| career | drupal | java | mac | mysql | perl | scala | uml | unix  

Tomcat example source code file (jndi-datasource-examples-howto.xml)

This example Tomcat source code file (jndi-datasource-examples-howto.xml) is included in the "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM.

Java - Tomcat tags/keywords

connection, context, datasource, dbcp, dbcp, jdbc, jvm, mysql, oracle, oracle, the, the, tomcat, tomcat

The Tomcat jndi-datasource-examples-howto.xml source code

<?xml version="1.0"?>
  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at

  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
  limitations under the License.
<!DOCTYPE document [
  <!ENTITY project SYSTEM "project.xml">
<document url="jndi-datasource-examples-howto.html">


        <author email="">Les Hughes
        <author email="">David Haraburda
        <author>Glenn Nielsen
        <author email="">Yoav Shapira
        <title>JNDI Datasource HOW-TO


<section name="Table of Contents">
<a href="#Introduction">Introduction
<a href="#Database Connection Pool (DBCP) Configurations"> Database Connection Pool (DBCP) Configurations</a>
<a href="#Non DBCP Solutions">Non DBCP Solutions
<a href="#Oracle 8i with OCI client">Oracle 8i with OCI client
<a href="#Common Problems">Common Problems
</p> </section> <section name="Introduction"> <p>JNDI Datasource configuration is covered extensively in the JNDI-Resources-HOWTO. However, feedback from <code>tomcat-user has shown that specifics for individual configurations can be rather tricky.</p> <p>Here then are some example configurations that have been posted to tomcat-user for popular databases and some general tips for db useage.</p> <p>You should be aware that since these notes are derived from configuration and/or feedback posted to <code>tomcat-user YMMV :-). Please let us know if you have any other tested configurations that you feel may be of use to the wider audience, or if you feel we can improve this section in anyway.</p> <p> <b>Please note that JNDI resource configuration changed somewhat between Tomcat 5.0.x and Tomcat 5.5.x.</b> You will most likely need to modify older JNDI resource configurations to match the syntax in the example below in order to make them work in Tomcat 6.x.x. </p> <p> Also, please note that JNDI DataSource configuration in general, and this tutorial in particular, assumes that you have read and understood the <a href="config/context.html">Context and <a href="config/host.html">Host configuration references, including the section about Automatic Application Deployment in the latter reference. </p> </section> <section name="Database Connection Pool (DBCP) Configurations"> <p>DBCP provides support for JDBC 2.0. On systems using a 1.4 JVM DBCP will support JDBC 3.0. Please let us know if you have used DBCP and its JDBC 3.0 features with a 1.4 JVM. </p> <p>See the DBCP documentation</a> for a complete list of configuration parameters. </p> <subsection name="Installation"> <p>DBCP uses the Jakarta-Commons Database Connection Pool. It relies on number of Jakarta-Commons components: <ul> <li>Jakarta-Commons DBCP <li>Jakarta-Commons Collections <li>Jakarta-Commons Pool </ul> These libraries are located in a single JAR at <code>$CATALINA_HOME/lib/tomcat-dbcp.jar. However, only the classes needed for connection pooling have been included, and the packages have been renamed to avoid interfering with applications. </p> </subsection> <subsection name="Preventing dB connection pool leaks"> <p> A database connection pool creates and manages a pool of connections to a database. Recycling and reusing already existing connections to a dB is more efficient than opening a new connection. </p> <p> There is one problem with connection pooling. A web application has to explicetely close ResultSet's, Statement's, and Connection's. Failure of a web application to close these resources can result in them never being available again for reuse, a db connection pool "leak". This can eventually result in your web application db connections failing if there are no more available connections.</p> <p> There is a solution to this problem. The Jakarta-Commons DBCP can be configured to track and recover these abandoned dB connections. Not only can it recover them, but also generate a stack trace for the code which opened these resources and never closed them.</p> <p> To configure a DBCP DataSource so that abandoned dB connections are removed and recycled add the following attribute to the <code>Resource configuration for your DBCP DataSource: <source> removeAbandoned="true" </source> When available db connections run low DBCP will recover and recyle any abandoned dB connections it finds. The default is <code>false. </p> <p> Use the <code>removeAbandonedTimeout attribute to set the number of seconds a dB connection has been idle before it is considered abandoned. <source> removeAbandonedTimeout="60" </source> The default timeout for removing abandoned connections is 300 seconds. </p> <p> The <code>logAbandoned attribute can be set to true if you want DBCP to log a stack trace of the code which abandoned the dB connection resources. <source> logAbandoned="true" </source> The default is <code>false. </p> </subsection> <subsection name="MySQL DBCP Example"> <h3>0. Introduction <p>Versions of MySQL and JDBC drivers that have been reported to work: <ul> <li>MySQL 3.23.47, MySQL 3.23.47 using InnoDB,, MySQL 3.23.58, MySQL 4.0.1alpha <li>Connector/J 3.0.11-stable (the official JDBC Driver) <li>mm.mysql 2.0.14 (an old 3rd party JDBC Driver) </ul> </p> <p>Before you proceed, don't forget to copy the JDBC Driver's jar into $CATALINA_HOME/lib.

