fast − CGI Interface for Fast CGI

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OTHER PIECES OF THE PUZZLE

WRITING FASTCGI PERL SCRIPTS

INSTALLING FASTCGI SCRIPTS

USING FASTCGI SCRIPTS AS CGI SCRIPTS

CAVEATS

AUTHOR INFORMATION

BUGS

SEE ALSO

CGI:: Push − Simple Interface to Server Push

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

USING CGI:: Push

-next_page, −last_page, −type, −delay, −cookie, −target, −expires

Heterogeneous Pages

Changing the Page Delay on the Fly

INSTALLING CGI:: Push SCRIPTS

CAVEATS

AUTHOR INFORMATION

BUGS

SEE ALSO

CGI:: Switch − Try more than one constructors and return the first object available

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

CPAN − query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Interactive Mode

Searching for authors, bundles, distribution files and modules, make, test, install, clean

modules or distributions, readme, look module or distribution, Signals

CPAN:: Shell

autobundle

recompile

The four CPAN::* Classes: Author, Bundle, Module, Distribution

Programmer’s interface

expand($type,@things), Programming Examples

Methods in the four

Cache Manager

Bundles

Prerequisites

Finding packages and VERSION

Debugging

Floppy, Zip, and all that Jazz

CONFIGURATION

o conf <scalar option>, o conf <scalar option> <value>, o conf <list option>, o conf <list option> [shift│pop], o conf <list option> [unshift│push│splice] <list>

CDROM support

SECURITY

EXPORT

BUGS

AUTHOR

SEE ALSO

CPAN:: FirstTime − Utility for CPAN:: Config file Initialization

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

CPANox, CPAN:: Nox − Wrapper around CPAN .pm without using any XS module

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

SEE ALSO

Carp, carp − warn of errors (from perspective of caller)

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Forcing a Stack Trace

Class::Struct − declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

The struct() function

Element Types and Accessor Methods

Scalar (’$’ or ’*$’), Array (’@’ or ’*@’), Hash (’%’ or ’*%’), Class (’Class_Name’ or ’*Class_Name’)

EXAMPLES

Example 1, Example 2

Author and Modification History

Cwd, getcwd − get pathname of current working directory

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

DB_File − Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

DB_HASH , DB_BTREE , DB_RECNO

Using DB_File with Berkeley DB version 2

Interface to Berkeley DB

Opening a Berkeley DB Database File

Default Parameters

In Memory Databases

DB_HASH

A Simple Example

DB_BTREE

Changing the BTREE sort order

Handling Duplicate Keys

The get_dup() Method

Matching Partial Keys

DB_RECNO

The ’bval’ Option

A Simple Example

Extra Methods

$X−>push(list) ;, $value = $X−>pop ;, $X−>shift, $X−>unshift(list) ;, $X−>length

Another Example

THE API INTERFACE

$status = $X−>get($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X−>put($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X−>del($key [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X−>fd ;, $status = $X−>seq($key, $value, $flags) ;, $status = $X−>sync([$flags]) ;

HINTS AND TIPS

Locking Databases

Sharing Databases With C Applications

The untie() Gotcha

COMMON QUESTIONS

Why is there Perl source in my database?

How do I store complex data structures with DB_File?

What does """"Invalid Argument"""" mean?

What does """"Bareword ’DB_File’ not allowed"""" mean?

HISTORY

BUGS

AVAILABILITY

COPYRIGHT

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

Data::Dumper − stringified perl data structures, suitable for both printing and eval

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Methods

PACKAGE −>new( ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF ]), $ OBJ −>Dump or PACKAGE −>Dump( ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF ]), $ OBJ −>Dumpxs

or PACKAGE −>Dumpxs( ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF ]), $ OBJ −>Seen([ HASHREF ]), $ OBJ −>Values([ ARRAYREF ]), $ OBJ −>Names([ ARRAYREF ]), $ OBJ −>Reset

Functions

Dumper( LIST ), DumperX( LIST )

