Posts in the “scala” category

Creating Play Framework template functions (examples)

When you want to create a Play Framework template function, you can find some examples on the Scala Templates page. There you'll find these first two examples.

First, assuming you have a Product model defined something like this:

case class Product(var name: String, var price: BigDecimal)

The first template looks like this:

A ZIO cheatsheet

As a very brief introduction, this is the start of a ZIO cheat sheet. If you want a good cheat sheet, see this one on github. I’m creating my own as I learn ZIO and read the Zionomicon book. During the learning process I find that it’s much better to create your own by hand, that way you get something that’s meaningful to you.

Functional error handling in Scala

Because functional programming is like algebra, there are no null values or exceptions. But of course you can still have exceptions when you try to access servers that are down or files that are missing, so what can you do? This lesson demonstrates the techniques of functional error handling in Scala.

Some Scala Exception ‘allCatch’ examples

At the time of this writing there aren’t many examples of the Scala Exception object allCatch method to be found, so I thought I’d share some examples here.

In each example I first show the "success" case, and then show the "failure" case. Other than that, I won’t explain these, but hopefully seeing them in the REPL will be enough to get you pointed in the right direction:

Scala best practice: How to use the Option/Some/None pattern

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This is an excerpt from the Scala Cookbook (partially modified for the internet). This is Recipe 20.6, “Scala best practice: How to use the Option/Some/None pattern.”

Problem

For a variety of reasons, including removing null values from your Scala code, you want to use what I call the Option/Some/None pattern. Or, if you’re interested in a problem (exception) that occurred while processing code, you may want to return Try/Success/Failure from a method instead of Option/Some/None.

How to drop the first matching element in a Scala sequence

Summary: This blog post shows one way to drop/filter the first matching element from a Scala sequence (Seq, List, Vector, Array, etc.). I don’t claim that the algorithm is efficient, but it does work.

Background

While creating some Scala test code earlier today I had an immutable list of toppings for a pizza, and I got into a situation where I wanted to remove the first instance of a topping.

The essence of Scala ~ Martin Odersky

Per this tweet, back on May 15 Martin Odersky shared a slide with these contents:

The essence of Scala: Fusion of functional and object-oriented programming in a typed setting:

- Functions for the logic
- Objects for the modularity

Scala for/yield examples (for-loop and yield syntax)

I just found some notes from when I first began working with Scala, and I was working with the yield keyword in for loops. If you haven't worked with something like yield before, it will be helpful to know how it works. Here's a statement of how the yield keyword works in for loops, based on the documentation in the book, Programming in Scala:

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Scala ‘for loop’ examples and syntax

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Besides having a bad memory, I haven’t been able to work with Scala much recently, so I’ve been putting together this list of for loop examples.

This page is a work in progress, and as of tonight I haven’t tested some of the examples, but ... if you’re looking for some Scala for loop examples — technically called a for-comprehension or for-expression — I hope these examples are helpful.

How to append when writing to a text file in a Java or Scala application

Quick tip: To append when writing to a text file in a Scala or Java application, create your FileWriter with the append flag set to true, like this:

val bw = new BufferedWriter(new FileWriter(new File("/tmp/file.out"), true))
bw.write("Hello, world\n")
bw.close

FileWriter takes two arguments, so this might be a little easier to read:

val bw = new BufferedWriter(
    new FileWriter(
        new File("/tmp/file.out"),
        true
    )
)
bw.write("Hello, world\n")
bw.close

Scala: How to use higher-order functions (HOFs) with Option (instead of match expressions)

I originally wrote a long introduction to this article about how to work with the Scala Option/Some/None classes, but I decided to keep that introduction for a future article. For this article I’ll just say:

  • idiomatic Scala code involves never using null values
  • because you never use nulls, it’s important for you to become an expert at using Option, Some, and None
  • initially you may want to use match expressions to handle Option values
  • as you become more proficient with Scala and Options, you’ll find that match expressions tend to be verbose
  • becoming proficient with higher-order functions (HOFs) like map, filter, fold, and many others are the cure for that verbosity

Given that background, the purpose of this article is to show how to use HOFs rather than match expressions when working with Option values.

How to create multiple class constructors in Scala

Scala constructors FAQ: How do I create a Scala class with multiple constructors (secondary constructors)?

The Scala approach to defining multiple class constructors is a little different than Java, but somewhat similar. Rather than try to explain this in words, I just created some example source code to demonstrate how this works.

Here's some source code to demonstrate the Scala "multiple constructors" approach:

A Scala Factory Pattern example

Here’s a small example of how to create a Factory Pattern in Scala. In the Scala Cookbook I created what some people might call a simple factory and/or static factory, so the following code is a much better implementation of a true OOP Factory Pattern.

The factory classes

I don’t have too much time to explain the code today, but here are the classes that make up my Scala factory, including a set of “animal” classes along with a DogFactory and CatFactory that extend an AnimalFactory trait:

Scala List class: methods, examples, and syntax

This page contains a large collection of examples of how to use the methods on the Scala List class.

The Scala List class as an immutable, linear, linked-list class. It’s very efficient when it makes sense for your algorithms to (a) prepend all new elements, (b) work with it in terms of its head and tail elements, and (c) use functional methods that traverse the list from beginning to end, such as filter, map, foldLeft, reduceLeft.

How to get multiple, unique, random elements from a list of elements

One thing I never thought about before is that if you need to get multiple, unique, random elements from a list of elements, one solution to the problem is to shuffle the list and then take as many elements as you want/need. For instance, if you want three unique, random elements from a list of integers in Scala, you can do this:

scala> val list = List(1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3,4,5)
list: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

scala> val uniq = list.distinct
uniq: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

scala> val shuffled = scala.util.Random.shuffle(uniq)
shuffled: List[Int] = List(1, 4, 5, 2, 3)

scala> val firstThree = shuffled.take(3)
firstThree: List[Int] = List(1, 4, 5)

As that solution shows, you start with a simple list; get the unique/distinct elements from the list; shuffle those elements to create a new list; then take the first three elements from the shuffled list. That’s probably not a great solution for huge lists, but for many simple lists it’s a way to get multiple random elements from the list.