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Java example source code file (FieldRotation.java)

This example Java source code file (FieldRotation.java) is included in the alvinalexander.com "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM.

Learn more about this Java project at its project page.

Java - Java tags/keywords

cardaneulersingularityexception, deprecated, fieldrotation, fieldvector3d, matharithmeticexception, mathillegalargumentexception, notarotationmatrixexception, pi/2, realfieldelement, rotationconvention, rotationorder, serializable, zyz

The FieldRotation.java Java example source code

/*
 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
 * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
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 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
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package org.apache.commons.math3.geometry.euclidean.threed;

import java.io.Serializable;

import org.apache.commons.math3.RealFieldElement;
import org.apache.commons.math3.Field;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.MathArithmeticException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.MathIllegalArgumentException;
import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.util.LocalizedFormats;
import org.apache.commons.math3.util.FastMath;
import org.apache.commons.math3.util.MathArrays;

/**
 * This class is a re-implementation of {@link Rotation} using {@link RealFieldElement}.
 * <p>Instance of this class are guaranteed to be immutable.

* * @param <T> the type of the field elements * @see FieldVector3D * @see RotationOrder * @since 3.2 */ public class FieldRotation<T extends RealFieldElement implements Serializable { /** Serializable version identifier */ private static final long serialVersionUID = 20130224l; /** Scalar coordinate of the quaternion. */ private final T q0; /** First coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion. */ private final T q1; /** Second coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion. */ private final T q2; /** Third coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion. */ private final T q3; /** Build a rotation from the quaternion coordinates. * <p>A rotation can be built from a normalized quaternion, * i.e. a quaternion for which q<sub>02 + * q<sub>12 + q22 + * q<sub>32 = 1. If the quaternion is not normalized, * the constructor can normalize it in a preprocessing step.</p> * <p>Note that some conventions put the scalar part of the quaternion * as the 4<sup>th component and the vector part as the first three * components. This is <em>not our convention. We put the scalar part * as the first component.</p> * @param q0 scalar part of the quaternion * @param q1 first coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion * @param q2 second coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion * @param q3 third coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion * @param needsNormalization if true, the coordinates are considered * not to be normalized, a normalization preprocessing step is performed * before using them */ public FieldRotation(final T q0, final T q1, final T q2, final T q3, final boolean needsNormalization) { if (needsNormalization) { // normalization preprocessing final T inv = q0.multiply(q0).add(q1.multiply(q1)).add(q2.multiply(q2)).add(q3.multiply(q3)).sqrt().reciprocal(); this.q0 = inv.multiply(q0); this.q1 = inv.multiply(q1); this.q2 = inv.multiply(q2); this.q3 = inv.multiply(q3); } else { this.q0 = q0; this.q1 = q1; this.q2 = q2; this.q3 = q3; } } /** Build a rotation from an axis and an angle. * <p>We use the convention that angles are oriented according to * the effect of the rotation on vectors around the axis. That means * that if (i, j, k) is a direct frame and if we first provide +k as * the axis and π/2 as the angle to this constructor, and then * {@link #applyTo(FieldVector3D) apply} the instance to +i, we will get * +j.</p> * <p>Another way to represent our convention is to say that a rotation * of angle θ about the unit vector (x, y, z) is the same as the * rotation build from quaternion components { cos(-θ/2), * x * sin(-θ/2), y * sin(-θ/2), z * sin(-θ/2) }. * Note the minus sign on the angle!</p> * <p>On the one hand this convention is consistent with a vectorial * perspective (moving vectors in fixed frames), on the other hand it * is different from conventions with a frame perspective (fixed vectors * viewed from different frames) like the ones used for example in spacecraft * attitude community or in the graphics community.</p> * @param axis axis around which to rotate * @param angle rotation angle. * @exception MathIllegalArgumentException if the axis norm is zero * @deprecated as of 3.6, replaced with {@link * #FieldRotation(FieldVector3D, RealFieldElement, RotationConvention)} */ @Deprecated public FieldRotation(final FieldVector3D<T> axis, final T angle) throws MathIllegalArgumentException { this(axis, angle, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR); } /** Build a rotation from an axis and an angle. * <p>We use the convention that angles are oriented according to * the effect of the rotation on vectors around the axis. That means * that if (i, j, k) is a direct frame and if we first provide +k as * the axis and π/2 as the angle to this constructor, and then * {@link #applyTo(FieldVector3D) apply} the instance to +i, we will get * +j.</p> * <p>Another way to represent our convention is to say that a rotation * of angle θ about the unit vector (x, y, z) is the same as the * rotation build from quaternion components { cos(-θ/2), * x * sin(-θ/2), y * sin(-θ/2), z * sin(-θ/2) }. * Note the minus sign on the angle!</p> * <p>On the one hand this convention is consistent with a vectorial * perspective (moving vectors in fixed frames), on the other hand it * is different from conventions with a frame perspective (fixed vectors * viewed from different frames) like the ones used for example in spacecraft * attitude community or in the graphics community.</p> * @param axis axis around which to rotate * @param angle rotation angle. * @param convention convention to use for the semantics of the angle * @exception MathIllegalArgumentException if the axis norm is zero * @since 3.6 */ public FieldRotation(final FieldVector3D<T> axis, final T angle, final RotationConvention convention) throws MathIllegalArgumentException { final T norm = axis.getNorm(); if (norm.getReal() == 0) { throw new MathIllegalArgumentException(LocalizedFormats.ZERO_NORM_FOR_ROTATION_AXIS); } final T halfAngle = angle.multiply(convention == RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR ? -0.5 : 0.5); final T coeff = halfAngle.sin().divide(norm); q0 = halfAngle.cos(); q1 = coeff.multiply(axis.getX()); q2 = coeff.multiply(axis.getY()); q3 = coeff.multiply(axis.getZ()); } /** Build a rotation from a 3X3 matrix. * <p>Rotation matrices are orthogonal matrices, i.e. unit matrices * (which are matrices for which m.m<sup>T = I) with real * coefficients. The module of the determinant of unit matrices is * 1, among the orthogonal 3X3 matrices, only the ones having a * positive determinant (+1) are rotation matrices.</p> * <p>When a rotation is defined by a matrix with truncated values * (typically when it is extracted from a technical sheet where only * four to five significant digits are available), the matrix is not * orthogonal anymore. This constructor handles this case * transparently by using a copy of the given matrix and applying a * correction to the copy in order to perfect its orthogonality. If * the Frobenius norm of the correction needed is above the given * threshold, then the matrix is considered to be too far from a * true rotation matrix and an exception is thrown.<p> * @param m rotation matrix * @param threshold convergence threshold for the iterative * orthogonality correction (convergence is reached when the * difference between two steps of the Frobenius norm of the * correction is below this threshold) * @exception NotARotationMatrixException if the matrix is not a 3X3 * matrix, or if it cannot be transformed into an orthogonal matrix * with the given threshold, or if the determinant of the resulting * orthogonal matrix is negative */ public FieldRotation(final T[][] m, final double threshold) throws NotARotationMatrixException { // dimension check if ((m.length != 3) || (m[0].length != 3) || (m[1].length != 3) || (m[2].length != 3)) { throw new NotARotationMatrixException( LocalizedFormats.ROTATION_MATRIX_DIMENSIONS, m.length, m[0].length); } // compute a "close" orthogonal matrix final T[][] ort = orthogonalizeMatrix(m, threshold); // check the sign of the determinant final T d0 = ort[1][1].multiply(ort[2][2]).subtract(ort[2][1].multiply(ort[1][2])); final T d1 = ort[0][1].multiply(ort[2][2]).subtract(ort[2][1].multiply(ort[0][2])); final T d2 = ort[0][1].multiply(ort[1][2]).subtract(ort[1][1].multiply(ort[0][2])); final T det = ort[0][0].multiply(d0).subtract(ort[1][0].multiply(d1)).add(ort[2][0].multiply(d2)); if (det.getReal() < 0.0) { throw new NotARotationMatrixException( LocalizedFormats.CLOSEST_ORTHOGONAL_MATRIX_HAS_NEGATIVE_DETERMINANT, det); } final T[] quat = mat2quat(ort); q0 = quat[0]; q1 = quat[1]; q2 = quat[2]; q3 = quat[3]; } /** Build the rotation that transforms a pair of vectors into another pair. * <p>Except for possible scale factors, if the instance were applied to * the pair (u<sub>1, u2) it will produce the pair * (v<sub>1, v2).

* <p>If the angular separation between u1 and u2 is * not the same as the angular separation between v<sub>1 and * v<sub>2, then a corrected v'2 will be used rather than * v<sub>2, the corrected vector will be in the (±v1, * +v<sub>2) half-plane.