Configuration Variables or Methods

$Data::Dumper::Indent or $ OBJ −>Indent([ NEWVAL ]), $Data::Dumper::Purity or $ OBJ −>Purity([ NEWVAL ]), $Data::Dumper::Pad or $ OBJ −>Pad([ NEWVAL ]), $Data::Dumper::Varname

or $ OBJ −>Varname([ NEWVAL ]), $Data::Dumper::Useqq or $ OBJ −>Useqq([ NEWVAL ]), $Data::Dumper::Terse or $ OBJ −>Terse([ NEWVAL ]), $Data::Dumper::Freezer

or $ OBJ −>Freezer([ NEWVAL ]), $Data::Dumper::Toaster

or $ OBJ −>Toaster([ NEWVAL ]), $Data::Dumper::Deepcopy or

$ OBJ −>Deepcopy([ NEWVAL ]), $Data::Dumper::Quotekeys or $ OBJ −>Quotekeys([ NEWVAL ]), $Data::Dumper::Bless or $ OBJ −>Bless([ NEWVAL ])

Exports

Dumper

EXAMPLES

BUGS

AUTHOR

VERSION

SEE ALSO

Devel::SelfStubber − generate stubs for a SelfLoading module

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

DirHandle − supply object methods for directory handles

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

English − use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation variables

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Env − perl module that imports environment variables

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

Exporter − Implements default import method for modules

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Selecting What To Export

Specialised Import Lists

Exporting without using Export’s import method

Module Version Checking

Managing Unknown Symbols

Tag Handling Utility Functions

ExtUtils::Command − utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

cat, eqtime src dst, rm_f files..., rm_f files..., touch files .., mv source... destination, cp source... destination, chmod mode files.., mkpath directory.., test_f file

BUGS

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

ExtUtils::Embed − Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C ++ applications

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

@ EXPORT

FUNCTIONS

xsinit(), Examples, ldopts(), Examples, perl_inc(), ccflags(), ccdlflags(), ccopts(), xsi_header(), xsi_protos(@modules), xsi_body(@modules)

EXAMPLES

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

ExtUtils::Install − install files from here to there

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

ExtUtils::Installed − Inventory management of installed modules

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

USAGE

FUNCTIONS

new(), modules(), files(), directories(), directory_tree(), validate(), packlist(), version()

EXAMPLE

AUTHOR

ExtUtils::Liblist − determine libraries to use and how to use them

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

For static extensions, For dynamic extensions, For dynamic extensions

EXTRALIBS

LDLOADLIBS and LD_RUN_PATH

BSLOADLIBS

PORTABILITY

VMS implementation

Win32 implementation

SEE ALSO

ExtUtils:: MM_OS2 − methods to override UN *X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

ExtUtils::MM_Unix − methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

METHODS

Preloaded methods

canonpath, catdir, catfile, curdir, rootdir, updir

SelfLoaded methods

c_o (o), cflags (o), clean (o), const_cccmd (o), const_config (o), const_loadlibs (o), constants (o), depend (o), dir_target (o), dist (o), dist_basics (o), dist_ci (o), dist_core (o), dist_dir (o), dist_test (o), dlsyms (o), dynamic (o), dynamic_bs (o), dynamic_lib (o), exescan, extliblist, file_name_is_absolute, find_perl

Methods to actually produce chunks of text for the Makefile

fixin, force (o), guess_name, has_link_code, init_dirscan, init_main, init_others, install (o), installbin (o), libscan (o), linkext (o), lsdir, macro (o), makeaperl (o), makefile (o), manifypods (o), maybe_command, maybe_command_in_dirs, needs_linking (o), nicetext, parse_version, parse_abstract, pasthru (o), path, perl_script, perldepend (o), ppd, perm_rw (o), perm_rwx (o), pm_to_blib, post_constants (o), post_initialize (o), postamble (o), prefixify, processPL (o), realclean (o), replace_manpage_separator, static (o), static_lib (o), staticmake (o), subdir_x (o), subdirs (o), test (o), test_via_harness (o), test_via_script (o), tool_autosplit (o), tools_other (o), tool_xsubpp (o), top_targets (o), writedoc, xs_c (o), xs_o (o), perl_archive, export_list

