Scala best practice: How to use the Option/Some/None pattern

This is an excerpt from the 1st Edition of the Scala Cookbook (partially modified for the internet). This is Recipe 20.6, “Scala best practice: How to use the Option/Some/None pattern.”


For a variety of reasons, including removing null values from your Scala code, you want to use what I call the Option/Some/None pattern. Or, if you’re interested in a problem (exception) that occurred while processing code, you may want to return Try/Success/Failure from a method instead of Option/Some/None.


There is some overlap between this recipe and the previous recipe, “Eliminate null Values from Your Code”. That recipe shows how to use Option instead of null in the following situations:

  • Using Option in method and constructor parameters
  • Using Option to initialize class fields (instead of using null)
  • Converting null results from other code (such as Java code) into an Option

See that recipe for examples of how to use an Option in those situations.

This recipe adds these additional solutions:

  • Returning an Option from a method
  • Getting the value from an Option
  • Using Option with collections
  • Using Option with frameworks
  • Using Try/Success/Failure when you need the error message (Scala 2.10 and newer)
  • Using Either/Left/Right when you need the error message (pre-Scala 2.10)

Returning an Option from a Scala method

The toInt method used in this book shows how to return an Option from a method. It takes a String as input and returns a Some[Int] if the String is successfully converted to an Int, otherwise it returns a None:

def toInt(s: String): Option[Int] = {
    try {
    } catch {
        case e: Exception => None

Here’s another way to write the same function:

import scala.util.control.Exception._
def toInt(s: String): Option[Int] = allCatch.opt(s.toInt)

Although this is a simple function, it shows the common pattern, as well as the syntax.

For a more complicated example, see the readTextFile example in Recipe 20.5. This is what toInt looks like in the REPL when it succeeds and returns a Some:

scala> val x = toInt("1")
x: Option[Int] = Some(1)

This is what it looks like when it fails and returns a None:

scala> val x = toInt("foo")
x: Option[Int] = None

Getting the value from an Option

The toInt example shows how to declare a method that returns an Option. As a consumer of a method that returns an Option, there are several good ways to call it and access its result:

  • Use getOrElse
  • Use foreach
  • Use a match expression

To get the actual value if the method succeeds, or use a default value if the method fails, use getOrElse:

scala> val x = toInt("1").getOrElse(0)
x: Int = 1

Because an Option is a collection with zero or one elements, the foreach method can be used in many situations:

toInt("1").foreach{ i =>
    println(s"Got an int: $i")

That example prints the value if toInt returns a Some, but bypasses the println statement if toInt returns a None.

Another good way to access the toInt result is with a match expression:

toInt("1") match {
    case Some(i) => println(i)
    case None => println("That didn't work.")

Using Option with Scala collections

Another great feature of Option is that it plays well with Scala collections. For instance, starting with a list of strings like this:

val bag = List("1", "2", "foo", "3", "bar")

imagine you want a list of all the integers that can be converted from that list of strings. By passing the toInt method into the map method, you can convert every element in the collection into a Some or None value:

res0: List[Option[Int]] = List(Some(1), Some(2), None, Some(3), None)

This is a good start. Because an Option is a collection of zero or one elements, you can convert this list of Int values by adding flatten to map:

res1: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3)

As shown in Recipe 10.16, “Combine map and flatten with flatMap”, this is the same as calling flatMap:

scala> bag.flatMap(toInt)
res2: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3)

The collect method provides another way to achieve the same result:

scala>{case Some(i) => i}
res3: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3)

That example works because the collect method takes a partial function, and the anonymous function that’s passed in is only defined for Some values; it ignores the None values.

These examples work for several reasons:

  • toInt is defined to return Option[Int]
  • Methods like flatten, flatMap, and others are built to work well with Option values
  • You can pass anonymous functions into the collection methods

Using Option with other Scala frameworks

Once you begin working with third-party Scala libraries, you’ll see that Option is used to handle situations where a variable may not have a value. For instance, they’re baked into the Play Framework’s Anorm database library, where you use Option/Some/None for database table fields that can be null. In the following example, the third field may be null in the database, so it’s handled using Some and None, as shown:

def getAll() : List[Stock] = {
    DB.withConnection { implicit connection =>
        sqlQuery().collect {
            // the 'company' field has a value
            case Row(id: Int, symbol: String, Some(company: String)) =>
                    Stock(id, symbol, Some(company))
            // the 'company' field does not have a value
            case Row(id: Int, symbol: String, None) =>
                    Stock(id, symbol, None)

The Option approach is also used extensively in Play validation methods:

verifying("If age is given, it must be greater than zero",
    model =>
        model.age match {
            case Some(age) => age < 0
            case None => true

The scala.util.control.Exception object gives you another way to use an Option, depending on your preferences and needs. For instance, the try/catch block was removed from the following method and replaced with an allCatch method:

import scala.util.control.Exception._
def readTextFile(f: String): Option[List[String]] = allCatch.opt(Source.fromFile(f).getLines.toList)

allCatch is described as a Catch object “that catches everything.” The opt method returns None if an exception is caught (such as a FileNotFoundException), and a Some if the block of code succeeds.

Other allCatch methods support the Try and Either approaches. See the Exception object Scaladoc for more information.

If you like the Option/Some/None approach, but want to write a method that returns error information in the failure case (instead of None, which doesn’t return any error information), there are two similar approaches:

  • Try, Success, and Failure (introduced in Scala 2.10)
  • Either, Left, and Right

I prefer the new Try/Success/Failure approach, so let’s look at it next.

Using Try, Success, and Failure

Scala 2.10 introduced scala.util.Try as an approach that’s similar to Option, but returns failure information rather than a None.