* @param u1 first vector of the origin pair * @param u2 second vector of the origin pair * @param v1 desired image of u1 by the rotation * @param v2 desired image of u2 by the rotation * @exception MathArithmeticException if the norm of one of the vectors is zero, * or if one of the pair is degenerated (i.e. the vectors of the pair are collinear) */ public FieldRotation(FieldVector3D<T> u1, FieldVector3D u2, FieldVector3D v1, FieldVector3D v2) throws MathArithmeticException { // build orthonormalized base from u1, u2 // this fails when vectors are null or collinear, which is forbidden to define a rotation final FieldVector3D<T> u3 = FieldVector3D.crossProduct(u1, u2).normalize(); u2 = FieldVector3D.crossProduct(u3, u1).normalize(); u1 = u1.normalize(); // build an orthonormalized base from v1, v2 // this fails when vectors are null or collinear, which is forbidden to define a rotation final FieldVector3D<T> v3 = FieldVector3D.crossProduct(v1, v2).normalize(); v2 = FieldVector3D.crossProduct(v3, v1).normalize(); v1 = v1.normalize(); // buid a matrix transforming the first base into the second one final T[][] array = MathArrays.buildArray(u1.getX().getField(), 3, 3); array[0][0] = u1.getX().multiply(v1.getX()).add(u2.getX().multiply(v2.getX())).add(u3.getX().multiply(v3.getX())); array[0][1] = u1.getY().multiply(v1.getX()).add(u2.getY().multiply(v2.getX())).add(u3.getY().multiply(v3.getX())); array[0][2] = u1.getZ().multiply(v1.getX()).add(u2.getZ().multiply(v2.getX())).add(u3.getZ().multiply(v3.getX())); array[1][0] = u1.getX().multiply(v1.getY()).add(u2.getX().multiply(v2.getY())).add(u3.getX().multiply(v3.getY())); array[1][1] = u1.getY().multiply(v1.getY()).add(u2.getY().multiply(v2.getY())).add(u3.getY().multiply(v3.getY())); array[1][2] = u1.getZ().multiply(v1.getY()).add(u2.getZ().multiply(v2.getY())).add(u3.getZ().multiply(v3.getY())); array[2][0] = u1.getX().multiply(v1.getZ()).add(u2.getX().multiply(v2.getZ())).add(u3.getX().multiply(v3.getZ())); array[2][1] = u1.getY().multiply(v1.getZ()).add(u2.getY().multiply(v2.getZ())).add(u3.getY().multiply(v3.getZ())); array[2][2] = u1.getZ().multiply(v1.getZ()).add(u2.getZ().multiply(v2.getZ())).add(u3.getZ().multiply(v3.getZ())); T[] quat = mat2quat(array); q0 = quat[0]; q1 = quat[1]; q2 = quat[2]; q3 = quat[3]; } /** Build one of the rotations that transform one vector into another one. * <p>Except for a possible scale factor, if the instance were * applied to the vector u it will produce the vector v. There is an * infinite number of such rotations, this constructor choose the * one with the smallest associated angle (i.e. the one whose axis * is orthogonal to the (u, v) plane). If u and v are collinear, an * arbitrary rotation axis is chosen.</p> * @param u origin vector * @param v desired image of u by the rotation * @exception MathArithmeticException if the norm of one of the vectors is zero */ public FieldRotation(final FieldVector3D<T> u, final FieldVector3D v) throws MathArithmeticException { final T normProduct = u.getNorm().multiply(v.getNorm()); if (normProduct.getReal() == 0) { throw new MathArithmeticException(LocalizedFormats.ZERO_NORM_FOR_ROTATION_DEFINING_VECTOR); } final T dot = FieldVector3D.dotProduct(u, v); if (dot.getReal() < ((2.0e-15 - 1.0) * normProduct.getReal())) { // special case u = -v: we select a PI angle rotation around // an arbitrary vector orthogonal to u final FieldVector3D<T> w = u.orthogonal(); q0 = normProduct.getField().getZero(); q1 = w.getX().negate(); q2 = w.getY().negate(); q3 = w.getZ().negate(); } else { // general case: (u, v) defines a plane, we select // the shortest possible rotation: axis orthogonal to this plane q0 = dot.divide(normProduct).add(1.0).multiply(0.5).sqrt(); final T coeff = q0.multiply(normProduct).multiply(2.0).reciprocal(); final FieldVector3D<T> q = FieldVector3D.crossProduct(v, u); q1 = coeff.multiply(q.getX()); q2 = coeff.multiply(q.getY()); q3 = coeff.multiply(q.getZ()); } } /** Build a rotation from three Cardan or Euler elementary rotations. * <p>Cardan rotations are three successive rotations around the * canonical axes X, Y and Z, each axis being used once. There are * 6 such sets of rotations (XYZ, XZY, YXZ, YZX, ZXY and ZYX). Euler * rotations are three successive rotations around the canonical * axes X, Y and Z, the first and last rotations being around the * same axis. There are 6 such sets of rotations (XYX, XZX, YXY, * YZY, ZXZ and ZYZ), the most popular one being ZXZ.</p> * <p>Beware that many people routinely use the term Euler angles even * for what really are Cardan angles (this confusion is especially * widespread in the aerospace business where Roll, Pitch and Yaw angles * are often wrongly tagged as Euler angles).</p> * @param order order of rotations to use * @param alpha1 angle of the first elementary rotation * @param alpha2 angle of the second elementary rotation * @param alpha3 angle of the third elementary rotation * @deprecated as of 3.6, replaced with {@link * #FieldRotation(RotationOrder, RotationConvention, * RealFieldElement, RealFieldElement, RealFieldElement)} */ @Deprecated public FieldRotation(final RotationOrder order, final T alpha1, final T alpha2, final T alpha3) { this(order, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR, alpha1, alpha2, alpha3); } /** Build a rotation from three Cardan or Euler elementary rotations. * <p>Cardan rotations are three successive rotations around the * canonical axes X, Y and Z, each axis being used once. There are * 6 such sets of rotations (XYZ, XZY, YXZ, YZX, ZXY and ZYX). Euler * rotations are three successive rotations around the canonical * axes X, Y and Z, the first and last rotations being around the * same axis. There are 6 such sets of rotations (XYX, XZX, YXY, * YZY, ZXZ and ZYZ), the most popular one being ZXZ.</p> * <p>Beware that many people routinely use the term Euler angles even * for what really are Cardan angles (this confusion is especially * widespread in the aerospace business where Roll, Pitch and Yaw angles * are often wrongly tagged as Euler angles).</p> * @param order order of rotations to compose, from left to right * (i.e. we will use {@code r1.compose(r2.compose(r3, convention), convention)}) * @param convention convention to use for the semantics of the angle * @param alpha1 angle of the first elementary rotation * @param alpha2 angle of the second elementary rotation * @param alpha3 angle of the third elementary rotation * @since 3.6 */ public FieldRotation(final RotationOrder order, final RotationConvention convention, final T alpha1, final T alpha2, final T alpha3) { final T one = alpha1.getField().getOne(); final FieldRotation<T> r1 = new FieldRotation(new FieldVector3D(one, order.getA1()), alpha1, convention); final FieldRotation<T> r2 = new FieldRotation(new FieldVector3D(one, order.getA2()), alpha2, convention); final FieldRotation<T> r3 = new FieldRotation(new FieldVector3D(one, order.getA3()), alpha3, convention); final FieldRotation<T> composed = r1.compose(r2.compose(r3, convention), convention); q0 = composed.q0; q1 = composed.q1; q2 = composed.q2; q3 = composed.q3; } /** Convert an orthogonal rotation matrix to a quaternion. * @param ort orthogonal rotation matrix * @return quaternion corresponding to the matrix */ private T[] mat2quat(final T[][] ort) { final T[] quat = MathArrays.buildArray(ort[0][0].getField(), 4); // There are different ways to compute the quaternions elements // from the matrix. They all involve computing one element from // the diagonal of the matrix, and computing the three other ones // using a formula involving a division by the first element, // which unfortunately can be zero. Since the norm of the // quaternion is 1, we know at least one element has an absolute // value greater or equal to 0.5, so it is always possible to // select the right formula and avoid division by zero and even // numerical inaccuracy. Checking the elements in turn and using // the first one greater than 0.45 is safe (this leads to a simple // test since qi = 0.45 implies 4 qi^2 - 1 = -0.19) T s = ort[0][0].add(ort[1][1]).add(ort[2][2]); if (s.getReal() > -0.19) { // compute q0 and deduce q1, q2 and q3 quat[0] = s.add(1.0).sqrt().multiply(0.5); T inv = quat[0].reciprocal().multiply(0.25); quat[1] = inv.multiply(ort[1][2].subtract(ort[2][1])); quat[2] = inv.multiply(ort[2][0].subtract(ort[0][2])); quat[3] = inv.multiply(ort[0][1].subtract(ort[1][0])); } else { s = ort[0][0].subtract(ort[1][1]).subtract(ort[2][2]); if (s.getReal() > -0.19) { // compute q1 and deduce q0, q2 and q3 quat[1] = s.add(1.0).sqrt().multiply(0.5); T inv = quat[1].reciprocal().multiply(0.25); quat[0] = inv.multiply(ort[1][2].subtract(ort[2][1])); quat[2] = inv.multiply(ort[0][1].add(ort[1][0])); quat[3] = inv.multiply(ort[0][2].add(ort[2][0])); } else { s = ort[1][1].subtract(ort[0][0]).subtract(ort[2][2]); if (s.getReal() > -0.19) { // compute q2 and deduce q0, q1 and q3 quat[2] = s.add(1.0).sqrt().multiply(0.5); T inv = quat[2].reciprocal().multiply(0.25); quat[0] = inv.multiply(ort[2][0].subtract(ort[0][2])); quat[1] = inv.multiply(ort[0][1].add(ort[1][0])); quat[3] = inv.multiply(ort[2][1].add(ort[1][2])); } else { // compute q3 and deduce q0, q1 and q2 s = ort[2][2].subtract(ort[0][0]).subtract(ort[1][1]); quat[3] = s.add(1.0).sqrt().multiply(0.5); T inv = quat[3].reciprocal().multiply(0.25); quat[0] = inv.multiply(ort[0][1].subtract(ort[1][0])); quat[1] = inv.multiply(ort[0][2].add(ort[2][0])); quat[2] = inv.multiply(ort[2][1].add(ort[1][2])); } } } return quat; } /** Revert a rotation. * Build a rotation which reverse the effect of another * rotation. This means that if r(u) = v, then r.revert(v) = u. The * instance is not changed. * @return a new rotation whose effect is the reverse of the effect * of the instance */ public FieldRotation<T> revert() { return new FieldRotation<T>(q0.negate(), q1, q2, q3, false); } /** Get the scalar coordinate of the quaternion. * @return scalar coordinate of the quaternion */ public T getQ0() { return q0; } /** Get the first coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion. * @return first coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion */ public T getQ1() { return q1; } /** Get the second coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion. * @return second coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion */ public T getQ2() { return q2; } /** Get the third coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion. * @return third coordinate of the vectorial part of the quaternion */ public T getQ3() { return q3; } /** Get the normalized axis of the rotation. * @return normalized axis of the rotation * @see #FieldRotation(FieldVector3D, RealFieldElement) * @deprecated as of 3.6, replaced with {@link #getAxis(RotationConvention)} */ @Deprecated public FieldVector3D<T> getAxis() { return getAxis(RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR); } /** Get the normalized axis of the rotation. * <p> * Note that as {@link #getAngle()} always returns an angle * between 0 and π, changing the convention changes the * direction of the axis, not the sign of the angle. * </p> * @param convention convention to use for the semantics of the angle * @return normalized axis of the rotation * @see #FieldRotation(FieldVector3D, RealFieldElement) * @since 3.6 */ public FieldVector3D<T> getAxis(final RotationConvention convention) { final T squaredSine = q1.multiply(q1).add(q2.multiply(q2)).add(q3.multiply(q3)); if (squaredSine.getReal() == 0) { final Field<T> field = squaredSine.getField(); return new FieldVector3D<T>(convention == RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR ? field.getOne(): field.getOne().negate(), field.getZero(), field.getZero()); } else { final double sgn = convention == RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR ? +1 : -1; if (q0.getReal() < 0) { T inverse = squaredSine.sqrt().reciprocal().multiply(sgn); return new FieldVector3D<T>(q1.multiply(inverse), q2.multiply(inverse), q3.multiply(inverse)); } final T inverse = squaredSine.sqrt().reciprocal().negate().multiply(sgn); return new FieldVector3D<T>(q1.multiply(inverse), q2.multiply(inverse), q3.multiply(inverse)); } } /** Get the angle of the rotation. * @return angle of the rotation (between 0 and π) * @see #FieldRotation(FieldVector3D, RealFieldElement) */ public T getAngle() { if ((q0.getReal() < -0.1) || (q0.getReal() > 0.1)) { return q1.multiply(q1).add(q2.multiply(q2)).add(q3.multiply(q3)).sqrt().asin().multiply(2); } else if (q0.getReal() < 0) { return q0.negate().acos().multiply(2); } return q0.acos().multiply(2); } /** Get the Cardan or Euler angles corresponding to the instance. * <p>The equations show that each rotation can be defined by two * different values of the Cardan or Euler angles set. For example * if Cardan angles are used, the rotation defined by the angles * a<sub>1, a2 and a3 is the same as * the rotation defined by the angles π + a<sub>1, π * - a<sub>2 and π + a3. This method implements * the following arbitrary choices:</p> * <ul> * <li>for Cardan angles, the chosen set is the one for which the * second angle is between -π/2 and π/2 (i.e its cosine is * positive),</li> * <li>for Euler angles, the chosen set is the one for which the * second angle is between 0 and π (i.e its sine is positive).</li> * </ul> * <p>Cardan and Euler angle have a very disappointing drawback: all * of them have singularities. This means that if the instance is * too close to the singularities corresponding to the given * rotation order, it will be impossible to retrieve the angles. For * Cardan angles, this is often called gimbal lock. There is * <em>nothing to do to prevent this, it is an intrinsic problem * with Cardan and Euler representation (but not a problem with the * rotation itself, which is perfectly well defined). For Cardan * angles, singularities occur when the second angle is close to * -π/2 or +π/2, for Euler angle singularities occur when the * second angle is close to 0 or π, this implies that the identity * rotation is always singular for Euler angles!</p> * @param order rotation order to use * @return an array of three angles, in the order specified by the set * @exception CardanEulerSingularityException if the rotation is * singular with respect to the angles set specified * @deprecated as of 3.6, replaced with {@link #getAngles(RotationOrder, RotationConvention)} */ @Deprecated public T[] getAngles(final RotationOrder order) throws CardanEulerSingularityException { return getAngles(order, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR); } /** Get the Cardan or Euler angles corresponding to the instance. * <p>The equations show that each rotation can be defined by two * different values of the Cardan or Euler angles set. For example * if Cardan angles are used, the rotation defined by the angles * a<sub>1, a2 and a3 is the same as * the rotation defined by the angles π + a<sub>1, π * - a<sub>2 and π + a3. This method implements * the following arbitrary choices:</p> * <ul> * <li>for Cardan angles, the chosen set is the one for which the * second angle is between -π/2 and π/2 (i.e its cosine is * positive),</li> * <li>for Euler angles, the chosen set is the one for which the * second angle is between 0 and π (i.e its sine is positive).</li> * </ul> * <p>Cardan and Euler angle have a very disappointing drawback: all * of them have singularities. This means that if the instance is * too close to the singularities corresponding to the given * rotation order, it will be impossible to retrieve the angles. For * Cardan angles, this is often called gimbal lock. There is * <em>nothing to do to prevent this, it is an intrinsic problem * with Cardan and Euler representation (but not a problem with the * rotation itself, which is perfectly well defined). For Cardan * angles, singularities occur when the second angle is close to * -π/2 or +π/2, for Euler angle singularities occur when the * second angle is close to 0 or π, this implies that the identity * rotation is always singular for Euler angles!</p> * @param order rotation order to use * @param convention convention to use for the semantics of the angle * @return an array of three angles, in the order specified by the set * @exception CardanEulerSingularityException if the rotation is * singular with respect to the angles set specified * @since 3.6 */ public T[] getAngles(final RotationOrder order, RotationConvention convention) throws CardanEulerSingularityException { if (convention == RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR) { if (order == RotationOrder.XYZ) { // r (+K) coordinates are : // sin (theta), -cos (theta) sin (phi), cos (theta) cos (phi) // (-r) (+I) coordinates are : // cos (psi) cos (theta), -sin (psi) cos (theta), sin (theta) final // and we can choose to have theta in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(0, 0, 1)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(1, 0, 0)); if ((v2.getZ().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getZ().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v1.getY().negate().atan2(v1.getZ()), v2.getZ().asin(), v2.getY().negate().atan2(v2.getX())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.XZY) { // r (+J) coordinates are : // -sin (psi), cos (psi) cos (phi), cos (psi) sin (phi) // (-r) (+I) coordinates are : // cos (theta) cos (psi), -sin (psi), sin (theta) cos (psi) // and we can choose to have psi in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(0, 1, 0)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(1, 0, 0)); if ((v2.getY().