SEE ALSO

ExtUtils:: MM_VMS − methods to override UN *X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Methods always loaded

eliminate_macros, fixpath, catdir, catfile, wraplist, curdir (override), rootdir (override), updir (override)

SelfLoaded methods

guess_name (override), find_perl (override), path (override), maybe_command (override), maybe_command_in_dirs (override), perl_script (override), file_name_is_absolute (override), replace_manpage_separator, init_others (override), constants (override), cflags (override), const_cccmd (override), pm_to_blib (override), tool_autosplit (override), tool_sxubpp (override), xsubpp_version (override), tools_other (override), dist (override), c_o (override), xs_c (override), xs_o (override), top_targets (override), dlsyms (override), dynamic_lib (override), dynamic_bs (override), static_lib (override), manifypods (override), processPL (override), installbin (override), subdir_x (override), clean (override), realclean (override), dist_basics (override), dist_core (override), dist_dir (override), dist_test (override), install (override), perldepend (override), makefile (override), test (override), test_via_harness (override), test_via_script (override), makeaperl (override), nicetext (override)

ExtUtils::MM_Win32 − methods to override UN *X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

catfile, constants (o), static_lib (o), dynamic_bs (o), dynamic_lib (o), canonpath, perl_script, pm_to_blib, test_via_harness (o), tool_autosplit (override), tools_other (o), xs_o (o), top_targets (o), manifypods (o), dist_ci (o), dist_core (o), pasthru (o)

ExtUtils::MakeMaker − create an extension Makefile

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

How To Write A Makefile. PL

Default Makefile Behaviour

make test

make testdb

make install

PREFIX and LIB attribute

AFS users

Static Linking of a new Perl Binary

Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations

Which architecture dependent directory?

Using Attributes and Parameters

C, CCFLAGS , CONFIG , CONFIGURE , DEFINE , DIR , DISTNAME , DL_FUNCS , DL_VARS , EXCLUDE_EXT , EXE_FILES , NO_VC , FIRST_MAKEFILE , FULLPERL , H, IMPORTS , INC , INCLUDE_EXT , INSTALLARCHLIB , INSTALLBIN , INSTALLDIRS , INSTALLMAN1DIR , INSTALLMAN3DIR , INSTALLPRIVLIB , INSTALLSCRIPT , INSTALLSITELIB , INSTALLSITEARCH , INST_ARCHLIB , INST_BIN , INST_EXE , INST_LIB , INST_MAN1DIR , INST_MAN3DIR , INST_SCRIPT , LDFROM , LIBPERL_A , LIB , LIBS , LINKTYPE , MAKEAPERL , MAKEFILE , MAN1PODS , MAN3PODS , MAP_TARGET , MYEXTLIB , NAME , NEEDS_LINKING , NOECHO , NORECURS , OBJECT , OPTIMIZE , PERL , PERLMAINCC , PERL_ARCHLIB , PERL_LIB , PERL_SRC , PERM_RW , PERM_RWX , PL_FILES , PM , PMLIBDIRS , PREFIX , PREREQ_PM , SKIP , TYPEMAPS , VERSION , VERSION_FROM , XS , XSOPT , XSPROTOARG , XS_VERSION

Additional lowercase attributes

clean, depend, dist, dynamic_lib, installpm, linkext, macro, realclean, tool_autosplit

Overriding MakeMaker Methods

Hintsfile support

Distribution Support

make distcheck, make skipcheck, make distclean,

make manifest, make distdir,

make tardist,

make dist,

make uutardist, make shdist, make zipdist, make ci

Disabling an extension

SEE ALSO

AUTHORS

ExtUtils::Manifest − utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

MANIFEST . SKIP

EXPORT_OK

GLOBAL VARIABLES

DIAGNOSTICS

Not in MANIFEST: file, No such file: file, MANIFEST: $!, Added to MANIFEST: file

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap − make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

