I just noticed that you can set the preferred size of a column in a JTable using JFormDesigner. If you're looking at a JTable in the normal JFormDesigner view, click the ellipsis button for the model property in the Properties list. This brings up the JTable model editor.
Next, click a cell in the column you want to modify. Then on the bottom-right of this dialog you'll see a few fields labeled "Pref. Width", "Min. Width", and "Max. Width". Just type in a value you want for the preferred width of your column.
For instance, for a simple integer column I use a value of 45 or 50 in the preferred width field. I'm not going to explain the interaction of the preferred width, minimum width, and maximum width fields here, but suffice it to say that you can enter values for each of these. Also, in case it's not obvious from my description, you can enter different values for each column in your JTable.