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getY().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v1.getZ().atan2(v1.getY()), v2.getY().asin().negate(), v2.getZ().atan2(v2.getX())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.YXZ) { // r (+K) coordinates are : // cos (phi) sin (theta), -sin (phi), cos (phi) cos (theta) // (-r) (+J) coordinates are : // sin (psi) cos (phi), cos (psi) cos (phi), -sin (phi) // and we can choose to have phi in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(0, 0, 1)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(0, 1, 0)); if ((v2.getZ().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getZ().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v1.getX().atan2(v1.getZ()), v2.getZ().asin().negate(), v2.getX().atan2(v2.getY())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.YZX) { // r (+I) coordinates are : // cos (psi) cos (theta), sin (psi), -cos (psi) sin (theta) // (-r) (+J) coordinates are : // sin (psi), cos (phi) cos (psi), -sin (phi) cos (psi) // and we can choose to have psi in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(1, 0, 0)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(0, 1, 0)); if ((v2.getX().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getX().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v1.getZ().negate().atan2(v1.getX()), v2.getX().asin(), v2.getZ().negate().atan2(v2.getY())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.ZXY) { // r (+J) coordinates are : // -cos (phi) sin (psi), cos (phi) cos (psi), sin (phi) // (-r) (+K) coordinates are : // -sin (theta) cos (phi), sin (phi), cos (theta) cos (phi) // and we can choose to have phi in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(0, 1, 0)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(0, 0, 1)); if ((v2.getY().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getY().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v1.getX().negate().atan2(v1.getY()), v2.getY().asin(), v2.getX().negate().atan2(v2.getZ())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.ZYX) { // r (+I) coordinates are : // cos (theta) cos (psi), cos (theta) sin (psi), -sin (theta) // (-r) (+K) coordinates are : // -sin (theta), sin (phi) cos (theta), cos (phi) cos (theta) // and we can choose to have theta in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(1, 0, 0)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(0, 0, 1)); if ((v2.getX().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getX().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v1.getY().atan2(v1.getX()), v2.getX().asin().negate(), v2.getY().atan2(v2.getZ())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.XYX) { // r (+I) coordinates are : // cos (theta), sin (phi1) sin (theta), -cos (phi1) sin (theta) // (-r) (+I) coordinates are : // cos (theta), sin (theta) sin (phi2), sin (theta) cos (phi2) // and we can choose to have theta in the interval [0 ; PI] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(1, 0, 0)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(1, 0, 0)); if ((v2.getX().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getX().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v1.getY().atan2(v1.getZ().negate()), v2.getX().acos(), v2.getY().atan2(v2.getZ())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.XZX) { // r (+I) coordinates are : // cos (psi), cos (phi1) sin (psi), sin (phi1) sin (psi) // (-r) (+I) coordinates are : // cos (psi), -sin (psi) cos (phi2), sin (psi) sin (phi2) // and we can choose to have psi in the interval [0 ; PI] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(1, 0, 0)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(1, 0, 0)); if ((v2.getX().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getX().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v1.getZ().atan2(v1.getY()), v2.getX().acos(), v2.getZ().atan2(v2.getY().negate())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.YXY) { // r (+J) coordinates are : // sin (theta1) sin (phi), cos (phi), cos (theta1) sin (phi) // (-r) (+J) coordinates are : // sin (phi) sin (theta2), cos (phi), -sin (phi) cos (theta2) // and we can choose to have phi in the interval [0 ; PI] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(0, 1, 0)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(0, 1, 0)); if ((v2.getY().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getY().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v1.getX().atan2(v1.getZ()), v2.getY().acos(), v2.getX().atan2(v2.getZ().negate())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.YZY) { // r (+J) coordinates are : // -cos (theta1) sin (psi), cos (psi), sin (theta1) sin (psi) // (-r) (+J) coordinates are : // sin (psi) cos (theta2), cos (psi), sin (psi) sin (theta2) // and we can choose to have psi in the interval [0 ; PI] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(0, 1, 0)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(0, 1, 0)); if ((v2.getY().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getY().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v1.getZ().atan2(v1.getX().negate()), v2.getY().acos(), v2.getZ().atan2(v2.getX())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.ZXZ) { // r (+K) coordinates are : // sin (psi1) sin (phi), -cos (psi1) sin (phi), cos (phi) // (-r) (+K) coordinates are : // sin (phi) sin (psi2), sin (phi) cos (psi2), cos (phi) // and we can choose to have phi in the interval [0 ; PI] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(0, 0, 1)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(0, 0, 1)); if ((v2.getZ().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getZ().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v1.getX().atan2(v1.getY().negate()), v2.getZ().acos(), v2.getX().atan2(v2.getY())); } else { // last possibility is ZYZ // r (+K) coordinates are : // cos (psi1) sin (theta), sin (psi1) sin (theta), cos (theta) // (-r) (+K) coordinates are : // -sin (theta) cos (psi2), sin (theta) sin (psi2), cos (theta) // and we can choose to have theta in the interval [0 ; PI] final FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(vector(0, 0, 1)); final FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(vector(0, 0, 1)); if ((v2.getZ().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getZ().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v1.getY().atan2(v1.getX()), v2.getZ().acos(), v2.getY().atan2(v2.getX().negate())); } } else { if (order == RotationOrder.XYZ) { // r (Vector3D.plusI) coordinates are : // cos (theta) cos (psi), -cos (theta) sin (psi), sin (theta) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusK) coordinates are : // sin (theta), -sin (phi) cos (theta), cos (phi) cos (theta) // and we can choose to have theta in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_I); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_K); if ((v2.getX().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getX().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v2.getY().negate().atan2(v2.getZ()), v2.getX().asin(), v1.getY().negate().atan2(v1.getX())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.XZY) { // r (Vector3D.plusI) coordinates are : // cos (psi) cos (theta), -sin (psi), cos (psi) sin (theta) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusJ) coordinates are : // -sin (psi), cos (phi) cos (psi), sin (phi) cos (psi) // and we can choose to have psi in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_I); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_J); if ((v2.getX().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getX().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v2.getZ().atan2(v2.getY()), v2.getX().asin().negate(), v1.getZ().atan2(v1.getX())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.YXZ) { // r (Vector3D.plusJ) coordinates are : // cos (phi) sin (psi), cos (phi) cos (psi), -sin (phi) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusK) coordinates are : // sin (theta) cos (phi), -sin (phi), cos (theta) cos (phi) // and we can choose to have phi in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_J); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_K); if ((v2.getY().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getY().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v2.getX().atan2(v2.getZ()), v2.getY().asin().negate(), v1.getX().atan2(v1.getY())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.YZX) { // r (Vector3D.plusJ) coordinates are : // sin (psi), cos (psi) cos (phi), -cos (psi) sin (phi) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusI) coordinates are : // cos (theta) cos (psi), sin (psi), -sin (theta) cos (psi) // and we can choose to have psi in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_J); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_I); if ((v2.getY().