ExtUtils::Mksymlists − write linker options files for dynamic extension

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NAME , DL_FUNCS , DL_VARS , FILE , FUNCLIST , DLBASE

AUTHOR

REVISION

ExtUtils::Packlist − manage .packlist files

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

USAGE

FUNCTIONS

new(), read(), write(), validate(), packlist_file()

EXAMPLE

AUTHOR

ExtUtils::testlib − add blib/* directories to @INC

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Fatal − replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

Fcntl − load the C Fcntl.h defines

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTE

EXPORTED SYMBOLS

File::Basename, fileparse − split a pathname into pieces

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

fileparse_set_fstype, fileparse

EXAMPLES

basename, dirname

File::CheckTree, validate − run many filetest checks on a tree

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

File::Compare − Compare files or filehandles

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

RETURN

AUTHOR

File::Copy − Copy files or filehandles

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Special behavior if syscopy is defined ( VMS and OS/2 )

rmscopy($from,$to[,$date_flag])

RETURN

AUTHOR

File::DosGlob − DOS like globbing and then some

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXPORTS (by request only)

BUGS

AUTHOR

HISTORY

SEE ALSO

File::Find, find − traverse a file tree

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

BUGS

File::Path − create or remove a series of directories

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHORS

REVISION

File::Spec − portably perform operations on file names

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

SEE ALSO

AUTHORS

File::Spec::Mac − File::Spec for MacOS

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

METHODS

canonpath, catdir, catfile, curdir, rootdir, updir, file_name_is_absolute, path

SEE ALSO

File::Spec:: OS2 − methods for OS/2 file specs

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

File::Spec::Unix − methods used by File::Spec

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

METHODS

canonpath, catdir, catfile, curdir, rootdir, updir, no_upwards, file_name_is_absolute, path, join, nativename

SEE ALSO

File::Spec:: VMS − methods for VMS file specs

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Methods always loaded

catdir, catfile, curdir (override), rootdir (override), updir (override), path (override), file_name_is_absolute (override)

File::Spec::Win32 − methods for Win32 file specs

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

catfile, canonpath

File::stat − by-name interface to Perl’s built-in stat() functions

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTE

AUTHOR

FileCache − keep more files open than the system permits

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

BUGS

FileHandle − supply object methods for filehandles

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

$fh->print, $fh−>printf, $fh−>getline, $fh−>getlines

SEE ALSO

FindBin − Locate directory of original perl script

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXPORTABLE VARIABLES

KNOWN BUGS

AUTHORS

COPYRIGHT

REVISION

GDBM_File − Perl5 access to the gdbm library.

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AVAILABILITY

BUGS

SEE ALSO

Getopt::Long, GetOptions − extended processing of command line options

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

!, +, :s, :i, :f

Linkage specification

Aliases and abbreviations

Non-option call-back routine

Option starters

Return values and Errors

COMPATIBILITY

EXAMPLES

CONFIGURATION OPTIONS

default, auto_abbrev, getopt_compat, require_order, permute, bundling (default: reset), bundling_override (default: reset), ignore_case (default: set), ignore_case_always (default: reset), pass_through (default: reset), prefix, prefix_pattern, debug (default: reset)

OTHER USEFUL VARIABLES

$Getopt::Long:: VERSION , $Getopt::Long::error

AUTHOR

COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER

Getopt::Std, getopt − Process single-character switches with switch clustering

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

I18N::Collate − compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

IO − load various IO modules

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

IO:: lib:: IO:: File, IO:: File − supply object methods for filehandles

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

CONSTRUCTOR

new ([ ARGS ] ), new_tmpfile

METHODS

open( FILENAME [, MODE [, PERMS ]] )

SEE ALSO

HISTORY

IO:: lib:: IO:: Handle, IO:: Handle − supply object methods for I/O handles

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

CONSTRUCTOR

new (), new_from_fd ( FD , MODE )

METHODS

$fh->fdopen ( FD , MODE ), $fh−>opened, $fh−>getline, $fh−>getlines, $fh−>ungetc ( ORD ), $fh−>write ( BUF , LEN [, OFFSET }\] ), $fh−>flush, $fh−>error, $fh−>clearerr, $fh−>untaint

