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<td>Set this value to true if you want Tomcat to require all SSL clients to present a client Certificate in order to use this socket. Set this value to <code>want if you want Tomcat to request a client Certificate, but not fail if one isn't presented. </td> </tr> <tr> <td> Use this attribute to enable SSL traffic on a connector. To turn on SSL handshake/encryption/decryption on a connector set this value to <code>true. The default value is <code>false. When turning this value <code>true you will want to set the <code>scheme and the secure attributes as well to pass the correct <code>request.getScheme() and <code>request.isSecure() values to the servlets </td> </tr> <tr> <td>keystoreFile <td>Add this attribute if the keystore file you created is not in the default place that Tomcat expects (a file named <code>.keystore in the user home directory under which Tomcat is running). You can specify an absolute pathname, or a relative pathname that is resolved against the <code>$CATALINA_BASE environment variable. </tr> <tr> <td>keystorePass <td>Add this element if you used a different keystore (and Certificate) password than the one Tomcat expects (<code>changeit). </tr> <tr> <td>keystoreType <td>Add this element if using a keystore type other than <code>JKS. </tr> <tr> <td>sslProtocol <td>The encryption/decryption protocol to be used on this socket. It is not recommended to change this value if you are using Sun's JVM. It is reported that IBM's 1.4.1 implementation of the TLS protocol is not compatible with some popular browsers. In this case, use the value <code>SSL. </tr> <tr> <td>ciphers <td>The comma separated list of encryption ciphers that this socket is allowed to use. By default, any available cipher is allowed.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>algorithm <td>The X509 algorithm to use. This defaults to the Sun implementation (<code>SunX509). For IBM JVMs you should use the value <code>IbmX509. For other vendors, consult the JVM documentation for the correct value. </td> </tr> <tr> <td>truststoreFile <td>The TrustStore file to use to validate client certificates. </tr> <tr> <td>truststorePass <td>The password to access the TrustStore. This defaults to the value of <code>keystorePass. </tr> <tr> <td>truststoreType <td>Add this element if your are using a different format for the TrustStore then you are using for the KeyStore.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>keyAlias <td>Add this element if your have more than one key in the KeyStore. If the element is not present the first key read in the KeyStore will be used.</td> </tr> </table> <p>After completing these configuration changes, you must restart Tomcat as you normally do, and you should be in business. You should be able to access any web application supported by Tomcat via SSL. For example, try:</p> <source> https://localhost:8443 </source> <p>and you should see the usual Tomcat splash page (unless you have modified the ROOT web application). If this does not work, the following section contains some troubleshooting tips.</p> </subsection> </section> <section name="Installing a Certificate from a Certificate Authority"> <p>To obstain and install a Certificate from a Certificate Authority (like verisign.com, thawte.com or trustcenter.de) you should have read the previous section and then follow these instructions:</p> <subsection name="Create a local Certificate Signing Request (CSR)"> <p>In order to obtain a Certificate from the Certificate Authority of your choice you have to create a so called Certificate Signing Request (CSR). That CSR will be used by the Certificate Authority to create a Certificate that will identify your website as "secure". To create a CSR follow these steps:</p> <ul> <li>Create a local Certificate (as described in the previous section): <source>keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA \ -keystore <your_keystore_filename></source> Note: In some cases you will have to enter the domain of your website (i.e. <code>www.myside.org) in the field "first- and lastname" in order to create a working Certificate. </li> <li>The CSR is then created with: <source>keytool -certreq -keyalg RSA -alias tomcat -file certreq.csr \ -keystore <your_keystore_filename></source> </li> </ul> <p>Now you have a file called certreq.csr that you can submit to the Certificate Authority (look at the documentation of the Certificate Authority website on how to do this). In return you get a Certificate.</p> </subsection> <subsection name="Importing the Certificate"> <p>Now that you have your Certificate you can import it into you local keystore. First of all you have to import a so called Chain Certificate or Root Certificate into your keystore. After that you can procede with importing your Certificate.