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getY().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v2.getZ().negate().atan2(v2.getX()), v2.getY().asin(), v1.getZ().negate().atan2(v1.getY())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.ZXY) { // r (Vector3D.plusK) coordinates are : // -cos (phi) sin (theta), sin (phi), cos (phi) cos (theta) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusJ) coordinates are : // -sin (psi) cos (phi), cos (psi) cos (phi), sin (phi) // and we can choose to have phi in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_K); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_J); if ((v2.getZ().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getZ().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v2.getX().negate().atan2(v2.getY()), v2.getZ().asin(), v1.getX().negate().atan2(v1.getZ())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.ZYX) { // r (Vector3D.plusK) coordinates are : // -sin (theta), cos (theta) sin (phi), cos (theta) cos (phi) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusI) coordinates are : // cos (psi) cos (theta), sin (psi) cos (theta), -sin (theta) // and we can choose to have theta in the interval [-PI/2 ; +PI/2] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_K); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_I); if ((v2.getZ().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getZ().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(true); } return buildArray(v2.getY().atan2(v2.getX()), v2.getZ().asin().negate(), v1.getY().atan2(v1.getZ())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.XYX) { // r (Vector3D.plusI) coordinates are : // cos (theta), sin (phi2) sin (theta), cos (phi2) sin (theta) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusI) coordinates are : // cos (theta), sin (theta) sin (phi1), -sin (theta) cos (phi1) // and we can choose to have theta in the interval [0 ; PI] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_I); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_I); if ((v2.getX().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getX().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v2.getY().atan2(v2.getZ().negate()), v2.getX().acos(), v1.getY().atan2(v1.getZ())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.XZX) { // r (Vector3D.plusI) coordinates are : // cos (psi), -cos (phi2) sin (psi), sin (phi2) sin (psi) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusI) coordinates are : // cos (psi), sin (psi) cos (phi1), sin (psi) sin (phi1) // and we can choose to have psi in the interval [0 ; PI] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_I); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_I); if ((v2.getX().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getX().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v2.getZ().atan2(v2.getY()), v2.getX().acos(), v1.getZ().atan2(v1.getY().negate())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.YXY) { // r (Vector3D.plusJ) coordinates are : // sin (phi) sin (theta2), cos (phi), -sin (phi) cos (theta2) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusJ) coordinates are : // sin (theta1) sin (phi), cos (phi), cos (theta1) sin (phi) // and we can choose to have phi in the interval [0 ; PI] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_J); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_J); if ((v2.getY().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getY().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v2.getX().atan2(v2.getZ()), v2.getY().acos(), v1.getX().atan2(v1.getZ().negate())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.YZY) { // r (Vector3D.plusJ) coordinates are : // sin (psi) cos (theta2), cos (psi), sin (psi) sin (theta2) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusJ) coordinates are : // -cos (theta1) sin (psi), cos (psi), sin (theta1) sin (psi) // and we can choose to have psi in the interval [0 ; PI] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_J); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_J); if ((v2.getY().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getY().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v2.getZ().atan2(v2.getX().negate()), v2.getY().acos(), v1.getZ().atan2(v1.getX())); } else if (order == RotationOrder.ZXZ) { // r (Vector3D.plusK) coordinates are : // sin (phi) sin (psi2), sin (phi) cos (psi2), cos (phi) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusK) coordinates are : // sin (psi1) sin (phi), -cos (psi1) sin (phi), cos (phi) // and we can choose to have phi in the interval [0 ; PI] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_K); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_K); if ((v2.getZ().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getZ().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v2.getX().atan2(v2.getY().negate()), v2.getZ().acos(), v1.getX().atan2(v1.getY())); } else { // last possibility is ZYZ // r (Vector3D.plusK) coordinates are : // -sin (theta) cos (psi2), sin (theta) sin (psi2), cos (theta) // (-r) (Vector3D.plusK) coordinates are : // cos (psi1) sin (theta), sin (psi1) sin (theta), cos (theta) // and we can choose to have theta in the interval [0 ; PI] FieldVector3D<T> v1 = applyTo(Vector3D.PLUS_K); FieldVector3D<T> v2 = applyInverseTo(Vector3D.PLUS_K); if ((v2.getZ().getReal() < -0.9999999999) || (v2.getZ().getReal() > 0.9999999999)) { throw new CardanEulerSingularityException(false); } return buildArray(v2.getY().atan2(v2.getX()), v2.getZ().acos(), v1.getY().atan2(v1.getX().negate())); } } } /** Create a dimension 3 array. * @param a0 first array element * @param a1 second array element * @param a2 third array element * @return new array */ private T[] buildArray(final T a0, final T a1, final T a2) { final T[] array = MathArrays.buildArray(a0.getField(), 3); array[0] = a0; array[1] = a1; array[2] = a2; return array; } /** Create a constant vector. * @param x abscissa * @param y ordinate * @param z height * @return a constant vector */ private FieldVector3D<T> vector(final double x, final double y, final double z) { final T zero = q0.getField().getZero(); return new FieldVector3D<T>(zero.add(x), zero.add(y), zero.add(z)); } /** Get the 3X3 matrix corresponding to the instance * @return the matrix corresponding to the instance */ public T[][] getMatrix() { // products final T q0q0 = q0.multiply(q0); final T q0q1 = q0.multiply(q1); final T q0q2 = q0.multiply(q2); final T q0q3 = q0.multiply(q3); final T q1q1 = q1.multiply(q1); final T q1q2 = q1.multiply(q2); final T q1q3 = q1.multiply(q3); final T q2q2 = q2.multiply(q2); final T q2q3 = q2.multiply(q3); final T q3q3 = q3.multiply(q3); // create the matrix final T[][] m = MathArrays.buildArray(q0.getField(), 3, 3); m [0][0] = q0q0.add(q1q1).multiply(2).subtract(1); m [1][0] = q1q2.subtract(q0q3).multiply(2); m [2][0] = q1q3.add(q0q2).multiply(2); m [0][1] = q1q2.add(q0q3).multiply(2); m [1][1] = q0q0.add(q2q2).multiply(2).subtract(1); m [2][1] = q2q3.subtract(q0q1).multiply(2); m [0][2] = q1q3.subtract(q0q2).multiply(2); m [1][2] = q2q3.add(q0q1).multiply(2); m [2][2] = q0q0.add(q3q3).multiply(2).subtract(1); return m; } /** Convert to a constant vector without derivatives. * @return a constant vector */ public Rotation toRotation() { return new Rotation(q0.getReal(), q1.getReal(), q2.getReal(), q3.getReal(), false); } /** Apply the rotation to a vector. * @param u vector to apply the rotation to * @return a new vector which is the image of u by the rotation */ public FieldVector3D<T> applyTo(final FieldVector3D u) { final T x = u.getX(); final T y = u.getY(); final T z = u.getZ(); final T s = q1.multiply(x).add(q2.multiply(y)).add(q3.multiply(z)); return new FieldVector3D<T>(q0.multiply(x.multiply(q0).subtract(q2.multiply(z).subtract(q3.multiply(y)))).add(s.multiply(q1)).multiply(2).subtract(x), q0.multiply(y.multiply(q0).subtract(q3.multiply(x).subtract(q1.multiply(z)))).add(s.multiply(q2)).multiply(2).subtract(y), q0.multiply(z.multiply(q0).subtract(q1.multiply(y).subtract(q2.multiply(x)))).add(s.multiply(q3)).multiply(2).subtract(z)); } /** Apply the rotation to a vector. * @param u vector to apply the rotation to * @return a new vector which is the image of u by the rotation */ public FieldVector3D<T> applyTo(final Vector3D u) { final double x = u.getX(); final double y = u.getY(); final double z = u.getZ(); final T s = q1.multiply(x).add(q2.multiply(y)).add(q3.multiply(z)); return new