NOTE

SEE ALSO

BUGS

HISTORY

IO:: lib:: IO:: Pipe, IO:: pipe − supply object methods for pipes

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

CONSTRCUTOR

new ( [ READER , WRITER ] )

METHODS

reader ([ ARGS ]), writer ([ ARGS ]), handles ()

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

COPYRIGHT

IO:: lib:: IO:: Seekable, IO:: Seekable − supply seek based methods for I/O objects

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

SEE ALSO

HISTORY

IO:: lib:: IO:: Select, IO:: Select − OO interface to the select system call

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

CONSTRUCTOR

new ( [ HANDLES ] )

METHODS

add ( HANDLES ), remove ( HANDLES ), exists ( HANDLE ), handles, can_read ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), can_write ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), has_error ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), count (), bits(), bits(), select ( READ , WRITE , ERROR [, TIMEOUT ] )

EXAMPLE

AUTHOR

COPYRIGHT

IO:: lib:: IO:: Socket, IO:: Socket − Object interface to socket communications

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

CONSTRUCTOR

new ( [ ARGS ] )

METHODS

accept([ PKG ]), timeout([ VAL ]), sockopt( OPT [, VAL ]), sockdomain, socktype, protocol

SUBCLASSES

IO:: Socket:: INET

METHODS

sockaddr (), sockport (), sockhost (), peeraddr (), peerport (), peerhost ()

IO:: Socket:: UNIX

METHODS

hostpath(), peerpath()

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

COPYRIGHT

IPC:: Open2, open2 − open a process for both reading and writing

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

WARNING

SEE ALSO

IPC:: Open3, open3 − open a process for reading, writing, and error handling

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

WARNING

IPC:: SysV − SysV IPC constants

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

ftok( PATH , ID )

SEE ALSO

AUTHORS

COPYRIGHT

IPC:: SysV::Msg, IPC:: Msg − SysV Msg IPC object class

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

METHODS

new ( KEY , FLAGS ), id, rcv ( BUF , LEN [, TYPE [, FLAGS ]] ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), snd ( TYPE , MSG [, FLAGS ] ), stat

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

COPYRIGHT

IPC:: SysV::Semaphore, IPC:: Semaphore − SysV Semaphore IPC object class

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

METHODS

new ( KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS ), getall, getncnt ( SEM ), getpid ( SEM ), getval ( SEM ), getzcnt ( SEM ), id, op ( OPLIST ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), setall ( VALUES ), setval ( N , VALUE ), stat

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

COPYRIGHT

Math::BigFloat − Arbitrary length float math package

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

number format, Error returns ’NaN’, Division is computed to

BUGS

AUTHOR

Math::BigInt − Arbitrary size integer math package

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Canonical notation, Input, Output

EXAMPLES

Autocreating constants

BUGS

AUTHOR

Math::Complex − complex numbers and associated mathematical functions

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OPERATIONS

CREATION

STRINGIFICATION

USAGE

ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO OR LOGARITHM OF ZERO

ERRORS DUE TO INDIGESTIBLE ARGUMENTS

BUGS

AUTHORS

Math::Trig − trigonometric functions

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

tan

ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO

SIMPLE ( REAL ) ARGUMENTS , COMPLEX RESULTS

PLANE ANGLE CONVERSIONS

RADIAL COORDINATE CONVERSIONS

COORDINATE SYSTEMS

3-D ANGLE CONVERSIONS

cartesian_to_cylindrical, cartesian_to_spherical, cylindrical_to_cartesian, cylindrical_to_spherical, spherical_to_cartesian, spherical_to_cylindrical

GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCES

EXAMPLES

BUGS

AUTHORS

NDBM_File − Tied access to ndbm files

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Net::Ping − check a remote host for reachability

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Functions

Net::Ping->new([$proto [, $def_timeout [, $bytes]]]);, $p−>ping($host [, $timeout]);, $p−>close();, pingecho($host [, $timeout]);