</p> <ul> <li>Download a Chain Certificate from the Certificate Authority you obtained the Certificate from. For Verisign.com commercial certificates go to: http://www.verisign.com/support/install/intermediate.html<br/> For Verisign.com trial certificates go to: http://www.verisign.com/support/verisign-intermediate-ca/Trial_Secure_Server_Root/index.html For Trustcenter.de go to: http://www.trustcenter.de/certservices/cacerts/en/en.htm#server<br/> For Thawte.com go to: http://www.thawte.com/certs/trustmap.html<br/> </li> <li>Import the Chain Certificate into you keystore <source>keytool -import -alias root -keystore <your_keystore_filename> \ -trustcacerts -file <filename_of_the_chain_certificate></source> </li> <li>And finally import your new Certificate <source>keytool -import -alias tomcat -keystore <your_keystore_filename> \ -file <your_certificate_filename></source> </li> </ul> </subsection> </section> <section name="Troubleshooting"> <p>Here is a list of common problems that you may encounter when setting up SSL communications, and what to do about them.</p> <ul> <li>I get "java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException" errors in my log files. <blockquote> <p>The JVM cannot find the JSSE JAR files. Follow all of the directions to <a href="#Download and Install JSSE">download and install JSSE. </blockquote> <li>When Tomcat starts up, I get an exception like "java.io.FileNotFoundException: {some-directory}/{some-file} not found". <blockquote> <p>A likely explanation is that Tomcat cannot find the keystore file where it is looking. By default, Tomcat expects the keystore file to be named <code>.keystore in the user home directory under which Tomcat is running (which may or may not be the same as yours :-). If the keystore file is anywhere else, you will need to add a <code>keystoreFile attribute to the <Factory> element in the <a href="#Edit the Tomcat Configuration File">Tomcat configuration file</a>. </blockquote> <li>When Tomcat starts up, I get an exception like "java.io.FileNotFoundException: Keystore was tampered with, or password was incorrect". <blockquote> <p>Assuming that someone has not actually tampered with your keystore file, the most likely cause is that Tomcat is using a different password than the one you used when you created the keystore file. To fix this, you can either go back and <a href="#Prepare the Certificate Keystore">recreate the keystore file</a>, or you can add or update the keystorePass attribute on the <code><Connector> element in the <a href="#Edit the Tomcat Configuration File">Tomcat configuration file</a>. REMINDER - Passwords are case sensitive! </blockquote> <li>When Tomcat starts up, I get an exception like "java.net.SocketException: SSL handshake errorjavax.net.ssl.SSLException: No available certificate or key corresponds to the SSL cipher suites which are enabled." <blockquote> <p>A likely explanation is that Tomcat cannot find the alias for the server key withinthe specified keystore. Check that the correct <code>keystoreFile and keyAlias are specified in the <code><Connector> element in the <a href="#Edit the Tomcat Configuration File">Tomcat configuration file. <strong>REMINDER - keyAlias values may be case sensitive!</p> </blockquote> </ul> <p>If you are still having problems, a good source of information is the <strong>TOMCAT-USER mailing list. You can find pointers to archives of previous messages on this list, as well as subscription and unsubscription information, at <a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html">http://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html. </section> <section name="Miscellaneous Tips and Bits"> <p>To access the SSL session ID from the request, use: <code> String sslID = (String)request.getAttribute("javax.servlet.request.ssl_session"); </code> <br /> For additional discussion on this area, please see <a href="http://issues.apache.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=22679">Bugzilla. </p> </section> </body> </document> ## Other Tomcat examples (source code examples) Here is a short list of links related to this Tomcat ssl-howto.xml source code file: # Tomcat example source code file (ssl-howto.xml) This example Tomcat source code file (ssl-howto.xml) is included in the DevDaily.com "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM. ## Java - Tomcat tags/keywords apr, authority, certificate, certificate, for, for, rsa, ssl, ssl, the, this, tomcat, tomcat, you ## The Tomcat ssl-howto.xml source code <?xml version="1.0"?> <!-- Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file distributed with this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership. The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License. --> <!DOCTYPE document [ <!ENTITY project SYSTEM "project.xml"> ]> <document url="ssl-howto.html"> &project; <properties> <author email="ccain@apache.org">Christopher Cain <author email="yoavs@apache.org">Yoav Shapira <title>SSL Configuration HOW-TO </properties> <body> <section name="Quick Start"> <p>IMPORTANT NOTE: This Howto refers to usage of JSSE, that comes included with jdk 1.5 and higher. When using APR, Tomcat will use OpenSSL, which uses a different configuration.</b> <blockquote> <p>The description below uses the variable name$CATALINA_HOME
to refer to the directory into which you have installed Tomcat 6,
and is the base directory against which most relative paths are
resolved.  However, if you have configured Tomcat 6 for multiple
instances by setting a CATALINA_BASE directory, you should use
$CATALINA_BASE instead of$CATALINA_HOME for each of these
references.</p>
</em>