FieldVector3D<T>(q0.multiply(q0.multiply(x).subtract(q2.multiply(z).subtract(q3.multiply(y)))).add(s.multiply(q1)).multiply(2).subtract(x), q0.multiply(q0.multiply(y).subtract(q3.multiply(x).subtract(q1.multiply(z)))).add(s.multiply(q2)).multiply(2).subtract(y), q0.multiply(q0.multiply(z).subtract(q1.multiply(y).subtract(q2.multiply(x)))).add(s.multiply(q3)).multiply(2).subtract(z)); } /** Apply the rotation to a vector stored in an array. * @param in an array with three items which stores vector to rotate * @param out an array with three items to put result to (it can be the same * array as in) */ public void applyTo(final T[] in, final T[] out) { final T x = in[0]; final T y = in[1]; final T z = in[2]; final T s = q1.multiply(x).add(q2.multiply(y)).add(q3.multiply(z)); out[0] = q0.multiply(x.multiply(q0).subtract(q2.multiply(z).subtract(q3.multiply(y)))).add(s.multiply(q1)).multiply(2).subtract(x); out[1] = q0.multiply(y.multiply(q0).subtract(q3.multiply(x).subtract(q1.multiply(z)))).add(s.multiply(q2)).multiply(2).subtract(y); out[2] = q0.multiply(z.multiply(q0).subtract(q1.multiply(y).subtract(q2.multiply(x)))).add(s.multiply(q3)).multiply(2).subtract(z); } /** Apply the rotation to a vector stored in an array. * @param in an array with three items which stores vector to rotate * @param out an array with three items to put result to */ public void applyTo(final double[] in, final T[] out) { final double x = in[0]; final double y = in[1]; final double z = in[2]; final T s = q1.multiply(x).add(q2.multiply(y)).add(q3.multiply(z)); out[0] = q0.multiply(q0.multiply(x).subtract(q2.multiply(z).subtract(q3.multiply(y)))).add(s.multiply(q1)).multiply(2).subtract(x); out[1] = q0.multiply(q0.multiply(y).subtract(q3.multiply(x).subtract(q1.multiply(z)))).add(s.multiply(q2)).multiply(2).subtract(y); out[2] = q0.multiply(q0.multiply(z).subtract(q1.multiply(y).subtract(q2.multiply(x)))).add(s.multiply(q3)).multiply(2).subtract(z); } /** Apply a rotation to a vector. * @param r rotation to apply * @param u vector to apply the rotation to * @param <T> the type of the field elements * @return a new vector which is the image of u by the rotation */ public static <T extends RealFieldElement FieldVector3D applyTo(final Rotation r, final FieldVector3D u) { final T x = u.getX(); final T y = u.getY(); final T z = u.getZ(); final T s = x.multiply(r.getQ1()).add(y.multiply(r.getQ2())).add(z.multiply(r.getQ3())); return new FieldVector3D<T>(x.multiply(r.getQ0()).subtract(z.multiply(r.getQ2()).subtract(y.multiply(r.getQ3()))).multiply(r.getQ0()).add(s.multiply(r.getQ1())).multiply(2).subtract(x), y.multiply(r.getQ0()).subtract(x.multiply(r.getQ3()).subtract(z.multiply(r.getQ1()))).multiply(r.getQ0()).add(s.multiply(r.getQ2())).multiply(2).subtract(y), z.multiply(r.getQ0()).subtract(y.multiply(r.getQ1()).subtract(x.multiply(r.getQ2()))).multiply(r.getQ0()).add(s.multiply(r.getQ3())).multiply(2).subtract(z)); } /** Apply the inverse of the rotation to a vector. * @param u vector to apply the inverse of the rotation to * @return a new vector which such that u is its image by the rotation */ public FieldVector3D<T> applyInverseTo(final FieldVector3D u) { final T x = u.getX(); final T y = u.getY(); final T z = u.getZ(); final T s = q1.multiply(x).add(q2.multiply(y)).add(q3.multiply(z)); final T m0 = q0.negate(); return new FieldVector3D<T>(m0.multiply(x.multiply(m0).subtract(q2.multiply(z).subtract(q3.multiply(y)))).add(s.multiply(q1)).multiply(2).subtract(x), m0.multiply(y.multiply(m0).subtract(q3.multiply(x).subtract(q1.multiply(z)))).add(s.multiply(q2)).multiply(2).subtract(y), m0.multiply(z.multiply(m0).subtract(q1.multiply(y).subtract(q2.multiply(x)))).add(s.multiply(q3)).multiply(2).subtract(z)); } /** Apply the inverse of the rotation to a vector. * @param u vector to apply the inverse of the rotation to * @return a new vector which such that u is its image by the rotation */ public FieldVector3D<T> applyInverseTo(final Vector3D u) { final double x = u.getX(); final double y = u.getY(); final double z = u.getZ(); final T s = q1.multiply(x).add(q2.multiply(y)).add(q3.multiply(z)); final T m0 = q0.negate(); return new FieldVector3D<T>(m0.multiply(m0.multiply(x).subtract(q2.multiply(z).subtract(q3.multiply(y)))).add(s.multiply(q1)).multiply(2).subtract(x), m0.multiply(m0.multiply(y).subtract(q3.multiply(x).subtract(q1.multiply(z)))).add(s.multiply(q2)).multiply(2).subtract(y), m0.multiply(m0.multiply(z).subtract(q1.multiply(y).subtract(q2.multiply(x)))).add(s.multiply(q3)).multiply(2).subtract(z)); } /** Apply the inverse of the rotation to a vector stored in an array. * @param in an array with three items which stores vector to rotate * @param out an array with three items to put result to (it can be the same * array as in) */ public void applyInverseTo(final T[] in, final T[] out) { final T x = in[0]; final T y = in[1]; final T z = in[2]; final T s = q1.multiply(x).add(q2.multiply(y)).add(q3.multiply(z)); final T m0 = q0.negate(); out[0] = m0.multiply(x.multiply(m0).subtract(q2.multiply(z).subtract(q3.multiply(y)))).add(s.multiply(q1)).multiply(2).subtract(x); out[1] = m0.multiply(y.multiply(m0).subtract(q3.multiply(x).subtract(q1.multiply(z)))).add(s.multiply(q2)).multiply(2).subtract(y); out[2] = m0.multiply(z.multiply(m0).subtract(q1.multiply(y).subtract(q2.multiply(x)))).add(s.multiply(q3)).multiply(2).subtract(z); } /** Apply the inverse of the rotation to a vector stored in an array. * @param in an array with three items which stores vector to rotate * @param out an array with three items to put result to */ public void applyInverseTo(final double[] in, final T[] out) { final double x = in[0]; final double y = in[1]; final double z = in[2]; final T s = q1.multiply(x).add(q2.multiply(y)).add(q3.multiply(z)); final T m0 = q0.negate(); out[0] = m0.multiply(m0.multiply(x).subtract(q2.multiply(z).subtract(q3.multiply(y)))).add(s.multiply(q1)).multiply(2).subtract(x); out[1] = m0.multiply(m0.multiply(y).subtract(q3.multiply(x).subtract(q1.multiply(z)))).add(s.multiply(q2)).multiply(2).subtract(y); out[2] = m0.multiply(m0.multiply(z).subtract(q1.multiply(y).subtract(q2.multiply(x)))).add(s.multiply(q3)).multiply(2).subtract(z); } /** Apply the inverse of a rotation to a vector. * @param r rotation to apply * @param u vector to apply the inverse of the rotation to * @param <T> the type of the field elements * @return a new vector which such that u is its image by the rotation */ public static <T extends RealFieldElement FieldVector3D applyInverseTo(final Rotation r, final FieldVector3D u) { final T x = u.getX(); final T y = u.getY(); final T z = u.getZ(); final T s = x.multiply(r.getQ1()).add(y.multiply(r.getQ2())).add(z.multiply(r.getQ3())); final double m0 = -r.getQ0(); return new FieldVector3D<T>(x.multiply(m0).subtract(z.multiply(r.getQ2()).subtract(y.multiply(r.getQ3()))).multiply(m0).add(s.multiply(r.getQ1())).multiply(2).subtract(x), y.multiply(m0).subtract(x.multiply(r.getQ3()).subtract(z.multiply(r.getQ1()))).multiply(m0).add(s.multiply(r.getQ2())).multiply(2).subtract(y), z.multiply(m0).subtract(y.multiply(r.getQ1()).subtract(x.multiply(r.getQ2()))).multiply(m0).add(s.multiply(r.getQ3())).multiply(2).subtract(z)); } /** Apply the instance to another rotation. * <p> * Calling this method is equivalent to call * {@link #compose(FieldRotation, RotationConvention) * compose(r, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR)}. * </p> * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the instance */ public FieldRotation<T> applyTo(final FieldRotation r) { return compose(r, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR); } /** Compose the instance with another rotation. * <p> * If the semantics of the rotations composition corresponds to a * {@link RotationConvention#VECTOR_OPERATOR vector operator} convention, * applying the instance to a rotation is computing the composition * in an order compliant with the following rule : let {@code u} be any * vector and {@code v} its image by {@code r1} (i.e. * {@code r1.applyTo(u) = v}). Let {@code w} be the image of {@code v} by * rotation {@code r2} (i.e. {@code r2.applyTo(v) = w}). Then * {@code w = comp.applyTo(u)}, where * {@code comp = r2.compose(r1, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR)}. * </p> * <p> * If the semantics of the rotations composition corresponds to a * {@link RotationConvention#FRAME_TRANSFORM frame transform} convention, * the application order will be reversed. So keeping the exact same * meaning of all {@code r1}, {@code r2}, {@code u}, {@code v}, {@code w} * and {@code comp} as above, {@code comp} could also be computed as * {@code comp = r1.compose(r2, RotationConvention.FRAME_TRANSFORM)}. * </p> * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @param convention convention to use for the semantics of the angle * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the