WARNING

NOTES

Net::hostent − by-name interface to Perl’s built-in gethost*() functions

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLES

NOTE

AUTHOR

Net::netent − by-name interface to Perl’s built-in getnet*() functions

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLES

NOTE

AUTHOR

Net::protoent − by-name interface to Perl’s built-in getproto*() functions

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTE

AUTHOR

Net::servent − by-name interface to Perl’s built-in getserv*() functions

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLES

NOTE

AUTHOR

ODBM_File − Tied access to odbm files

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Opcode − Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTE

WARNING

Operator Names and Operator Lists

an operator name (opname), an operator tag name (optag), a negated opname or optag, an operator set (opset)

Opcode Functions

opcodes, opset ( OP , ...), opset_to_ops ( OPSET ), opset_to_hex ( OPSET ), full_opset, empty_opset, invert_opset ( OPSET ), verify_opset ( OPSET , ...), define_optag ( OPTAG , OPSET ), opmask_add ( OPSET ), opmask, opdesc ( OP , ...), opdump ( PAT )

Manipulating Opsets

TO DO (maybe)

Predefined Opcode Tags

:base_core, :base_mem, :base_loop, :base_io, :base_orig, :base_math, :base_thread, :default, :filesys_read, :sys_db, :browse, :filesys_open, :filesys_write, :subprocess, :ownprocess, :others, :still_to_be_decided, :dangerous

SEE ALSO

AUTHORS

Opcode::Safe, Safe − Compile and execute code in restricted compartments

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

a new namespace, an operator mask

WARNING

RECENT CHANGES

Methods in class Safe

permit ( OP , ...), permit_only ( OP , ...), deny ( OP , ...), deny_only ( OP , ...), trap ( OP , ...), untrap ( OP , ...), share ( NAME , ...), share_from ( PACKAGE , ARRAYREF ), varglob ( VARNAME ), reval ( STRING ), rdo ( FILENAME ), root ( NAMESPACE ), mask ( MASK )

Some Safety Issues

Memory, CPU , Snooping, Signals, State Changes

AUTHOR

Opcode::ops, ops − Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

SEE ALSO

POSIX − Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTE

CAVEATS

FUNCTIONS

_exit, abort, abs, access, acos, alarm, asctime, asin, assert, atan, atan2, atexit, atof, atoi, atol, bsearch, calloc, ceil, chdir, chmod, chown, clearerr, clock, close, closedir, cos, cosh, creat, ctermid, ctime, cuserid, difftime, div, dup, dup2, errno, execl, execle, execlp, execv, execve, execvp, exit, exp, fabs, fclose, fcntl, fdopen, feof, ferror, fflush, fgetc, fgetpos, fgets, fileno, floor, fmod, fopen, fork, fpathconf, fprintf, fputc, fputs, fread, free, freopen, frexp, fscanf, fseek, fsetpos, fstat, ftell, fwrite, getc, getchar, getcwd, getegid, getenv, geteuid, getgid, getgrgid, getgrnam, getgroups, getlogin, getpgrp, getpid, getppid, getpwnam, getpwuid, gets, getuid, gmtime, isalnum, isalpha, isatty, iscntrl, isdigit, isgraph, islower, isprint, ispunct, isspace, isupper, isxdigit, kill, labs, ldexp, ldiv, link, localeconv, localtime, log, log10, longjmp, lseek, malloc, mblen, mbstowcs, mbtowc, memchr, memcmp, memcpy, memmove, memset, mkdir, mkfifo, mktime, modf, nice, offsetof, open, opendir, pathconf, pause, perror, pipe, pow, printf, putc, putchar, puts, qsort, raise, rand, read, readdir, realloc, remove, rename, rewind, rewinddir, rmdir, scanf, setgid, setjmp, setlocale, setpgid, setsid, setuid, sigaction, siglongjmp, sigpending, sigprocmask, sigsetjmp, sigsuspend, sin, sinh, sleep, sprintf, sqrt, srand, sscanf, stat, strcat, strchr, strcmp, strcoll, strcpy, strcspn, strerror, strftime, strlen, strncat, strncmp, strncpy, stroul, strpbrk, strrchr, strspn, strstr, strtod, strtok, strtol, strtoul, strxfrm, sysconf, system, tan, tanh, tcdrain, tcflow, tcflush, tcgetpgrp, tcsendbreak, tcsetpgrp, time, times, tmpfile, tmpnam, tolower, toupper, ttyname, tzname, tzset, umask, uname, ungetc, unlink, utime, vfprintf, vprintf, vsprintf, wait, waitpid, wcstombs, wctomb, write

