bourne shell

Debug Linux shell scripts with ‘-x’

If you ever need to debug a Unix or Linux shell script, you can just add the -x option to the interpreter when you invoke it. You can add the shell's debug option on the command line like this:

sh -x

or at the end of the first line in your shell script (the she-bang line), like this:

#!/bin/sh -x

I was just working on a shell script related to fonts on a Mac OS X (Unix), system, and when I tried to run it normally, all it gave me was this error message:

Linux shell scripts: How to increment a counter in a shell script

Unix/Linux shell script FAQ: Can you share a simple Linux shell script that shows how to count, i.e., a shell script that increments a counter in a for loop or while loop?

Sure, I just needed to increment a while loop counter myself, so I thought I'd share my example shell script code here.

Unix/Linux shell script reference page

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Linux shell script test syntax

All of the shell script tests that follow should be performed between the bracket characters [ and ], like this:

if [ true ]
  # do something here

Very important: Make sure you leave spaces around the bracket characters.

I'll show more detailed tests as we go along.

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To perform tests on files use the following comparison operators:

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A Bourne shell script that loops through all files in the current directory

Linux shell script for loop FAQ: Can you share an example of a Linux shell script for loop, for instance, to do something for every file in the current directory?

Here's a shell script that you'll find on all the Unix, Linux, and Mac OS X computers I've worked on. The general process of this script is "for every file in the current directory do XYZ".

How to build a dynamic Java classpath in a shell script

Here's a Bourne Shell (sh) script I use to run a Java anti-spam program I wrote. The program I'm running isn't important, but what is worth sharing about this shell script is how I dynamically build the Java CLASSPATH by including all of the jar files in the lib directory.

Other parts of the shell script (showing a shell script for loop) may be worth sharing as well, but I think that building the Java classpath dynamically in the shell script is probably the most important part.

With that being said, here's the shell script:

Linux shell script - while loop and sleep example

Linux shell script FAQ: Can you share a Linux shell script while loop example? While you're at it, can you show how to use the sleep command in the shell script while loop?

Sure. As a little background, I've written a program I call an Email Agent that periodically scans my email inbox, and does a lot of things to the inbox, including deleting the over 6,000 spams that I receive in a typical day. A recent problem with the Agent is that it runs too fast, apparently overwhelming the sendmail process on the machine that it runs on.

Linux mail - a Linux shell script to send mail

Here's a n example Linux shell script (Bourne shell to be specific) that I use to send a list of directories to one of our invoicers. She uses this list as part of a cross-checking process to make sure she bills each one of our customers who have a directory allocated to them. The list is sent to her automatically from a Linux crontab entry I created for her.

Without any further ado, here is the Linux shell script that sends the email. (Note that although I keep writing "Linux mail", this should also work on other Unix systems.)