instance */ public FieldRotation<T> compose(final FieldRotation r, final RotationConvention convention) { return convention == RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR ? composeInternal(r) : r.composeInternal(this); } /** Compose the instance with another rotation using vector operator convention. * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the instance * using vector operator convention */ private FieldRotation<T> composeInternal(final FieldRotation r) { return new FieldRotation<T>(r.q0.multiply(q0).subtract(r.q1.multiply(q1).add(r.q2.multiply(q2)).add(r.q3.multiply(q3))), r.q1.multiply(q0).add(r.q0.multiply(q1)).add(r.q2.multiply(q3).subtract(r.q3.multiply(q2))), r.q2.multiply(q0).add(r.q0.multiply(q2)).add(r.q3.multiply(q1).subtract(r.q1.multiply(q3))), r.q3.multiply(q0).add(r.q0.multiply(q3)).add(r.q1.multiply(q2).subtract(r.q2.multiply(q1))), false); } /** Apply the instance to another rotation. * <p> * Calling this method is equivalent to call * {@link #compose(Rotation, RotationConvention) * compose(r, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR)}. * </p> * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the instance */ public FieldRotation<T> applyTo(final Rotation r) { return compose(r, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR); } /** Compose the instance with another rotation. * <p> * If the semantics of the rotations composition corresponds to a * {@link RotationConvention#VECTOR_OPERATOR vector operator} convention, * applying the instance to a rotation is computing the composition * in an order compliant with the following rule : let {@code u} be any * vector and {@code v} its image by {@code r1} (i.e. * {@code r1.applyTo(u) = v}). Let {@code w} be the image of {@code v} by * rotation {@code r2} (i.e. {@code r2.applyTo(v) = w}). Then * {@code w = comp.applyTo(u)}, where * {@code comp = r2.compose(r1, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR)}. * </p> * <p> * If the semantics of the rotations composition corresponds to a * {@link RotationConvention#FRAME_TRANSFORM frame transform} convention, * the application order will be reversed. So keeping the exact same * meaning of all {@code r1}, {@code r2}, {@code u}, {@code v}, {@code w} * and {@code comp} as above, {@code comp} could also be computed as * {@code comp = r1.compose(r2, RotationConvention.FRAME_TRANSFORM)}. * </p> * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @param convention convention to use for the semantics of the angle * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the instance */ public FieldRotation<T> compose(final Rotation r, final RotationConvention convention) { return convention == RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR ? composeInternal(r) : applyTo(r, this); } /** Compose the instance with another rotation using vector operator convention. * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the instance * using vector operator convention */ private FieldRotation<T> composeInternal(final Rotation r) { return new FieldRotation<T>(q0.multiply(r.getQ0()).subtract(q1.multiply(r.getQ1()).add(q2.multiply(r.getQ2())).add(q3.multiply(r.getQ3()))), q0.multiply(r.getQ1()).add(q1.multiply(r.getQ0())).add(q3.multiply(r.getQ2()).subtract(q2.multiply(r.getQ3()))), q0.multiply(r.getQ2()).add(q2.multiply(r.getQ0())).add(q1.multiply(r.getQ3()).subtract(q3.multiply(r.getQ1()))), q0.multiply(r.getQ3()).add(q3.multiply(r.getQ0())).add(q2.multiply(r.getQ1()).subtract(q1.multiply(r.getQ2()))), false); } /** Apply a rotation to another rotation. * Applying a rotation to another rotation is computing the composition * in an order compliant with the following rule : let u be any * vector and v its image by rInner (i.e. rInner.applyTo(u) = v), let w be the image * of v by rOuter (i.e. rOuter.applyTo(v) = w), then w = comp.applyTo(u), * where comp = applyTo(rOuter, rInner). * @param r1 rotation to apply * @param rInner rotation to apply the rotation to * @param <T> the type of the field elements * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the instance */ public static <T extends RealFieldElement FieldRotation applyTo(final Rotation r1, final FieldRotation rInner) { return new FieldRotation<T>(rInner.q0.multiply(r1.getQ0()).subtract(rInner.q1.multiply(r1.getQ1()).add(rInner.q2.multiply(r1.getQ2())).add(rInner.q3.multiply(r1.getQ3()))), rInner.q1.multiply(r1.getQ0()).add(rInner.q0.multiply(r1.getQ1())).add(rInner.q2.multiply(r1.getQ3()).subtract(rInner.q3.multiply(r1.getQ2()))), rInner.q2.multiply(r1.getQ0()).add(rInner.q0.multiply(r1.getQ2())).add(rInner.q3.multiply(r1.getQ1()).subtract(rInner.q1.multiply(r1.getQ3()))), rInner.q3.multiply(r1.getQ0()).add(rInner.q0.multiply(r1.getQ3())).add(rInner.q1.multiply(r1.getQ2()).subtract(rInner.q2.multiply(r1.getQ1()))), false); } /** Apply the inverse of the instance to another rotation. * <p> * Calling this method is equivalent to call * {@link #composeInverse(FieldRotation, RotationConvention) * composeInverse(r, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR)}. * </p> * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the inverse * of the instance */ public FieldRotation<T> applyInverseTo(final FieldRotation r) { return composeInverse(r, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR); } /** Compose the inverse of the instance with another rotation. * <p> * If the semantics of the rotations composition corresponds to a * {@link RotationConvention#VECTOR_OPERATOR vector operator} convention, * applying the inverse of the instance to a rotation is computing * the composition in an order compliant with the following rule : * let {@code u} be any vector and {@code v} its image by {@code r1} * (i.e. {@code r1.applyTo(u) = v}). Let {@code w} be the inverse image * of {@code v} by {@code r2} (i.e. {@code r2.applyInverseTo(v) = w}). * Then {@code w = comp.applyTo(u)}, where * {@code comp = r2.composeInverse(r1)}. * </p> * <p> * If the semantics of the rotations composition corresponds to a * {@link RotationConvention#FRAME_TRANSFORM frame transform} convention, * the application order will be reversed, which means it is the * <em>innermost rotation that will be reversed. So keeping the exact same * meaning of all {@code r1}, {@code r2}, {@code u}, {@code v}, {@code w} * and {@code comp} as above, {@code comp} could also be computed as * {@code comp = r1.revert().composeInverse(r2.revert(), RotationConvention.FRAME_TRANSFORM)}. * </p> * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @param convention convention to use for the semantics of the angle * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the inverse * of the instance */ public FieldRotation<T> composeInverse(final FieldRotation r, final RotationConvention convention) { return convention == RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR ? composeInverseInternal(r) : r.composeInternal(revert()); } /** Compose the inverse of the instance with another rotation * using vector operator convention. * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the inverse * of the instance using vector operator convention */ private FieldRotation<T> composeInverseInternal(FieldRotation r) { return new FieldRotation<T>(r.q0.multiply(q0).add(r.q1.multiply(q1).add(r.q2.multiply(q2)).add(r.q3.multiply(q3))).negate(), r.q0.multiply(q1).add(r.q2.multiply(q3).subtract(r.q3.multiply(q2))).subtract(r.q1.multiply(q0)), r.q0.multiply(q2).add(r.q3.multiply(q1).subtract(r.q1.multiply(q3))).subtract(r.q2.multiply(q0)), r.q0.multiply(q3).add(r.q1.multiply(q2).subtract(r.q2.multiply(q1))).subtract(r.q3.multiply(q0)), false); } /** Apply the inverse of the instance to another rotation. * <p> * Calling this method is equivalent to call * {@link #composeInverse(Rotation, RotationConvention) * composeInverse(r, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR)}. * </p> * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the inverse * of the instance */ public FieldRotation<T> applyInverseTo(final Rotation r) { return composeInverse(r, RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR); } /** Compose the inverse of the instance with another rotation. * <p> * If the semantics of the rotations composition corresponds to a * {@link RotationConvention#VECTOR_OPERATOR vector operator} convention, * applying the inverse of the instance to a rotation is computing * the composition in an order compliant with the following rule : * let {@code u} be any vector and {@code v} its image by {@code r1} * (i.e. {@code r1.applyTo(u) = v}). Let {@code w} be the inverse image * of {@code v} by {@code r2} (i.e. {@code r2.applyInverseTo(v) = w}). * Then {@code w = comp.applyTo(u)}, where * {@code comp = r2.composeInverse(r1)}. * </p> * <p> * If the