<h3>1. MySQL configuration <p> Ensure that you follow these instructions as variations can cause problems. </p> <p>Create a new test user, a new database and a single test table. Your MySQL user <strong>must have a password assigned. The driver will fail if you try to connect with an empty password. <source> mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO javauser@localhost -> IDENTIFIED BY 'javadude' WITH GRANT OPTION; mysql> create database javatest; mysql> use javatest; mysql> create table testdata ( -> id int not null auto_increment primary key, -> foo varchar(25), -> bar int); </source> <blockquote> <strong>Note: the above user should be removed once testing is complete! </blockquote> </p> <p>Next insert some test data into the testdata table. <source> mysql> insert into testdata values(null, 'hello', 12345); Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec) mysql> select * from testdata; +----+-------+-------+ | ID | FOO | BAR | +----+-------+-------+ | 1 | hello | 12345 | +----+-------+-------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec) mysql> </source> </p> <h3>2. Context configuration <p>Configure the JNDI DataSource in Tomcat by adding a declaration for your resource to your <a href="config/context.html">Context.

<p>For example: <source> <Context path="/DBTest" docBase="DBTest" debug="5" reloadable="true" crossContext="true"> <!-- maxActive: Maximum number of dB connections in pool. Make sure you configure your mysqld max_connections large enough to handle all of your db connections. Set to 0 for no limit. --> <!-- maxIdle: Maximum number of idle dB connections to retain in pool. Set to -1 for no limit. See also the DBCP documentation on this and the minEvictableIdleTimeMillis configuration parameter. --> <!-- maxWait: Maximum time to wait for a dB connection to become available in ms, in this example 10 seconds. An Exception is thrown if this timeout is exceeded. Set to -1 to wait indefinitely. --> <!-- username and password: MySQL dB username and password for dB connections --> <!-- driverClassName: Class name for the old mm.mysql JDBC driver is - we recommend using Connector/J though. Class name for the official MySQL Connector/J driver is com.mysql.jdbc.Driver. --> <!-- url: The JDBC connection url for connecting to your MySQL dB. The autoReconnect=true argument to the url makes sure that the mm.mysql JDBC Driver will automatically reconnect if mysqld closed the connection. mysqld by default closes idle connections after 8 hours. --> <Resource name="jdbc/TestDB" auth="Container" type="javax.sql.DataSource" maxActive="100" maxIdle="30" maxWait="10000" username="javauser" password="javadude" driverClassName="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver" url="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/javatest?autoReconnect=true"/> </Context> </source> </p> <h3>3. web.xml configuration <p>Now create a WEB-INF/web.xml for this test application. <source> <web-app xmlns="" xmlns:xsi="" xsi:schemaLocation="" version="2.4"> <description>MySQL Test App</description> <resource-ref> <description>DB Connection</description> <res-ref-name>jdbc/TestDB</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth> </resource-ref> </web-app> </source> </p> <h3>4. Test code <p>Now create a simple test.jsp page for use later. <source> <%@ taglib uri="" prefix="sql" %> <%@ taglib uri="" prefix="c" %> <sql:query var="rs" dataSource="jdbc/TestDB"> select id, foo, bar from testdata </sql:query> <html> <head> <title>DB Test</title> </head> <body> <h2>Results</h2> <c:forEach var="row" items="${rs.rows}"> Foo ${}<br/> Bar ${}<br/> </c:forEach> </body> </html> </source> </p> <p>That JSP page makes use of JSTL's SQL and Core taglibs. You can get it from Sun's Java Web Services Developer Pack or Jakarta Taglib Standard 1.1 project - just make sure you get a 1.1.x release. Once you have JSTL, copy jstl.jar and standard.jar to your web app's WEB-INF/lib directory. </p> <p>Finally deploy your web app into $CATALINA_HOME/webapps either as a warfile called <code>DBTest.war or into a sub-directory called <code>DBTest

