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MySQL: How to start a MySQL server and client on a non-standard port

MySQL shell scripts and port FAQ: Can you share some MySQL examples that show how to start MySQL on a non-standard port (non default port)?

For a variety of reasons you may want or need to run your MySQL server on a different port than the default MySQL port of 3306. In those cases the easiest thing you can do is create a Unix/Linux shell script to start your MySQL server on some other port.