semantics of the rotations composition corresponds to a * {@link RotationConvention#FRAME_TRANSFORM frame transform} convention, * the application order will be reversed, which means it is the * <em>innermost rotation that will be reversed. So keeping the exact same * meaning of all {@code r1}, {@code r2}, {@code u}, {@code v}, {@code w} * and {@code comp} as above, {@code comp} could also be computed as * {@code comp = r1.revert().composeInverse(r2.revert(), RotationConvention.FRAME_TRANSFORM)}. * </p> * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @param convention convention to use for the semantics of the angle * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the inverse * of the instance */ public FieldRotation<T> composeInverse(final Rotation r, final RotationConvention convention) { return convention == RotationConvention.VECTOR_OPERATOR ? composeInverseInternal(r) : applyTo(r, revert()); } /** Compose the inverse of the instance with another rotation * using vector operator convention. * @param r rotation to apply the rotation to * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the inverse * of the instance using vector operator convention */ private FieldRotation<T> composeInverseInternal(Rotation r) { return new FieldRotation<T>(q0.multiply(r.getQ0()).add(q1.multiply(r.getQ1()).add(q2.multiply(r.getQ2())).add(q3.multiply(r.getQ3()))).negate(), q1.multiply(r.getQ0()).add(q3.multiply(r.getQ2()).subtract(q2.multiply(r.getQ3()))).subtract(q0.multiply(r.getQ1())), q2.multiply(r.getQ0()).add(q1.multiply(r.getQ3()).subtract(q3.multiply(r.getQ1()))).subtract(q0.multiply(r.getQ2())), q3.multiply(r.getQ0()).add(q2.multiply(r.getQ1()).subtract(q1.multiply(r.getQ2()))).subtract(q0.multiply(r.getQ3())), false); } /** Apply the inverse of a rotation to another rotation. * Applying the inverse of a rotation to another rotation is computing * the composition in an order compliant with the following rule : * let u be any vector and v its image by rInner (i.e. rInner.applyTo(u) = v), * let w be the inverse image of v by rOuter * (i.e. rOuter.applyInverseTo(v) = w), then w = comp.applyTo(u), where * comp = applyInverseTo(rOuter, rInner). * @param rOuter rotation to apply the rotation to * @param rInner rotation to apply the rotation to * @param <T> the type of the field elements * @return a new rotation which is the composition of r by the inverse * of the instance */ public static <T extends RealFieldElement FieldRotation applyInverseTo(final Rotation rOuter, final FieldRotation rInner) { return new FieldRotation<T>(rInner.q0.multiply(rOuter.getQ0()).add(rInner.q1.multiply(rOuter.getQ1()).add(rInner.q2.multiply(rOuter.getQ2())).add(rInner.q3.multiply(rOuter.getQ3()))).negate(), rInner.q0.multiply(rOuter.getQ1()).add(rInner.q2.multiply(rOuter.getQ3()).subtract(rInner.q3.multiply(rOuter.getQ2()))).subtract(rInner.q1.multiply(rOuter.getQ0())), rInner.q0.multiply(rOuter.getQ2()).add(rInner.q3.multiply(rOuter.getQ1()).subtract(rInner.q1.multiply(rOuter.getQ3()))).subtract(rInner.q2.multiply(rOuter.getQ0())), rInner.q0.multiply(rOuter.getQ3()).add(rInner.q1.multiply(rOuter.getQ2()).subtract(rInner.q2.multiply(rOuter.getQ1()))).subtract(rInner.q3.multiply(rOuter.getQ0())), false); } /** Perfect orthogonality on a 3X3 matrix. * @param m initial matrix (not exactly orthogonal) * @param threshold convergence threshold for the iterative * orthogonality correction (convergence is reached when the * difference between two steps of the Frobenius norm of the * correction is below this threshold) * @return an orthogonal matrix close to m * @exception NotARotationMatrixException if the matrix cannot be * orthogonalized with the given threshold after 10 iterations */ private T[][] orthogonalizeMatrix(final T[][] m, final double threshold) throws NotARotationMatrixException { T x00 = m[0][0]; T x01 = m[0][1]; T x02 = m[0][2]; T x10 = m[1][0]; T x11 = m[1][1]; T x12 = m[1][2]; T x20 = m[2][0]; T x21 = m[2][1]; T x22 = m[2][2]; double fn = 0; double fn1; final T[][] o = MathArrays.buildArray(m[0][0].getField(), 3, 3); // iterative correction: Xn+1 = Xn - 0.5 * (Xn.Mt.Xn - M) int i = 0; while (++i < 11) { // Mt.Xn final T mx00 = m[0][0].multiply(x00).add(m[1][0].multiply(x10)).add(m[2][0].multiply(x20)); final T mx10 = m[0][1].multiply(x00).add(m[1][1].multiply(x10)).add(m[2][1].multiply(x20)); final T mx20 = m[0][2].multiply(x00).add(m[1][2].multiply(x10)).add(m[2][2].multiply(x20)); final T mx01 = m[0][0].multiply(x01).add(m[1][0].multiply(x11)).add(m[2][0].multiply(x21)); final T mx11 = m[0][1].multiply(x01).add(m[1][1].multiply(x11)).add(m[2][1].multiply(x21)); final T mx21 = m[0][2].multiply(x01).add(m[1][2].multiply(x11)).add(m[2][2].multiply(x21)); final T mx02 = m[0][0].multiply(x02).add(m[1][0].multiply(x12)).add(m[2][0].multiply(x22)); final T mx12 = m[0][1].multiply(x02).add(m[1][1].multiply(x12)).add(m[2][1].multiply(x22)); final T mx22 = m[0][2].multiply(x02).add(m[1][2].multiply(x12)).add(m[2][2].multiply(x22)); // Xn+1 o[0][0] = x00.subtract(x00.multiply(mx00).add(x01.multiply(mx10)).add(x02.multiply(mx20)).subtract(m[0][0]).multiply(0.5)); o[0][1] = x01.subtract(x00.multiply(mx01).add(x01.multiply(mx11)).add(x02.multiply(mx21)).subtract(m[0][1]).multiply(0.5)); o[0][2] = x02.subtract(x00.multiply(mx02).add(x01.multiply(mx12)).add(x02.multiply(mx22)).subtract(m[0][2]).multiply(0.5)); o[1][0] = x10.subtract(x10.multiply(mx00).add(x11.multiply(mx10)).add(x12.multiply(mx20)).subtract(m[1][0]).multiply(0.5)); o[1][1] = x11.subtract(x10.multiply(mx01).add(x11.multiply(mx11)).add(x12.multiply(mx21)).subtract(m[1][1]).multiply(0.5)); o[1][2] = x12.subtract(x10.multiply(mx02).add(x11.multiply(mx12)).add(x12.multiply(mx22)).subtract(m[1][2]).multiply(0.5)); o[2][0] = x20.subtract(x20.multiply(mx00).add(x21.multiply(mx10)).add(x22.multiply(mx20)).subtract(m[2][0]).multiply(0.5)); o[2][1] = x21.subtract(x20.multiply(mx01).add(x21.multiply(mx11)).add(x22.multiply(mx21)).subtract(m[2][1]).multiply(0.5)); o[2][2] = x22.subtract(x20.multiply(mx02).add(x21.multiply(mx12)).add(x22.multiply(mx22)).subtract(m[2][2]).multiply(0.5)); // correction on each elements final double corr00 = o[0][0].getReal() - m[0][0].getReal(); final double corr01 = o[0][1].getReal() - m[0][1].getReal(); final double corr02 = o[0][2].getReal() - m[0][2].getReal(); final double corr10 = o[1][0].getReal() - m[1][0].getReal(); final double corr11 = o[1][1].getReal() - m[1][1].getReal(); final double corr12 = o[1][2].getReal() - m[1][2].getReal(); final double corr20 = o[2][0].getReal() - m[2][0].getReal(); final double corr21 = o[2][1].getReal() - m[2][1].getReal(); final double corr22 = o[2][2].getReal() - m[2][2].getReal(); // Frobenius norm of the correction fn1 = corr00 * corr00 + corr01 * corr01 + corr02 * corr02 + corr10 * corr10 + corr11 * corr11 + corr12 * corr12 + corr20 * corr20 + corr21 * corr21 + corr22 * corr22; // convergence test if (FastMath.abs(fn1 - fn) <= threshold) { return o; } // prepare next iteration x00 = o[0][0]; x01 = o[0][1]; x02 = o[0][2]; x10 = o[1][0]; x11 = o[1][1]; x12 = o[1][2]; x20 = o[2][0]; x21 = o[2][1]; x22 = o[2][2]; fn = fn1; } // the algorithm did not converge after 10 iterations throw new NotARotationMatrixException(LocalizedFormats.UNABLE_TO_ORTHOGONOLIZE_MATRIX, i - 1); } /** Compute the <i>distance between two rotations. * <p>The distance is intended here as a way to check if two * rotations are almost similar (i.e. they transform vectors the same way) * or very different. It is mathematically defined as the angle of * the rotation r that prepended to one of the rotations gives the other * one:</p> * <pre> * r<sub>1(r) = r2 * </pre> * <p>This distance is an angle between 0 and π. Its value is the smallest * possible upper bound of the angle in radians between r<sub>1(v) * and r<sub>2(v) for all possible vectors v. This upper bound is * reached for some v. The distance is equal to 0 if and only if the two * rotations are identical.</p> * <p>Comparing two rotations should always be done using this value rather * than for example comparing the components of the quaternions. It is much * more stable, and has a geometric meaning. Also comparing quaternions * components is error prone since for example quaternions (0.36, 0.48, -0.48, -0.64) * and (-0.36, -0.48, 0.48, 0.64) represent exactly the same rotation despite * their components are different (they are exact opposites).</p> * @param r1 first rotation * @param r2 second rotation * @param <T> the type of the field elements * @return <i>distance between r1 and r2 */ public static <T extends RealFieldElement T distance(final FieldRotation r1, final FieldRotation r2) { return r1.composeInverseInternal(r2).getAngle(); } }

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