CLASSES

POSIX:: SigAction

new

POSIX:: SigSet

new, addset, delset, emptyset, fillset, ismember

POSIX:: Termios

new, getattr, getcc, getcflag, getiflag, getispeed, getlflag, getoflag, getospeed, setattr, setcc, setcflag, setiflag, setispeed, setlflag, setoflag, setospeed, Baud rate values, Terminal interface values, c_cc field values, c_cflag field values, c_iflag field values, c_lflag field values, c_oflag field values

PATHNAME CONSTANTS

Constants

POSIX CONSTANTS

Constants

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

Constants

ERRNO

Constants

FCNTL

Constants

FLOAT

Constants

LIMITS

Constants

LOCALE

Constants

MATH

Constants

SIGNAL

Constants

STAT

Constants, Macros

STDLIB

Constants

STDIO

Constants

TIME

Constants

UNISTD

Constants

WAIT

Constants, Macros

CREATION

Pod::Html − module to convert pod files to HTML

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

ARGUMENTS

help, htmlroot, infile, outfile, podroot, podpath, libpods, netscape, nonetscape, index, noindex, recurse, norecurse, title, verbose

EXAMPLE

AUTHOR

BUGS

SEE ALSO

COPYRIGHT

Pod::Text − convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

TODO

SDBM_File − Tied access to sdbm files

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Search::Dict, look − search for key in dictionary file

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

SelectSaver − save and restore selected file handle

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

SelfLoader − load functions only on demand

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

The __DATA__ token

SelfLoader autoloading

Autoloading and package lexicals

SelfLoader and AutoLoader

__DATA__, __END__, and the FOOBAR::DATA filehandle.

Classes and inherited methods.

Multiple packages and fully qualified subroutine names

Shell − run shell commands transparently within perl

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

Socket, sockaddr_in, sockaddr_un, inet_aton, inet_ntoa − load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

inet_aton HOSTNAME , inet_ntoa IP_ADDRESS , INADDR_ANY , INADDR_BROADCAST , INADDR_LOOPBACK , INADDR_NONE , sockaddr_in PORT , ADDRESS , sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN , pack_sockaddr_in PORT , IP_ADDRESS , unpack_sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN , sockaddr_un PATHNAME , sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN , pack_sockaddr_un PATH , unpack_sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN

Symbol − manipulate Perl symbols and their names

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Sys::Hostname − Try every conceivable way to get hostname

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

Syslog, Sys::Syslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask, syslog − Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

openlog $ident, $logopt, $facility, syslog $priority, $format, @args, setlogmask $mask_priority, setlogsock $sock_type (added in 5.004_02), closelog

EXAMPLES

DEPENDENCIES

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

Term::Cap − Perl termcap interface

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLES

Term::Complete − Perl word completion module

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

<tab>, ^D, ^U, <del>, <bs>

DIAGNOSTICS

BUGS

AUTHOR

Term::ReadLine − Perl interface to various readline packages. If no real package is found, substitutes stubs instead of basic functions.

