Java JDBC Insert Example: How to insert data into a SQL table

In my first JDBC tutorial (How to connect to a JDBC database) I demonstrated how to connect your Java applications to standard SQL databases like MySQL, SQL Server, Oracle, SQLite, and others using the JDBC Connection object.

In this article I'll take the next step -- I'll show you how to insert data into a data table using Java, JDBC, and SQL.

Our sample database

Before getting into our SQL statements, you need to know what our database table looks like. In all of our examples in this series, we're going to be working with a database named Demo.  In today's example I'll populate a database table named Customers. Customers is a table contained within the overall Demo database.

Here's what the Customers database table looks like:
 

Cnum
Lname
Salutation
City
Snum
1001 Simpson Mr. Springfield 2001
1002 McBeal Ms. Boston 2004
1003 Flinstone Mr. Bedrock 2003
1004 Cramden Mr. New York 2001

Table 1: Our sample Customers database table will contain these four sample records. 

How to create a JDBC INSERT statement

Today I'll show you that inserting data into an SQL database table is a simple two-step process:

  1. Create a Statement object.
  2. Execute the SQL INSERT command through the JDBC Statement object.

If you're comfortable with SQL, this is an easy process. When Sun created JDBC, they intended to "make the simple things simple".

Execute the JDBC INSERT statement

Our SQL INSERT statements are also pretty simple, especially if you're comfortable with SQL.  Here's an example of how we create our Statement object, and then insert a record for a person named Mr. Simpson, of a town named Springfield:

// create our java jdbc statement
Statement statement = conn.createStatement();
statement.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO Customers " + "VALUES (1001, 'Simpson', 'Mr.', 'Springfield', 2001)");

As you can see, you just (1) create a JDBC Statement object, and (2) run your SQL INSERT statement using the Statement object's executeUpdate method.

If you're not familiar with SQL, note that you must insert your fields in the order in which your table is defined (Cnum, Lname, Salutation, City, and Snum). (Snum stands for Salesperson Number, which we'll use later to link this table to our Salesperson table.)

Inserting the other three records is just as easy as inserting this record. We can just re-use the Statement object, and use our new values:

statement.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO Customers " + "VALUES (1002, 'McBeal', 'Ms.', 'Boston', 2004)");
statement.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO Customers " + "VALUES (1003, 'Flinstone', 'Mr.', 'Bedrock', 2003)");
statement.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO Customers " + "VALUES (1004, 'Cramden', 'Mr.', 'New York', 2001)");

As you can see, this is pretty easy (once you've seen how it's done). In a real application you'll just replace the string constants we've used with variables that you obtain from (a) an end-user or (b) an input data source.

(Note: In this example, we've assumed that the database table named Customers is already created. You can create your database tables through your database management tools. For instance, we created our sample Customers tables using msqladmin for Mini SQL (mSQL), and through Interbase Server Manager tools under Windows95 for our Interbase server. You can also create your tables through JDBC code, which we'll tackle in a later tutorial.)

The JdbcInsert1.java program

We named our completed application Insert1.java. To help you understand the entire chain of events that are necessary, the full source code for the application is shown in Listing 1.

import java.sql.*;

/**
 * JdbcInsert1.java - Demonstrates how to INSERT data into an SQL
 *                    database using Java JDBC.
 */
class JdbcInsert1 { 
  
    public static void main (String[] args) { 
        try { 
            String url = "jdbc:msql://200.210.220.1:1114/Demo"; 
            Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(url,"",""); 
            Statement st = conn.createStatement(); 
            st.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO Customers " + 
                "VALUES (1001, 'Simpson', 'Mr.', 'Springfield', 2001)"); 
            st.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO Customers " + 
                "VALUES (1002, 'McBeal', 'Ms.', 'Boston', 2004)"); 
            st.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO Customers " + 
                "VALUES (1003, 'Flinstone', 'Mr.', 'Bedrock', 2003)"); 
            st.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO Customers " + 
                "VALUES (1004, 'Cramden', 'Mr.', 'New York', 2001)");

            conn.close(); 
        } catch (Exception e) { 
            System.err.println("Got an exception! "); 
            System.err.println(e.getMessage()); 
        } 
  
    }
} 

Listing 1: The source code for theInsert1.java program shows how to INSERT data into an SQL database using Java and JDBC.

Download our JDBC Insert example program

If you're interested, you can download our Java source code for the JdbcInsert1.java program.  You can test the code on your own system, but note that you'll need to change the lines where we create our url and conn objects to reflect your own database configuration. 

Conclusion

Inserting data into an SQL database table with JDBC is a simple two-step process. Just (1) create a Statement object, and (2) use the object to run your normal SQL INSERT commands.
 

There is a lot of newer Java and JDBC content on our website, including these JDBC tips:

about java query

sir,
i m doing project in java.thats y one qyery arises here regarding Jtable.
How MS Acess Tabel Information collect/Migrate into Jtable?
plz, send me all information with code. as soon as possible

That's actually a great

That's actually a great suggestion for a future article, but to write all that code is actually a lot of work, and I won't have time for it in the next few days.

In short, you need to read the data from the database table into a Collection of Java objects that more or less mirror the database table; create a TableModel, and populate it with this Collection; use that TableModel to construct a JTable; put that JTable into a scroll pane, and then display all of that however you want in a JFrame.

In the short term, I hope that helps.

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