<p>Once deployed, point a browser at <code>http://localhost:8080/DBTest/test.jsp to view the fruits of your hard work.</p> </subsection> <subsection name="Oracle 8i, 9i & 10g"> <h3>0. Introduction <p>Oracle requires minimal changes from the MySQL configuration except for the usual gotchas :-)</p> <p>Drivers for older Oracle versions may be distributed as *.zip files rather than *.jar files. Tomcat will only use <code>*.jar files installed in <code>$CATALINA_HOME/lib. Therefore or <code> will need to be renamed with a .jar extension. Since jarfiles are zipfiles, there is no need to unzip and jar these files - a simple rename will suffice.</p> <p>For Oracle 9i onwards you should use oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver rather than <code>oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver as Oracle have stated that <code>oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver is deprecated and support for this driver class will be discontinued in the next major release. </p> <h3>1. Context configuration <p>In a similar manner to the mysql config above, you will need to define your Datasource in your <a href="config/context.html">Context. Here we define a Datasource called myoracle using the thin driver to connect as user scott, password tiger to the sid called mysid. (Note: with the thin driver this sid is not the same as the tnsname). The schema used will be the default schema for the user scott.</p> <p>Use of the OCI driver should simply involve a changing thin to oci in the URL string. <source> <Resource name="jdbc/myoracle" auth="Container" type="javax.sql.DataSource" driverClassName="oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver" url="jdbc:oracle:thin:@" username="scott" password="tiger" maxActive="20" maxIdle="10" maxWait="-1"/> </source> </p> <h3>2. web.xml configuration <p>You should ensure that you respect the element ordering defined by the DTD when you create you applications web.xml file.</p> <source> <resource-ref> <description>Oracle Datasource example</description> <res-ref-name>jdbc/myoracle</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth> </resource-ref> </source> <h3>3. Code example <p>You can use the same example application as above (asuming you create the required DB instance, tables etc.) replacing the Datasource code with something like</p> <source> Context initContext = new InitialContext(); Context envContext = (Context)initContext.lookup("java:/comp/env"); DataSource ds = (DataSource)envContext.lookup("jdbc/myoracle"); Connection conn = ds.getConnection(); //etc. </source> </subsection> <subsection name="PostgreSQL"> <h3>0. Introduction <p>PostgreSQL is configured in a similar manner to Oracle.

<h3>1. Required files <p> Copy the Postgres JDBC jar to $CATALINA_HOME/lib. As with Oracle, the jars need to be in this directory in order for DBCP's Classloader to find them. This has to be done regardless of which configuration step you take next. </p> <h3>2. Resource configuration <p> You have two choices here: define a datasource that is shared across all Tomcat applications, or define a datasource specifically for one application. </p> <h4>2a. Shared resource configuration <p> Use this option if you wish to define a datasource that is shared across multiple Tomcat applications, or if you just prefer defining your datasource in this file. </p> <p>This author has not had success here, although others have reported so. Clarification would be appreciated here.</i>