<p>To install and configure SSL support on Tomcat 6, you need to follow
<ol>
<li>Create a certificate keystore by executing the following command:
<p>Windows:
<source>
%JAVA_HOME%\bin\keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA
</source>
<p>Unix:
<source>
$JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA </source> <p> and specify a password value of "changeit".</li> <li>Uncomment the "SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector" entry in <code>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml and tweak as necessary.
<br/>
</ol>

</section>

<section name="Introduction to SSL">

<p>SSL, or Secure Socket Layer, is a technology which allows web browsers and
web servers to communicate over a secured connection.  This means that the data
being sent is encrypted by one side, transmitted, then decrypted by the other
side before processing.  This is a two-way process, meaning that both the
server AND the browser encrypt all traffic before sending out data.</p>

<p>Another important aspect of the SSL protocol is Authentication.  This means
that during your initial attempt to communicate with a web server over a secure
credentials, in the form of a "Certificate", as proof the site is who and what
it claims to be.  In certain cases, the server may also request a Certificate
to be.  This is known as "Client Authentication," although in practice this is
users.  Most SSL-enabled web servers do not request Client Authentication.</p>

</section>

<section name="SSL and Tomcat">

<p>It is important to note that configuring Tomcat to take advantage of
secure sockets is usually only necessary when running it as a stand-alone
web server.  When running Tomcat primarily as a Servlet/JSP container behind
another web server, such as Apache or Microsoft IIS, it is usually necessary
to configure the primary web server to handle the SSL connections from users.
Typically, this server will negotiate all SSL-related functionality, then
pass on any requests destined for the Tomcat container only after decrypting
those requests.  Likewise, Tomcat will return cleartext responses, that will
be encrypted before being returned to the user's browser.  In this environment,
Tomcat knows that communications between the primary web server and the
client are taking place over a secure connection (because your application
encryption or decryption itself.</p>

</section>

<section name="Certificates">

<p>In order to implement SSL, a web server must have an associated Certificate
for each external interface (IP address) that accepts secure connections.
The theory behind this design is that a server should provide some kind of
reasonable assurance that its owner is who you think it is, particularly
before receiving any sensitive information.  While a broader explanation of
Certificates is beyond the scope of this document, think of a Certificate
as a "digital driver's license" for an Internet address.  It states what
company the site is associated with, along with some basic contact

<p>This "driver's license" is cryptographically signed by its owner, and is
therefore extremely difficult for anyone else to forge.  For sites involved
in e-commerce, or any other business transaction in which authentication of
identity is important, a Certificate is typically purchased from a well-known
<em>Certificate Authority (CA) such as VeriSign or Thawte.  Such
certificates can be electronically verified -- in effect, the Certificate
Authority will vouch for the authenticity of the certificates that it grants,
so you can believe that that Certificate is valid if you trust the Certificate
Authority that granted it.</p>

<p>In many cases, however, authentication is not really a concern.  An
administrator may simply want to ensure that the data being transmitted and
received by the server is private and cannot be snooped by anyone who may be
eavesdropping on the connection.  Fortunately, Java provides a relatively
simple command-line tool, called <code>keytool, which can easily create
a "self-signed" Certificate.  Self-signed Certificates are simply user
generated Certificates which have not been officially registered with any
well-known CA, and are therefore not really guaranteed to be authentic at all.
Again, this may or may not even be important, depending on your needs.</p>

</section>

<section name="General Tips on Running SSL">

<p>The first time a user attempts to access a secured page on your site,
he or she is typically presented with a dialog containing the details of
the certificate (such as the company and contact name), and asked if he or she
wishes to accept the Certificate as valid and continue with the transaction.
Some browsers will provide an option for permanently accepting a given
Certificate as valid, in which case the user will not be bothered with a
prompt each time they visit your site.  Other browsers do not provide this
option.  Once approved by the user, a Certificate will be considered valid
for at least the entire browser session.</p>