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Minimal set of supported functions

ReadLine, new, readline, addhistory, IN, $OUT, MinLine, findConsole, Attribs, Features

Additional supported functions

tkRunning, ornaments, newTTY

EXPORTS

ENVIRONMENT

Test − provides a simple framework for writing test scripts

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

TEST TYPES

NORMAL TESTS , SKIPPED TESTS , TODO TESTS

ONFAIL

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

Test::Harness − run perl standard test scripts with statistics

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

The test script output

EXPORT

DIAGNOSTICS

All tests successful.\nFiles=%d, Tests=%d, %s, FAILED tests %s\n\tFailed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay., Test returned status %d (wstat %d), Failed 1 test, %.2f%% okay. %s, Failed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay. %s

ENVIRONMENT

SEE ALSO

AUTHORS

BUGS

Text::Abbrev, abbrev − create an abbreviation table from a list

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLE

Text::ParseWords − parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLES

0a simple word, 1multiple spaces are skipped because of our $delim, 2use of quotes to include a space in a word, 3use of a backslash to include a space in a word, 4use of a backslash to remove the special meaning of a double-quote, 5another simple word (note the lack of effect of the backslashed double-quote)

AUTHORS

Text::Soundex − Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by Knuth

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLES

LIMITATIONS

AUTHOR

Text::Tabs -- expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unexpand(1)

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

BUGS

AUTHOR

Text::Wrap − line wrapping to form simple paragraphs

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLE

BUGS

AUTHOR

Thread − multithreading

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

FUNCTIONS

new \&start_sub, new \&start_sub, LIST , lock VARIABLE , async BLOCK ;, Thread->self, Thread->list, cond_wait VARIABLE , cond_signal VARIABLE , cond_broadcast VARIABLE

METHODS

join, eval, tid

LIMITATIONS

SEE ALSO

Thread::Queue − thread-safe queues

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

FUNCTIONS AND METHODS

new, enqueue LIST , dequeue, dequeue_nb, pending

SEE ALSO

Thread::Semaphore − thread-safe semaphores

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

FUNCTIONS AND METHODS

new, new NUMBER , down, down NUMBER , up, up NUMBER

Thread::Signal − Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

BUGS

Thread::Specific − thread-specific keys

SYNOPSIS

Tie::Array − base class for tied arrays

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

TIEARRAY classname, LIST , STORE this, index, value, FETCH this, index, FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count, CLEAR this, DESTROY this, PUSH this, LIST , POP this, SHIFT this, UNSHIFT this, LIST , SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST

CAVEATS

AUTHOR

Tie::Handle − base class definitions for tied handles

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

TIEHANDLE classname, LIST , WRITE this, scalar, length, offset, PRINT this, LIST , PRINTF this, format, LIST , READ this, scalar, length, offset, READLINE this, GETC this, DESTROY this

MORE INFORMATION

Tie::Hash, Tie::StdHash − base class definitions for tied hashes

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

TIEHASH classname, LIST , STORE this, key, value, FETCH this, key, FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this

CAVEATS

MORE INFORMATION

Tie::RefHash − use references as hash keys

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLE

AUTHOR

VERSION

SEE ALSO

Tie::Scalar, Tie::StdScalar − base class definitions for tied scalars

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

TIESCALAR classname, LIST , FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY this

MORE INFORMATION

Tie::SubstrHash − Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

CAVEATS

Time::Local − efficiently compute time from local and GMT time

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

Time::gmtime − by-name interface to Perl’s built-in gmtime() function

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTE

AUTHOR

Time::localtime − by-name interface to Perl’s built-in localtime() function

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTE

AUTHOR

Time::tm − internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

AUTHOR

UNIVERSAL − base class for ALL classes (blessed references)

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

isa ( TYPE ), can ( METHOD ), VERSION ( [ REQUIRE ] ), UNIVERSAL:: isa ( VAL , TYPE ), UNIVERSAL:: can ( VAL , METHOD )

User::grent − by-name interface to Perl’s built-in getgr*() functions

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTE

AUTHOR

User::pwent − by-name interface to Perl’s built-in getpw*() functions

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

NOTE

AUTHOR

AUXILIARY DOCUMENTATION

Here should be listed all the extra programs’ documentation, but they don’t all have manual pages yet:

a2p

s2p

find2perl

h2ph

c2ph

h2xs

xsubpp

pod2man

wrapsuid

AUTHOR

Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>, with the help of oodles of other folks.