<source> <Resource name="jdbc/postgres" auth="Container" type="javax.sql.DataSource" driverClassName="org.postgresql.Driver" url="jdbc:postgresql://" username="myuser" password="mypasswd" maxActive="20" maxIdle="10" maxWait="-1"/> </source> <h4>2b. Application-specific resource configuration <p> Use this option if you wish to define a datasource specific to your application, not visible to other Tomcat applications. This method is less invasive to your Tomcat installation. </p> <p> Create a resource definition for your <a href="config/context.html">Context. The Context element should look something like the following. </p> <source> <Context path="/someApp" docBase="someApp" crossContext="true" reloadable="true" debug="1"> <Resource name="jdbc/postgres" auth="Container" type="javax.sql.DataSource" driverClassName="org.postgresql.Driver" url="jdbc:postgresql://" username="myuser" password="mypasswd" maxActive="20" maxIdle="10" maxWait="-1"/> </Context> </source> <h3>3. web.xml configuration <source> <resource-ref> <description>postgreSQL Datasource example</description> <res-ref-name>jdbc/postgres</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth> </resource-ref> </source> <h4>4. Accessing the datasource <p> When accessing the datasource programmatically, remember to prepend <code>java:/comp/env to your JNDI lookup, as in the following snippet of code. Note also that "jdbc/postgres" can be replaced with any value you prefer, provided you change it in the above resource definition file as well. </p> <source> InitialContext cxt = new InitialContext(); if ( cxt == null ) { throw new Exception("Uh oh -- no context!"); } DataSource ds = (DataSource) cxt.lookup( "java:/comp/env/jdbc/postgres" ); if ( ds == null ) { throw new Exception("Data source not found!"); } </source> </subsection> </section> <section name="Non-DBCP Solutions"> <p> These solutions either utilise a single connection to the database (not recommended for anything other than testing!) or some other pooling technology. </p> </section> <section name="Oracle 8i with OCI client"> <subsection name="Introduction"> <p>Whilst not strictly addressing the creation of a JNDI DataSource using the OCI client, these notes can be combined with the Oracle and DBCP solution above.</p> <p> In order to use OCI driver, you should have an Oracle client installed. You should have installed Oracle8i(8.1.7) client from cd, and download the suitable JDBC/OCI driver(Oracle8i JDBC/OCI Driver) from <a href=""> </p> <p> After renaming <code> file to classes12.jar for Tomcat, copy it into <code>$CATALINA_HOME/lib. You may also have to remove the <code>javax.sql.* classes from this file depending upon the version of Tomcat and JDK you are using. </p> </subsection> <subsection name="Putting it all together"> <p> Ensure that you have the <code>ocijdbc8.dll or .so in your $PATH or LD_LIBRARY_PATH (possibly in <code>$ORAHOME\bin) and also confirm that the native library can be loaded by a simple test program using <code>System.loadLibrary("ocijdbc8"); </p> <p> You should next create a simple test servlet or jsp that has these <strong>critical lines: </p> <source> DriverManager.registerDriver(new oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver()); conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:oracle:oci8:@database","username","password"); </source> <p> where database is of the form <code>host:port:SID Now if you try to access the URL of your test servlet/jsp and what you get is a <code>ServletException with a root cause of java.lang.UnsatisfiedLinkError:get_env_handle. </p> <p> First, the <code>UnsatisfiedLinkError indicates that you have <ul> <li>a mismatch between your JDBC classes file and your Oracle client version. The giveaway here is the message stating that a needed library file cannot be found. For example, you may be using a file from Oracle Version 8.1.6 with a Version 8.1.5 Oracle client. The file and Oracle client software versions must match. </li> <li>A $PATH, LD_LIBRARY_PATH problem. <li>It has been reported that ignoring the driver you have downloded from otn and using the file from the directory <code>$ORAHOME\jdbc\lib will also work. </li> </ul> </p> <p> Next you may experience the error <code>ORA-06401 NETCMN: invalid driver designator </p> <p> The Oracle documentation says : "Cause: The login (connect) string contains an invalid driver designator. Action: Correct the string and re-submit." Change the database connect string (of the form <code>host:port:SID) with this one: <code>(description=(address=(host=myhost)(protocol=tcp)(port=1521))(connect_data=(sid=orcl))) </p> <p> <i>Ed. Hmm, I don't think this is really needed if you sort out your TNSNames - but I'm not an Oracle DBA :-)
</p> </subsection> </section> <section name="Common Problems"> <p>Here are some common problems encountered with a web application which uses a database and tips for how to solve them.</p> <subsection name="Intermittent dB Connection Failures"> <p> Tomcat runs within a JVM. The JVM periodically performs garbage collection (GC) to remove java objects which are no longer being used. When the JVM performs GC execution of code within Tomcat freezes. If the maximum time configured for establishment of a dB connection is less than the amount of time garbage collection took you can get a db conneciton failure. </p> <p>To collect data on how long garbage collection is taking add the <code>-verbose:gc argument to your CATALINA_OPTS environment variable when starting Tomcat. When verbose gc is enabled your <code>$CATALINA_BASE/logs/catalina.out log file will include data for every garbage collection including how long it took.</p> <p>When your JVM is tuned correctly 99% of the time a GC will take less than one second. The remainder will only take a few seconds. Rarely, if ever should a GC take more than 10 seconds.</p> <p>Make sure that the db connection timeout is set to 10-15 seconds. For the DBCP you set this using the parameter <code>maxWait.

