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Commons Attributes example source code file (declaring.xml)

This example Commons Attributes source code file (declaring.xml) is included in the "Java Source Code Warehouse" project. The intent of this project is to help you "Learn Java by Example" TM.

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The Commons Attributes declaring.xml source code

<?xml version="1.0"?>
= Copyright 2003-2004 The Apache Software Foundation
= Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
= you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
= You may obtain a copy of the License at
= Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
= distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
= See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
= limitations under the License.
        <author email="">Jakarta Commons Development Team
        <title>Reference - Declaring and Using
        <section name="What are Attributes?">
            <p>Attributes are value objects that can be added to language elements such as 
                classes, methods and fields.</p>
            <subsection name="Value Objects">
                <p>What is a value object? Simply stated, a value object is an object that is 
                    read-only, constant and can be replaced with another object of the same value
                    without it making any difference. For example, instances of the class 
                    <code>java.lang.Integer are value objects. You can replace any instance
                    of that class with any other instance, provided that they are equal. An 
                    <code> is not a value object, as you can't replace an 
                    instance of a socket with another - it corresponds to a real resource, in 
                    this case a connection.</p>
                <p>You should therefore not allow your attribute classes to be mutable, and not 
                    use Sockets or similar classes as attributes.</p>
        <section name="How Are They Added?">
            <p>Let's look at the way attributes are added to the code. The general form of the 
                attribute expression is (optional parts are in [brackets]):</p>
            <subsection name="target">
                <p>This name indicates what sub-element the attribute is to be applied to. 
                    Classes and fields have no sub-elements, but methods do. The sub-elements 
                    of a method are (1) the arguments and (2) the return value. In order to 
                    apply an element to a method argument, you let the target be <code>.argument name. 
                    For example:</p>
                <p>Will attach MyAttribute to the first argument of the method - not to 
                    the method itself. The attribute can be retrieved via 

<p>Adding an attribute to the return value is done by the reserved target name <code>.return:

<source> <p>The attribute can then be retrieved via Attributes.getReturnAttributes(Method).

</subsection> <subsection name="ClassName"> <p>This is the name of the attribute class. You can use a qualified or unqualified name here - but if you use the unqualified name one of the following must be true:</p> <ul> <li> <p> The attribute class is in the same package as the class you are attaching it to. (Standard Java rules for when you need to import a class.) </p> </li> <li> <p> You have an import statement that imports the attribute class. </p> </li> <li> <p> You have listed the package the attribute class is in in the attributePackages attribute of the attribute compiler in your build script. <a href="compiler.html">See here.</a> </p> </li> </ul> </subsection> <subsection name="constructor args"> <p> This is simply a list of arguments to pass to the constructor when instantiating the attribute class. For example, given an attribute:</p> <source> <p>You would specify the name by including it as a constructor argument:

<source> </subsection> <subsection name="named arguments"> <p>Commons Attributes provides a simple way of having named arguments. This is done by having setter metods in the attribute class. Adding a field and two methods to the attribute class above we get:</p> <source> <p>We can now set the optional field by using a named parameter:

<source> <p>The attribute compiler will pass any parameter up to the first one that is on the form <code>name = expression to the constructor. For the remaining parameters, it will invoke a method named <code>setName(expression) on the attribute instance. So for our example above, the following code will be generated:</p> <source> <p>Named parameters are always optional.

</subsection> </section> <section name="How are they Retrieved?"> <p>You retrieve attributes by using the methods in the org.apache.commons.attributes.Attributes class. See the <a href="api/index.html">JavaDoc for a description of methods in this class.

</section> <section name="How are Attributes Stored?"> <p> See the <a href="compiler.html">Compiling section of the reference. </p> </section> <section name="Gotchas and Other Questions"> <subsection name="What happens if I add the same attribute twice?"> <p>Let's define the question via a use case. Suppose you have an attribute (MyAttribute), and you have a class MyClass:

<source> <p>The question is now, will the collection returned by Attributes.getAttributes (MyClass.class) have one or two elements? The answer is that it depends on the way MyAttribute handles equality. The attributes associated with a class, method or field always for a Set, meaning that there are no duplicates. So if MyAttribute is implemented this way:</p> <source> <p>Then you will get two elements, since each instance of MyAttribute is different from every other instance. However, if MyAttribute is implemented like this:</p> <source> <p>That is, every instance of MyAttribute is equal to any other instance of the class, then you will only get one element in the collection.</p> <p>The above also holds true if the attribute has been inherited.

</subsection> <subsection name="What are the requirements for an attribute class?"> <p>It must have a public constructor. That's all.

</subsection> <subsection name="I tried adding attributes to an anonymous class and it didn't work."> <p>That's not supported (yet). It is also very hard to implement since the class name is decided by the Java compiler.

</subsection> <subsection name="I want to add a constant value as an attribute."> <p>So you have this

<source> <p>and now you'd like to add ONE as an attribute like this:

<source> <p>how can this be done?

<p>The best that can be offered is:

<source> <p>I'm afraid. The expression follwing the @@ must fit the template "new (expression)" optionally suffixed by "()". This makes the compiler much simpler, and the loss of functionality was considered worth it. You can also define a separate ONE class:

<source> <p>and use it.

</subsection> </section> </body> </document>

Other Commons Attributes examples (source code examples)

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