<p>Also, while the SSL protocol was designed to be as efficient as securely
possible, encryption/decryption is a computationally expensive process from
a performance standpoint.  It is not strictly necessary to run an entire
web application over SSL, and indeed a developer can pick and choose which
pages require a secure connection and which do not.  For a reasonably busy
site, it is customary to only run certain pages under SSL, namely those
pages where sensitive information could possibly be exchanged.  This would
include things like login pages, personal information pages, and shopping
cart checkouts, where credit card information could possibly be transmitted.
Any page within an application can be requested over a secure socket by
<code>http:.  Any pages which absolutely require
a secure connection should check the protocol type associated with the
page request and take the appropriate action if <code>https is not
specified.</p>

<p>Finally, using name-based virtual hosts on a secured connection can be
problematic.  This is a design limitation of the SSL protocol itself.  The SSL
handshake, where the client browser accepts the server certificate, must occur
before the HTTP request is accessed.  As a result, the request information
containing the virtual host name cannot be determined prior to authentication,
and it is therefore not possible to assign multiple certificates to a single
IP address.  If all virtual hosts on a single IP address need to authenticate
against the same certificate, the addition of multiple virtual hosts should not
interfere with normal SSL operations on the server.  Be aware, however, that
most client browsers will compare the server's domain name against the domain
name listed in the certificate, if any (applicable primarily to official,
CA-signed certificates).  If the domain names do not match, these browsers will
display a warning to the client user.  In general, only address-based virtual
hosts are commonly used with SSL in a production environment.</p>

</section>

<section name="Configuration">

<subsection name="Prepare the Certificate Keystore">

<p>Tomcat currently operates only on JKS, PKCS11 or
<code>PKCS12 format keystores.  The JKS format
is Java's standard "Java KeyStore" format, and is the format created by the
<code>keytool command-line utility.  This tool is included in the JDK.
The <code>PKCS12 format is an internet standard, and can be manipulated
via (among other things) OpenSSL and Microsoft's Key-Manager.
</p>

<p>Each entry in a keystore is identified by an alias string. Whilst many
keystore implmentations treat alaises in a case insensitive manner, case
sensitive implementations are available. The <code>PKCS11 specification,
for example, requires that aliases are case sensitive. To avoid issues related
to the case sensitivity of aliaises, it is not recommended to use aliases that
differ only in case.
</p>

<p>To import an existing certificate into a JKS keystore, please read the
Note that openssl often adds a readable comments before the key, <code>keytooldoes not support that, so remove the openssl comments if they exist before importing the key using keytool.
</p>
<p>To import an existing certificate signed by your own CA into a PKCS12
keystore using OpenSSL you would execute a command like:
<source>openssl pkcs12 -export -in mycert.crt -inkey mykey.key \
-out mycert.p12 -name tomcat -CAfile myCA.crt \
-caname root -chain
</source>
For more advanced cases, consult the <a href="http://www.openssl.org/">OpenSSL
documententation</a>.
</p>
<p>To create a new keystore from scratch, containing a single self-signed
Certificate, execute the following from a terminal command line:</p>
<p>Windows:
<source>
%JAVA_HOME%\bin\keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA
</source>
<p>Unix:
<source>
$JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA </source> <p>(The RSA algorithm should be preferred as a secure algorithm, and this also ensures general compatibility with other servers and components.)</p> <p>This command will create a new file, in the home directory of the user under which you run it, named "<code>.keystore". To specify a different location or filename, add the <code>-keystore parameter, followed by the complete pathname to your keystore file, to the <code>keytool command shown above. You will also need to reflect this new location in the <code>server.xml configuration file, as described later. For example:</p> <p>Windows: <source> %JAVA_HOME%\bin\keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA \ -keystore \path\to\my\keystore </source> <p>Unix: <source>$JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA \
-keystore /path/to/my/keystore
</source>

<p>After executing this command, you will first be prompted for the keystore
(all lower case), although you can specify a custom password if you like.
You will also need to specify the custom password in the
<code>server.xml configuration file, as described later.

such as company, contact name, and so on.  This information will be displayed
to users who attempt to access a secure page in your application, so make
sure that the information provided here matches what they will expect.</p>

<p>Finally, you will be prompted for the key password, which is the
password specifically for this Certificate (as opposed to any other
Certificates stored in the same keystore file).  You <strong>MUST
use the same password here as was used for the keystore password itself.
(Currently, the <code>keytool prompt will tell you that pressing the
ENTER key does this for you automatically.)</p>