</subsection> <subsection name="Random Connection Closed Exceptions"> <p> These can occur when one request gets a db connection from the connection pool and closes it twice. When using a connection pool, closing the connection just returns it to the pool for reuse by another request, it doesn't close the connection. And Tomcat uses multiple threads to handle concurrent requests. Here is an example of the sequence of events which could cause this error in Tomcat: <pre> Request 1 running in Thread 1 gets a db connection. Request 1 closes the db connection. The JVM switches the running thread to Thread 2 Request 2 running in Thread 2 gets a db connection (the same db connection just closed by Request 1). The JVM switches the running thread back to Thread 1 Request 1 closes the db connection a second time in a finally block. The JVM switches the running thread back to Thread 2 Request 2 Thread 2 tries to use the db connection but fails because Request 1 closed it. </pre> Here is an example of properly written code to use a db connection obtained from a connection pool: <pre> Connection conn = null; Statement stmt = null; // Or PreparedStatement if needed ResultSet rs = null; try { conn = ... get connection from connection pool ... stmt = conn.createStatement("select ..."); rs = stmt.executeQuery(); ... iterate through the result set ... rs.close(); rs = null; stmt.close(); stmt = null; conn.close(); // Return to connection pool conn = null; // Make sure we don't close it twice } catch (SQLException e) { ... deal with errors ... } finally { // Always make sure result sets and statements are closed, // and the connection is returned to the pool if (rs != null) { try { rs.close(); } catch (SQLException e) { ; } rs = null; } if (stmt != null) { try { stmt.close(); } catch (SQLException e) { ; } stmt = null; } if (conn != null) { try { conn.close(); } catch (SQLException e) { ; } conn = null; } } </pre> </p> </subsection> <subsection name="Context versus GlobalNamingResources"> <p> Please note that although the above instructions place the JNDI declarations in a Context element, it is possible and sometimes desirable to place these declarations in the <a href="config/globalresources.html">GlobalNamingResources section of the server configuration file. A resource placed in the GlobalNamingResources section will be shared among the Contexts of the server. </p> </subsection> <subsection name="JNDI Resource Naming and Realm Interaction"> <p> In order to get Realms to work, the realm must refer to the datasource as defined in the <GlobalNamingResources> or <Context> section, not a datasource as renamed using <ResourceLink>. </p> </subsection> </section> </body> </document>

Other Tomcat examples (source code examples)

Here is a short list of links related to this Tomcat jndi-datasource-examples-howto.xml source code file:

... this post is sponsored by my books ...

#1 New Release!

FP Best Seller


new blog posts


Copyright 1998-2021 Alvin Alexander,
All Rights Reserved.

A percentage of advertising revenue from
pages under the /java/jwarehouse URI on this website is
paid back to open source projects.