The result of a computation wrapped in a Try will be one of its subclasses: Success or Failure. If the computation succeeds, a Success instance is returned; if an exception was thrown, a Failure will be returned, and the Failure will hold information about what failed.

To demonstrate this, first import the new classes:

import scala.util.{Try,Success,Failure}

Then create a simple method:

def divideXByY(x: Int, y: Int): Try[Int] = {
    Try(x / y)

This method returns a successful result as long as y is not zero. When y is zero, an ArithmeticException happens. However, the exception isn’t thrown out of the method; it’s caught by the Try, and a Failure object is returned from the method.

The method looks like this in the REPL:

scala> divideXByY(1,1)
res0: scala.util.Try[Int] = Success(1)

scala> divideXByY(1,0)
res1: scala.util.Try[Int] = Failure(java.lang.ArithmeticException: / by zero)

As with an Option, you can access the Try result using getOrElse, a foreach method, or a match expression. If you don’t care about the error message and just want a result, use getOrElse:

// Success
scala> val x = divideXByY(1, 1).getOrElse(0)
x: Int = 1

// Failure
scala> val y = divideXByY(1, 0).getOrElse(0)
y: Int = 0

Using a foreach method also works well in many situations:

scala> divideXByY(1, 1).foreach(println)

scala> divideXByY(1, 0).foreach(println)
(no output printed)

If you’re interested in the Failure message, one way to get it is with a match expression:

divideXByY(1, 1) match {
    case Success(i) => println(s"Success, value is: $i")
    case Failure(s) => println(s"Failed, message is: $s")

Another approach is to see if a Failure was returned, and then call its toString method (although this doesn’t really follow the “Scala way”):

scala> if (x.isFailure) x.toString
res0: Any = Failure(java.lang.ArithmeticException: / by zero)

The Try class has the added benefit that you can chain operations together, catching exceptions as you go. For example, the following code won’t throw an exception, regardless of what the values of x and y are:

val z = for {
    a <- Try(x.toInt)
    b <- Try(y.toInt)
} yield a * b

val answer = z.getOrElse(0) * 2

If x and y are String values like "1" and "2", this code works as expected, with answer resulting in an Int value. If x or y is a String that can’t be converted to an Int, z will have this value:

z: scala.util.Try[Int] = Failure(java.lang.NumberFormatException: For input string: "one")

If x or y is null, z will have this value:

z: scala.util.Try[Int] = Failure(java.lang.NumberFormatException: null)

In either Failure case, the getOrElse method protects us, returning the default value of 0.

The readTextFile method in Recipe 20.5 shows another Try example. The method from that example is repeated here:

def readTextFile(filename: String): Try[List[String]] = {

If the readTextFile method runs successfully, the lines from the /etc/passwd file are printed, but if an exception happens while trying to open and read the file, the Failure line in the match expression prints the error, like this: (No such file or directory)

The Try class includes a nice collection of methods that let you handle situations in many ways, including:

  • Collection-like implementations of filter, flatMap, flatten, foreach, and map
  • get, getOrElse, and orElse
  • toOption, which lets you treat the result as an Option
  • recover, recoverWith, and transform, which let you gracefully handle Success and Failure results

As you can see, Try is a powerful alternative to using Option/Some/None.

Using Either, Left, and Right

Prior to Scala 2.10, an approach similar to Try was available with the Either, Left, and Right classes. With these classes, Either is analogous to Try, Right is similar to Success, and Left is similar to Failure.

The following method demonstrates how to implement the Either approach:

def divideXByY(x: Int, y: Int): Either[String, Int] = {
    if (y == 0) Left("Dude, can't divide by 0")
    else Right(x / y)

As shown, your method should be declared to return an Either, and the method body should return a Right on success and a Left on failure. The Right type is the type your method returns when it runs successfully (an Int in this case), and the Left type is typically a String, because that’s how the error message is returned.

As with Option and Try, a method returning an Either can be called in a variety of ways, including getOrElse or a match expression:

val x = divideXByY(1, 1).right.getOrElse(0)   // returns 1
val x = divideXByY(1, 0).right.getOrElse(0)   // returns 0

// prints "Answer: Dude, can't divide by 0"
divideXByY(1, 0) match {
    case Left(s) => println("Answer: " + s)
    case Right(i) => println("Answer: " + i)

You can also access the error message by testing the result with isLeft, and then accessing the left value, but this isn’t really the Scala way:

scala> val x = divideXByY(1, 0)
x: Either[String,Int] = Left(Dude, can't divide by 0)

scala> x.isLeft
res0: Boolean = true

scala> x.left
res1: scala.util.Either.LeftProjection[String,Int] =
      LeftProjection(Left(Dude, can't divide by 0))



As shown in the Solution, if there’s a weakness of using Option, it’s that it doesn’t tell you why something failed; you just get a None instead of a Some. If you need to know why something failed, use Try instead of Option.

Don’t use the get method with Option

When you first come to Scala from Java, you may be tempted to use the get method to access the result:

scala> val x = toInt("5").get
x: Int = 5

However, this isn’t any better than a NullPointerException:

scala> val x = toInt("foo").get
java.util.NoSuchElementException: None.get
// long stack trace omitted ...

Your next thought might be to test the value before trying to access it:

// don't do this
scala> val x = if (toInt("foo").isDefined) toInt("foo") else 0
x: Any = 0

As the comment says, don’t do this. In short, it’s a best practice to never call get on an Option. The preferred approaches are to use getOrElse, a match expression, or foreach. (As with null values, I just imagine that get doesn’t exist.)

See Also

  • The Option class
  • The Try class
  • The Either class