<p>If everything was successful, you now have a keystore file with a
Certificate that can be used by your server.</p>

should be the same.  If they differ, you will get an error along the lines
of <code>java.io.IOException: Cannot recover key, as documented in
<a href="http://issues.apache.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=38217">Bugzilla issue 38217,
which contains further references for this issue.</p>

</subsection>

<subsection name="Edit the Tomcat Configuration File">
<p>If you are using APR, you have the option of configuring an alternative engine to openSSL.
<source>
<Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="someengine" />
</source>
The default value is
<source>
<Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="on" />
</source>
So to use SSL under APR, make sure the SSLEngine attribute is set to something other than <code>off.
The default value is <code>on and if you specify another value, it has to be a valid engine name.
<br/>
If you haven't compiled in SSL support into your Tomcat Native library, then you can turn this initialization off
<source>
<Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="off" />
</source>

</p>

<p>The final step is to configure your secure socket in the
<code>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml file, where <code>$CATALINA_HOME represents the directory into which you
installed Tomcat 6.  An example <code><Connector> element
for an SSL connector is included in the default <code>server.xml
file installed with Tomcat.  It will look something like this:</p>
<source>
<-- Define a SSL Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 -->
<!--
<Connector
scheme="https" secure="true" SSLEnabled="true"
keystoreFile="${user.home}/.keystore" keystorePass="changeit" clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS"/> --> </source> <p> The example above will throw an error if you have the APR and the Tomcat Native libraries in your path, as tomcat will try to autoload the APR connector. The APR connector uses different attributes for SSL keys and certificates. An example of such configuration would be <source> <-- Define a SSL Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 --> <!-- <Connector port="8443" minSpareThreads="5" maxSpareThreads="75" enableLookups="true" disableUploadTimeout="true" acceptCount="100" maxThreads="200" scheme="https" secure="true" SSLEnabled="true" SSLCertificateFile="/usr/local/ssl/server.crt" SSLCertificateKeyFile="/usr/local/ssl/server.pem" clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS"/> --> </source> </p> <p> To avoid auto configuration you can define which connector to use by specifying a classname in the protocol attribute.<br/> To define a Java connector, regardless if the APR library is loaded or not do: <source> <-- Define a blocking Java SSL Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 --> <!-- <Connector protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Protocol" port="8443" minSpareThreads="5" maxSpareThreads="75" enableLookups="true" disableUploadTimeout="true" acceptCount="100" maxThreads="200" scheme="https" secure="true" SSLEnabled="true" keystoreFile="${user.home}/.keystore" keystorePass="changeit"
clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS"/>
-->
<-- Define a non-blocking Java SSL Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 -->
<!--
<Connector protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11NioProtocol"
scheme="https" secure="true" SSLEnabled="true"
keystoreFile="\${user.home}/.keystore" keystorePass="changeit"
clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS"/>
-->
</source>
and to specify an APR connector
<source>
<-- Define a APR SSL Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 -->
<!--
<Connector protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11AprProtocol"
scheme="https" secure="true" SSLEnabled="true"
SSLCertificateFile="/usr/local/ssl/server.crt"
SSLCertificateKeyFile="/usr/local/ssl/server.pem"
clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS"/>
-->
</source>

</p>

<p>You will note that the Connector element itself is commented out by default,
so you will need to remove the comment tags around it.  Then, you can
customize the specified attributes as necessary.  For detailed information
about the various options, consult the
<a href="config/index.html">Server Configuration Reference.  The
following discussion covers only those attributes of most interest when
setting up SSL communication.</p>

<p>The port attribute (default value is 8443) is the TCP/IP
port number on which Tomcat will listen for secure connections.  You can
change this to any port number you wish (such as to the default port for
<code>https communications, which is 443).  However, special setup
(outside the scope of this document) is necessary to run Tomcat on port
numbers lower than 1024 on many operating systems.</p>

<blockquote>
<p>If you change the port number here, you should also change the
value specified for the <code>redirectPort attribute on the
non-SSL connector.  This allows Tomcat to automatically redirect
users who attempt to access a page with a security constraint specifying
that SSL is required, as required by the Servlet 2.4 Specification.</p>
</em>

<p>There are addional option used to configure the SSL protocol.
You may need to add or change the following attribute
values, depending on how you configured your keystore earlier:</p>

<table border="1">
<tr>
<th>Attribute
<th>Description
</tr>
<tr>
<td>clientAuth
SSLEnabled
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